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  1. added 2020-06-18
    Free Will in Human Behavior and Physics.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Labor and Social Relations 30 (6):185-196.
    If the concept of “free will” is reduced to that of “choice” all physical world shares the latter quality. Anyway the “free will” can be distinguished from the “choice”: The “free will” involves implicitly a certain goal, and the choice is only the mean, by which the aim can be achieved or not by the one who determines the target. Thus, for example, an electron has always a choice but not free will unlike a human possessing both. Consequently, and paradoxically, (...)
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  2. added 2020-03-13
    Are Institutions Created by Collective Acceptance?Danny Frederick - forthcoming - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-13.
    John Searle, in several articles and books, has contended that institutions incorporating status functions with deontic powers are created by collective acceptance. I argue that collective acceptance can create new status functions with deontic powers only if other status functions with deontic powers already exist, so that collective acceptance can create new institutions only if other institutions are presupposed. So, the claim that institutions depend upon collective acceptance involves a vicious infinite regress. I provide an example to show how an (...)
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  3. added 2020-02-17
    Explanation in Action Theory and Historiography.Gunnar Schumann (ed.) - 2019 - New York: Routledge.
    Is the appropriate form of human action explanation causal or rather teleological? While this is a central question in analytic philosophy of action, it also has implications for the question whether there are differences in principle between the methods of explanation in the sciences on the one hand and in the humanities and the social sciences on the other. The question bears on the problem of the appropriate form of explanations of past human actions, and therefore it is prominently discussed (...)
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  4. added 2020-02-07
    Thick Concepts and Sociological Research.Gabriel Abend - 2019 - Sociological Theory 37 (3):209-233.
    I consider how to do sociological things with thick concepts, what’s the relation between thick concepts and social facts, what’s unique about thick concepts, and what’s unique about creatures in whose lives there are thick concepts.
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  5. added 2020-02-07
    Tekemättä jättämiset vastarintana.Kaisa Kärki - 2019 - In Outi Autti & Lehtola Veli-Pekka (eds.), Hiljainen Vastarinta. Tampere, Finland: pp. 27-54.
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  6. added 2020-02-07
    The Essential Ambiguity of the Social.Bryan Green - 2019 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 49 (2):108-136.
    Methodological divisions in sociology, the study of the social, are not just deep and persistent but patterned—most obviously in the separate development of qualitative methods in ethnography and grounded theory, but also in subsidiary divisions within those separations, following the same pattern. The pattern being too deep-rooted to be explained as empirical happenstance, it will be explored here as the effect of an equally deep-rooted condition. More exactly, through postulating that sociology’s subject-matter, the social, is ontologically rooted in an essential (...)
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  7. added 2020-02-07
    For a Sociological Philosophy.Randall Collins - 1988 - Theory and Society 17 (5):669-702.
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  8. added 2020-01-23
    The Weberian Presuppositional Analytic.Eric Malczewski - 2019 - Sociological Theory 37 (4):363-380.
    This article offers an account of a conceptual framework in Max Weber’s writings offering leverage on empirical, normative, and theoretical questions. Weber relied on the notion of Voraussetzung—presupposition—across his work to distinguish the criteria of concepts of empirical phenomena, accounts of such phenomena, and conditions shaping evaluative stands among alternative courses of action. Weber also refers to Denkvoraussetzungen—presuppositions of thought—which refer to sets of fundamental principles structuring experience. Presuppositions of thought represent historically specific metaphysical and ontological orientations. Based on a (...)
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  9. added 2020-01-23
    On Assemblages and Things: Fluidity, Stability, Causation Stories, and Formation Stories.Timothy Rutzou & Dave Elder-Vass - 2019 - Sociological Theory 37 (4):401-424.
    This article conducts a dialogue and creates a new synthesis between two of the most influential ontological discourses in the field of sociology: assemblage theory and critical realism. The former proposes a focus on difference, fluidity, and process, the latter a focus on stability and structure. Drawing on and assessing the work of Deleuze, DeLanda, and Bhaskar, we argue that social ontology must overcome the tendency to bifurcate between these two poles and instead develop an ontology more suited to explaining (...)
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  10. added 2020-01-23
    On the Ambivalence of the Aphorism in Sociological Theory.Thomas Crosbie & Jeffrey Guhin - 2019 - Sociological Theory 37 (4):381-400.
    Sociologists have long been taken by certain pithy expressions from the founders of the discipline. We propose here both a new explanation for the endurance of these statements as well as an analysis of the power, limitations, and possibilities of aphorisms. By drawing from the critical scholarship concerned with aphorisms, we demonstrate that some of the allure of the classical sociological texts derives from their form, and particularly their reliance on the relative autonomy of the aphorism. Through examining Marx’s “opiate (...)
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  11. added 2020-01-20
    Die Semiotik der Gesellschaft: Skizze einer semiotisch-pragmatischen Theorie der Gesellschaft.Johannes Ehrat - 2007 - Gregorianum 88 (3):619-642.
    Gesellschaft ist ein schwieriger, weil prinzipiell nie konkret faßbarer Gegenstand der Erkenntnis. Zu diesem Problem gibt es u.a. transzendentale, phänomenologische, systemtheoretische Ansätze. Die Gegenstandsverfassung hat weitreichende forschungspraktische Konsequenzen, auch hinsichtlich sozialwissenschaftlicher Wissenschaftlichkeit. Pragmatismus und Semiotik fand, trotz Apels Peirce- und Joas’ Meadrezeption, noch nicht genügend Beachtung. Gesellschaft wird nicht als Objekt, sondern als erkenntnisdeterminierendes Ziel eines kognitiven Verhaltens eingeführt. Sie wird so kontextualisiert in einer Wahrheitstheorie, die sowohl objektive Fakten wie kognitive Allgemeinheit in sich vereint, und zwar konkret in jeder (...)
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  12. added 2019-11-16
    À distances raisonnables des structuralismes : logique, langage, formalisation et sciences de l’homme. Une dispute du 20e siècle finissant.Sébastien Plutniak - 2019 - Zilsel. Science, Technique, Société 6:70-115.
    1. Une dispute épistémologique 1.1 Quatre itinéraires à proximité puis à distance des structuralismes 1.2 Un différend sur les « usages réglés du rationalisme » en sciences de l’homme 2. Les mots et les descriptions en sciences de l’homme 2.1 Une commune limitation du déterminisme linguistique 2.2 Un problème philosophique implicite : descriptions définies et noms propres 2.3 L’usage des descriptions définies en sciences de l’homme 2.4 Les (semi-)noms propres des sciences historiques 2.5 Le degré de généralité des concepts employés (...)
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  13. added 2019-09-24
    Building Middle-Range Theories From Case Studies.Tuukka Kaidesoja - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 78:23-31.
    How are middle-range theories about causal mechanisms built from case studies in the social sciences? My aim is to answer this question by analyzing and improving Derek Beach and Rasmus Brun Pedersen’s account of the method of theory-building process-tracing. After having introduced the basic issues and concepts, I move on to analyze their descriptions of theory-building process-tracing. I identify some ambiguities and problems in their notions of middle-range theory and causal mechanism. In the constructive part of the paper, I provide (...)
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  14. added 2019-09-09
    Semejanzas estructurales entre la tradición de la filosofía moral y la teoría social de Durkheim.Ana Marta González - 2016 - Pensamiento 72 (274):1197-1215.
    Las primeras teorías sociológicas son deudoras de las filosofías ilustradas de la historia, las cuales aparecieron para proporcionar un marco de sentido a la acción moral, una vez que la teoría moral renunció a los compromisos metafísicos de la filosofía moral premoderna. Al tiempo que defendió la autonomía de la sociología frente a la filosofía, Durkheim le prescribió a aquélla una tarea específica: realizar una ciencia moral que atendiendo a dos rasgos con los que los hechos morales se muestra a (...)
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  15. added 2019-08-29
    Afirmacija psihološke uloge medija u procesima suvremene zapadne indoktrinacije.Danijela Godinić - 2019 - Filozofska Istrazivanja 39 (1):135-158.
    Temi psihološke uloge medija u procesima indoktrinacije političkih i korporativnih ideologija u zapadnim društvima pristupljeno je iz više perspektiva. Rad pruža pregled kritičke teorije medija, koja razmatra kako postmoderna propaganda pogoduje nastajanju fenomena ‘javnosti’ i institucije ‘PR-a’. Utvrđeno je da imperativ konzumerizma, koji inzistira na negaciji individualiteta, reproducira tipove osobnosti. Stoga je pojedinac modernog doba depersonalizirana individua koja je za konstrukciju svoje zbilje ovisna o medijima, političarima i oglašivačima te relativno novijim akterima – influencerima. Razmatra se kako kolektivni entiteti, sačinjeni (...)
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  16. added 2019-07-26
    Le raisonnement expérimental en sociologie.Dominique Raynaud - forthcoming - Philosophia Scientiæ.
    Au contraire des sciences physiques, la sociologie est souvent décrite comme une science interprétative et non-expérimentale. L’épistémologie apporte un éclairage nouveau sur cette position : 1) L’expérimentation n’est pas un trait constant des sciences physiques ; 2) Le raisonnement expérimental est également applicable en sociologie. L’argument est développé en comparant en détail le test de la prédiction d’une déviation des rayons lumineux dans un champ de gravitation effectué en 1919 et le test de la prédiction d’un taux de cosmopolitisme de (...)
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  17. added 2019-07-26
    Le raisonnement expérimental en sociologie Experimental Reasoning in Sociology.Dominique Raynaud - 2019 - Philosophia Scientae 23:19-46.
    Unlike the physical sciences, sociology is frequently described as an interpretative non-experimental science. Comparative epistemology sheds new light on this claim. 1. Experimentation is not a constant character of the physical sciences; 2. Experimental hypothetical-deductive reasoning, including the test of predictions, is also practicable in sociology. The argument is developed by a detailed step-wise comparison of the prediction of light ray deviation within the Sun’s gravitational field made in 1919 (physics) and the prediction of 8% cosmopolitanism of Cambridge University between (...)
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  18. added 2019-06-16
    Karl Marx: Trabalho e Classes Sociais.Emanuel Isaque da-Silva, Alana Thaís Mayza da Silva & Eduarda Carvalho Fontain - manuscript
    WEBARTIGOS -/- KARL MARX: TRABALHO E CLASSES SOCIAIS Publicado em 12 de June de 2019 por Emanuel Isaque cordeiro da silva -/- KARL MARX: TRABALHO E CLASSES SOCIAIS(1) -/- KARL MARX: WORK AND SOCIAL CLASSES -/- Alana Thaís Mayza da Silva - CAP-UFPE(2) Eduarda Carvalho da Silva Fontain - CAP-UFPE(3) Emanuel Isaque Cordeiro da Silva – IFPE-BJ, CAP-UFPE e UFRPE(4) -/- Dentro do mundo marxista, como para a Sociologia, a fundamental e principal obra de Karl Marx foi O capital (1867 (...)
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  19. added 2019-06-06
    From Vigilance to Busyness.Benjamin H. Snyder - 2013 - Sociological Theory 31 (3):243-266.
    For many social scientists, clock time is seen as either a mechanism of economic power relations that reinforces social domination or a resource that facilitates individual market-oriented action. In this article I develop a neo-Weberian perspective that presents clock time as a moral institution that shapes social action in modernity through two “time disciplines”: regularity and density. Where regularity supports a methodical life, density maintains a life of constant activity. The article traces the history of regularity and density between the (...)
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  20. added 2019-06-06
    Thinking About Food and Sex.Vanina Leschziner & Adam Isaiah Green - 2013 - Sociological Theory 31 (2):116-144.
    Overemphasizing automatic, dispositional cognitive processes, research on social fields has tended to undertheorize the active, reflective dimensions of cognition that shape practice. This has occurred, at least in part, as a reaction to the overly instrumentalist premises of rational action theory. But redressing the errors of an excessively instrumentalist notion of action by overemphasizing the automatic nature of cognition leaves us with a similarly inadequate understanding of how cognition works to influence practice in a field and, as a consequence, the (...)
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  21. added 2019-06-06
    Book Review: David Chalcraft, Fanon Howell, Marisol Lopez Menendez, Hector Vera, Editors Max Weber Matters: Interweaving Past and Present Farnham/ Burlington, UK: Ashgate, 2008. 338 Pp. £60.00. [REVIEW]Hans Henrik Bruun - 2011 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (1):142-147.
  22. added 2019-06-06
    Review Essay: Sociology as a Political Project: Fuller's Argument Against Bioliberalism.Kei Yoshida - 2009 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (1):99-106.
    In his book, The New Sociological Imagination, Steve Fuller criticizes what he calls “bioliberalism.” According to him, the social sciences are challenged on two sides: humanistic and biological. In particular, Fuller finds the biological challenge serious. Fuller tries to reinvent sociology as a socialist project to counterattack bioliberalism as the biggest threat to the social sciences. First, the author will examine Fuller's argument against bioliberalism, referring to the so-called “liberal eugenics.” Then the author will criticize him. By reinventing sociology as (...)
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    The Social Thought of Ortega y Gasset: "Systematic Synthesis in Postmodernism and Interdisciplinarity". John T. Graham. Columbia: U of Missouri P, 2001. 529 Pp. [REVIEW]Antón Donoso - 2002 - Newsletter of the Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy 30 (92):49-53.
  24. added 2019-06-06
    Beyond Empiricism: Philosophy of Science in Sociology.Andrew Tudor (ed.) - 1982 - Routledge.
    Originally published in 1982. This volume explores some features of modern philosophy of science from the point of view of their utility for sociology’s self-understanding. Recently philosophers of science have broken with the empiricism once fundamental to their discipline, and have sought alternative methods of science. Founded on the belief that these developments are significant for sociologists, the book explores the failings of the old "received view" and some of the more recent alternatives. It proposes a schematic outline of the (...)
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  25. added 2019-06-06
    "The Value Controversy in Sociology" by Dennis C. Foss. [REVIEW]Eva Stina Lyon - 1981 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 11 (4):521.
  26. added 2019-06-06
    Mill’s Forgotten Science of Ethology.Nicholas Capaldi - 1973 - Social Theory and Practice 2 (4):409-420.
  27. added 2019-06-06
    Sociological Theory: Its Nature and Growth. [REVIEW]Robert M. Barry - 1956 - New Scholasticism 30 (1):118-120.
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  28. added 2019-06-05
    Thin ExplanationsHedströmPeterBearmanPeter Eds. The Oxford Handbook of Analytical Sociology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. 794 Pp. $150. [REVIEW]Charles Crothers - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (2):257-267.
    The Oxford Handbook provides an extensive and innovative review of developments in Analytical Sociology (AS) which is a theory program which seeks to develop ‘thin explanations’ of social phenomena by understanding their micro-foundations through explicitly developed models and then tracing through the broader consequences of these actions and interactions for aggregate social patterns. The volume covers the key characteristics of this approach in terms of ontology and epistemology and then assays recent developments across over two dozen areas of application: each (...)
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  29. added 2019-06-05
    Reformulation of “How Is Society Possible?”.Ken'ichi Kawano - 2012 - Schutzian Research. A Yearbook of Worldly Phenomenology and Qualitative Social Science 4:65-77.
    “How is society possible?” posed by Georg Simmel has been one of the fundamental problems in sociology. Although various attempts have been madeto solve it, I conceive that “society” in the problem remains to be articulated. Simmel provides us with two concepts of society—“society as interaction” and “societyas unity”—to be distinguished. Some research traditions in sociology have been concerned with the former, others have dealt with the latter. On the other hand, Simmel maintains continuity between them. In this sense, his (...)
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  30. added 2019-06-05
    Laboratizing and de-Laboratizing the World.Michael Guggenheim - 2012 - History of the Human Sciences 25 (1):99-118.
    How has sociology framed places of knowledge production and what is the specific power of the laboratory for this history? This article looks in three steps at how sociology and Science and Technology Studies (STS) have historically framed the world as laboratory. First, in early sociology, the laboratory was an important metaphor to conceive of sociology as a scientific enterprise. In the 1950s, the trend reversed and with the emergence of a ‘qualitative sociology’, sociology was seen in opposition to laboratory (...)
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  31. added 2019-06-05
    Explorations Into the Sociology of Criminal Justice and Punishment.Susanne Karstedt - 2007 - History of the Human Sciences 20 (2):51-70.
    Law has been a close partner to sociology from its very beginning, and the partnership often has proven to be extremely prolific for sociology. Grand theories as well as vital conceptual tools can be counted among its offspring. Both disciplines share the common ground of socio-legal studies, which has developed into a nearly independent interdisciplinary enterprise where legal scholars and sociologists happily meander between the normative and the analytical. From the vast array of topics in the field of socio-legal studies (...)
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  32. added 2019-06-05
    When Theory Fails? The History of American Sociological Research Methods.Tim May - 1997 - History of the Human Sciences 10 (1):147-156.
  33. added 2019-06-05
    Book Reviews : Sociological Theory, Pretence and Possibility. By Keith Dixon. London & Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973. Pp. IX + 131. £1.25. The Structure of Social Science. By Michael Lessnoff. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1974. Pp. 173. £3.60 , £1.85. [REVIEW]Robert Brown - 1976 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 6 (4):380-384.
  34. added 2019-06-05
    The Individual and Society, or Psychology and Sociology.Edward L. Schaub - 1911 - Philosophical Review 20 (6):662.
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  35. added 2019-05-23
    Max Weber: Ação Social e Tipos Ideais.Emanuel Isaque Cordeiro da Silva - manuscript
    Emanuel Isaque Cordeiro da Silva E-mails: eisaque335@gmail.com e eics@discente.ifpe.edu.br WhatsApp: (82)9.8143-8399 -/- Max Weber: Ação Social e Tipos Ideais Nascido na Alemanha, em 1864. Os trabalhos de Weber estão condensados entre as duas primeiras décadas do século XX e estipulam uma nova estruturação para as Ciências Sociais. Weber, assim como outros cientistas sociais, dedicou-se a metodizar a Sociologia, não obstante, sua perspectiva sociológica diverge do pensamento de Durkheim, particularmente no que tange à transcendência do sujeito e de sua ação social. (...)
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  36. added 2019-05-16
    Émile Durkheim: Coesão e Fato Social.Emanuel Isaque Cordeiro da Silva - unknown
    Émile Durkheim: Coesão e Fato Social -/- Emanuel Isaque Cordeiro da Silva E-mails: eisaque335@gmail.com / eics@discente.ifpe.edu.br WhatsApp: (82)9.8143-8399 -/- Émile Durkheim: Coesão e Fato Social Nascido em 1858, Durkheim era francês e foi bastante influenciado pela obra do filósofo também francês Augusto Comte (1798-1857), que metodizou pela primeira vez o estudo da sociedade (Sociologia) como uma ciência particular e peculiar, e que também conectou a Sociologia com alguns artífices peculiares das Ciências Naturais. Em contrapartida, Durkheim procurou alicerçar a Sociologia como (...)
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  37. added 2019-05-03
    Current Issues of Importance In American Sociology and Related Disciplines: Part 2.Mildred B. Bakan - 1952 - Review of Metaphysics 6 (2):301-314.
  38. added 2019-04-20
    Body, Habit, Custom and Labour.Shriddha Shah - 2017 - Social Change 47 (2):189-199.
    Theories in the modern age in philosophy, as well as in the discourse of the social sciences, are pervaded with the presuppositions of the dualisms of mind and world, theory and practice, private and public. These theoretical dualisms make it impossible to have an account of the interconnected nature of the experience of individuals and societies. The philosophical theoretical vocabulary to take account of the relations between these dualisms has been effaced with the legacy of Cartesian dualism. I argue that (...)
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  39. added 2019-03-21
    Pierpaolo Donati, Relational Sociology: A New Paradigm for the Social Sciences. [REVIEW]Barry Vaughan - 2012 - Journal of Critical Realism 11 (2):255-261.
  40. added 2019-03-21
    The “Public” And “its” Ignorance: Reply To Wisniewski And Fenster.Bret Chandler - 2010 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 22 (1):85-96.
    In their debate about whether Cultural Studies is helpful for understanding public ignorance, Chris Wisniewski and Mark Fenster view ignorance as inevitably plaguing the public in mass democratic society; and they see “the public” as an abstract entity. However, Pierre Bourdieu's sociology rightly contests these positions. A thorough investigation of the concrete social conditions of political ignorance reveals that ignorance is unevenly dispersed throughout social space and that its relevance depends on social position, such as that of the advantaged and (...)
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  41. added 2019-03-21
    The Individualism-Holism Problem in Sociological Research.Olof Dahlbäck - 1998 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 28 (3):237–272.
    This paper treats the problem of which type of units, individuals or whole societies, should be used when explaining societal phenomena. It is argued that factors operating at the individual level in principle form societies, and that societal phenomena therefore should ideally be explained at this level. However, it is also argued that many societal phenomena cannot in practice be analyzed at the individual level in a clear and strict way, but rather must be analyzed holistically, because it is not (...)
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  42. added 2019-03-21
    From Industrial Democracy to Professional Adjustment.StevenR Cohen - 1983 - Theory and Society 12 (1):47-67.
  43. added 2019-03-21
    The Sociology of Justice.Alfonso J. Damico - 1982 - Political Theory 10 (3):409-433.
  44. added 2019-03-21
    The Sociological Approach to Ethics.Gerard J. Dalcourt - 1973 - Metaphilosophy 4 (4):298–320.
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  45. added 2019-03-21
    Social Theory and Social Problems.Arthur K. Davis - 1957 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 18 (2):190-208.
  46. added 2019-03-07
    Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century -- Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization-- Articles and Reviews 2006-2019 4th Edition Michael Starks.Michael Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    The first group of articles attempt to give some insight into how we behave that is reasonably free of theoretical delusions. In the next three groups I comment on three of the principal delusions preventing a sustainable world— technology, religion and politics (cooperative groups). People believe that society can be saved by them, so I provide some suggestions in the rest of the book as to why this is unlikely via short articles and reviews of recent books by well-known writers. (...)
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  47. added 2019-03-07
    Mechanism-Based Theorizing and Generalization From Case Studies.Petri Ylikoski - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 78:14-22.
    Generalization from a case study is a perennial issue in the methodology of the social sciences. The case study is one of the most important research designs in many social scientific fields, but no shared understanding exists of the epistemic import of case studies. This article suggests that the idea of mechanism-based theorizing provides a fruitful basis for understanding how case studies contribute to a general understanding of social phenomena. This approach is illustrated with a re- construction of Espeland and (...)
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  48. added 2019-03-04
    Review of Herbert Gintis’s Individuality and Entanglement: The Moral and Material Bases of Social Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017, 357 Pp. [REVIEW]Michiru Nagatsu - 2018 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 11 (1):117-124.
    In his own words, Herbert Gintis’s latest book is “an analysis of human nature and a tribute to its wonders” (3).1More prosaically, it is a collection of essays, some of which are original and others published elsewhere. Instead of being structured around topics in decision and game theory,like his previous book (2009), this book develops interrelated themes, such as the evolutionary origins of moral sense, its central role in political games, and the socially entangled nature of human rationality and individuality. (...)
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  49. added 2019-02-20
    The Place of Culture in Organization Theory: Introducing the Morphogenetic Approach.Robert Archer - 2000 - Organization 7 (1):95-128.
    As Allaire and Firsirotu (1984) pointed out over a decade ago, the concept of culture seemed to be sliding inexorably into a superficial explanatory pool that promised everything and nothing. However, since then, some sophisticated and interesting theoretical developments have prevented drowning in the pool of superficiality and hence theoretical redundancy. The purpose of this article is to build upon such theoretical developments and to introduce an approach that maintains that culture can be theorized in the same way as structure, (...)
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  50. added 2019-02-14
    Against Teleology in the Study of Race: Toward the Abolition of the Progress Paradigm.Louise Seamster & Victor Ray - 2018 - Sociological Theory 36 (4):315-342.
    We argue that claims of racial progress rest upon untenable teleological assumptions founded in Enlightenment discourse. We examine the theoretical and methodological focus on progress and its historical roots. We argue research should examine the concrete mechanisms that produce racial stability and change, and we offer three alternative frameworks for interpreting longitudinal racial data and phenomena. The first sees racism as a “fundamental cause,” arguing that race remains a “master category” of social differentiation. The second builds on Glenn’s “settler colonialism (...)
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