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  1. The Development of Ontology and Epistemology in Plato's Philosophy.Mohammad Bagher Ghomi - manuscript
    Investigating Plato’s ontological as well as epistemological status in each of his dialogues, this book is going to challenge the current theories of Plato’s development and suggest a new theory. Regarding the relation of Plato’s early and middle period dialogues, scholars have been divided to two opposing groups: unitarists and developmentalists. While developmentalists try to prove that there are some noticeable and even fundamental differences between Plato’s early and middle period dialogues, the unitarists assert that there is no essential difference (...)
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  2. Plato Seeking for “One Real Explanation” in Phaedo.Mohammad Bagher Ghomi - manuscript
    This essay intends to discuss what Plato was seeking as an explanation in Phaedo. In this dialogue, we observe Socrates criticizing both the natural scientists’ explanations and Anaxagoras’ theory of Mind because they could not explain all things, firstly, in a unitary and, secondary, in a real way. Thence, we are to call what Plato is seeking as his ideal explanation in Phaedo “One Real Explanation”. He talks at least about three kinds of explanation, two of which, the confused and (...)
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  3. Conhecimento e Definição no Mênon de Platão.Davi Heckert César Bastos - 2020 - Kinesis 12 (31):172-185.
    Through detailed analysis of Plato’s Meno, I identify and set general argumentative rules (useful both to scientists and philosophers) concerning how to use definitions. I show how the character Socrates establishes strong requirements for knowledge in general, i.e., that the knowledge of the definition of a thing must be prior to the knowledge of properties or instances of that thing. Socrate’s requirements and the way he characterizes a definition (as coextensive to the definiendum, not circular, true and explanatorily relevant) lead (...)
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  4. The Telos Problem in Plato’s Symposium.Edith Gwendolyn Nally - 2020 - In Evan Keeling & Georgia Sermamoglou (eds.), Wisdom, Love and Friendship in Ancient Philosophy. De Gruyter.
  5. Pathos in the Theaetetus.Evan Keeling - 2019 - In Evan Keeling & Luca Pitteloud (eds.), Psychology and Ontology in Plato. Springer Verlag.
    This paper is a test case for the claim, made famous by Myles Burnyeat, that the ancient Greeks did not recognize subjective truth or knowledge. After a brief discussion of the issue in Sextus Empiricus, I then turn to Plato's discussion of Protagorean views in the Theaetetus. In at least two passages, it seems that Plato attributes to Protagoras the view that our subjective experiences constitute truth and knowledge, without reference to any outside world of objects. I argue that these (...)
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  6. Beber ou não beber? Qual é a questão? Duas leituras de República IV, 439c2-d8.Breno Andrade Zuppolini - 2019 - Dissertatio 49:45-63.
    In this paper, I explore two possible readings of Republic IV, 439c2-d8, and of Plato’s claim that the just soul is governed by its rational element. My aim is to argue against a “desiderative” interpretation of the passage, according to which the motivational strength of rational desires depends on a set of desires given in advance and produced independently of reason. As an alternative, I advance a “cognitivist” reading according to which the rational desires of the just soul have as (...)
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  7. Knowledge and Truth in Plato: Stepping Past the Shadow of Socrates.Catherine Rowett - 2018 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Catherine Rowett presents an in depth study of Plato's Meno, Republic and Theaetetus and offers both a coherent argument that the project in which Plato was engaging has been widely misunderstood and misrepresented, and detailed new readings of particular thorny issues in the interpretation of these classic texts.
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  8. A Interpretação Aristotélica do Pensamento Protagoreano em MetafísicaΓ4-6.Anderson Borges - 2017 - Journal of Ancient Philosophy 11 (2):82-105.
    In Metaphysics Γ 4-6 Aristotle argues that Protagoras is committed not just to denying the PNC, but also to asserting its contrary. In this paper, I offer an analysis of this commitment. I try to show that Aristotle is working with a specific idea in mind: a Protagoreanism ontologically linked to the flux doctrine, as Plato suggested in Theaetetus 152-160.
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  9. On the Socratic Injunction to Follow the Argument Where It Leads.Jason Marsh - 2017 - In Paul Draper & J. L. Schellenberg (eds.), Renewing Philosophy of Religion: Exploratory Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 187-207.
    This chapter examines a common objection to the philosophy of religion, namely, that it has not sufficiently embraced the injunction of Socrates to follow the argument where it leads. Although a general version of this charge is unfair, one emerging view in the field, which I call religious Mooreanism, nonetheless risks running contrary to the Socratic injunction. According to this view, many people can quickly, easily, and reasonably deflect all known philosophical challenges to their core religious outlooks, including arguments from (...)
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  10. The Political Significance of Plato’s Allegory of the Cave.Gabriel Zamosc - 2017 - Ideas Y Valores 66 (165):237-265.
    Abstract: In this paper I claim that Plato’s Cave is fundamentally a political, not an epistemological image, and that only by treating it as such can we appreciate correctly its relation to the images of the Sun and the Line. On the basis of textual evidence, I question the two main assumptions that support (in my view, mistakenly) the effort to find an epistemological parallel between the Cave and the Line: first, that the prisoners represent humankind in general, and, second, (...)
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  11. The Epistemological Benefits of Socrates’ Religious Experience.Audrey Anton - 2016 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 19 (1):70-87.
    There seems to be tension between portrayals of Socrates as both a committed philosopher and a pious man. For instance, one might doubt Socrates’ commitment to philosophy since he seems to irrationally defer to a daimonion. On the other hand, the fact that he challenges messages from Oracles and the gods’ role concerning the origin of the pious draws into question Socrates’ piety. In this paper, I argue that Socratic piety and rationality are not only compatible, but they are also (...)
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  12. Persuasion, Falsehood, and Motivating Reason in Plato’s Laws.Nicholas R. Baima - 2016 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 33 (2).
    In Plato’s Laws, the Athenian Stranger maintains that law should consist of both persuasion (πειθώ) and compulsion (βία) (IV.711c, IV.718b-d, and IV.722b). Persuasion can be achieved by prefacing the laws with preludes (προοίμια), which make the citizens more eager to obey the laws. Although scholars disagree on how to interpret the preludes’ persuasion, they agree that the preludes instill true beliefs and give citizens good reasons for obeying the laws. In this paper I refine this account of the preludes by (...)
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  13. Becoming Like a Woman: Philosophy in Plato's Theaetetus.Snyder Charles - 2016 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 (4):1-21.
    Interpreters of Theaetetus are prone to endorse the view that a god gave Socrates maieutic skill. This paper challenges that view. It provides a different account of the skill’s origins, and reconstructs a genealogy of Socratic philosophy that begins and has its end in human experience. Three distinct origins coordinate to bring forth a radically new conception of philosophy in the image of female midwifery: the state of wonder (1. efficient origin), the exercise of producing, examining and disavowing beliefs in (...)
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  14. Review of D. Ambuel, Turtles All the Way Down: On Plato's Theaetetus, a Translation, and Commentary. [REVIEW]Charles E. Snyder - 2016 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review 201608 (online):online.
  15. اصول وجود- معرفت شناختي محاورات اوليه افلاطون.Mohammad Bagher Ghomi - 2015 - Hasti Va Shenakht 2 (1):37-54.
    در اين جستار بر آنيم اصول وجود شناختي و معرفت شناختي افلاطون در محاورات اوليه و علي الخصوص لاخس، خارميدس، اوثيفرون، اوتيدموس و هيپياس بزرگ را بر مبناي سه عنصر آنچه «دور سقراطي» مي ناميم يعني پرسش سقراطي، ادعاي سقراطي انكار دانش و النخوس مورد بررسي قرار دهيم. حاصل اين بررسي شش اصل وجود - معرفت شناختي است: شناخت الف، معرفت‌شناسي دوقطبي، وجودشناسي دو‌قطبي، معرفت گسسته، وجود گسسته و معرفت وجود. اگرچه اين اصول عمدتاً جديد نبوده و پيشتر مورد بحث (...)
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  16. کرونولوژی وجود – معرفت شناختی آثار افلاطون.Mohammad Bagher Ghomi - 2015 - Zehn 60:87-127.
    در اين جستار برآنيم كه ترتيبي جديد از محاورات افلاطون ارائه نمائيم؛ ترتيبي كه بر مبناي توسعه وجودشناختي و معرفت شناختي افلاطون مبتني است و تفاوت‌هاي اساسي با كرونولوژي غالب امروزي محاورات دارد. در حاليكه در همه كرونولوژي هاي پذيرفته شده فعلي، پارمنيدس به عنوان نقد نظريه مثال در محاورات مياني و بنابراين متأخر از اين محاورات در نظر گرفته مي‌شود، كرونولوژي پيشنهادي ما پارمنيدس را پس از محاورات اوليه و پيش از محاورات مياني قرار مي‌دهد. بر اساس اين تغيير (...)
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  17. Sherman, Daniel., Soul, World and Idea: An Interpretation of Plato's Republic and Phaedo. [REVIEW]Kevin Crotty - 2014 - Review of Metaphysics 68 (1):197-199.
  18. Митеическа математика: Платоновият Тимей.А Лозев - 2014 - Философски Алтернативи / Philosophical Alternatives (6):141-147.
    Reading the Timaeus as an early attempt at mathematizing natural science runs into serious difficulties. The so-called Platonic Solids are five in number, one more than the traditional 'elements'. Plato provides a proportional ratio for these elements but this ratio fails to tie in with their geometrical features. Appealing to the authority of mathematics appears to be a rhetorical move with no further consequences.
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  19. Difference in Kind: Observations on the Distinction of the Megista Gene.David Ambuel - 2013 - In Beatriz Bossi & Thomas M. Robinson (eds.), Plato's Sophist Revisited. de Gruyter. pp. 247-268.
    It is argued that the analysis by which the gene are differentiated in the dialogue is an exercise in studied ambiguities informed by an Eleatic logic of strict dichotomy that was the underpinning of the Sophist's method of division. By this dialectical drill, Plato shows that the metaphysics underlying the Visitor's method fails to adequately distinguish what it means to have a character from what it means to be a character, and therefore remains inadequate to track down the sophist or (...)
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  20. Knowledge, Discovery and Reminiscence in Plato's Meno.Alejandro Farieta - 2013 - Universitas Philosophica 30 (60):205-234.
    This work articulates two thesis: one Socratic and one Platonic; and displays how the first one is heir of the second. The Socratic one is called the principle of priority of definition; the Platonic one is the Recollection theory. The articulation between both theses is possible due to the Meno’s paradox, which makes a criticism on the first thesis, but it is solved with the second one. The consequence of this articulation is a new interpretation of the Recollection theory, as (...)
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  21. The Nous Doctrine in Plato's Thought.Andrew Mason - 2013 - Apeiron 46 (3):201-228.
    Journal Name: Apeiron Issue: Ahead of print.
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  22. Euthyphro’s Elenchus Experience: Ethical Expertise and Self-Knowledge. [REVIEW]Robert C. Reed - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (2):245-259.
    The paper argues that everyday ethical expertise requires an openness to an experience of self-doubt very different from that involved in becoming expert in other skills—namely, an experience of profound vulnerability to the Other similar to that which Emmanuel Levinas has described. Since the experience bears a striking resemblance to that of undergoing cross-examination by Socrates as depicted in Plato’s early dialogues, I illustrate it through a close reading of the Euthyphro, arguing that Euthyphro’s vaunted “expertise” conceals a reluctance to (...)
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  23. Reality Deflated and Minimalized.L. Reinhardt - 2013 - Analysis 73 (2):279-283.
    A claim for minimalism about ‘real’ on the model of minimalism about ‘true’. The article, in effect, develops J.L. Austin’s remark that with ‘real’, the negative ‘wears the trousers’. The development is then exploited for a proposed elucidation of Plato’s discussion of the fields of knowledge and belief in his Republic. It is proposed that Plato was striving for something whose futility was a leading theme of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy.
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  24. Relativism in Plato's Protagoras.Catherine Rowett - 2013 - In Verity Harte & Melissa Lane (eds.), Politeia in Greek and Roman Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 191-211.
    The character Protagoras in Plato's Protagoras holds similar views to the one in the Theaetetus, and faces similar problems. The dialogue considers issues in epistemology and moral epistemology, as a central theme. The Protagorean position is immune from Socrates' attacks, and Socrates needs Protagorean methods to make any impact.
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  25. Protagoras Through Plato and Aristotle: A Case for the Philosophical Significance of Ancient Relativism.Ugo Zilioli - 2013 - In Jan Van Ophuijsen, Marlein Van Raalte & Peter Stork (eds.), Protagoras of Abdera: the Man, his measure. Brill.
    In this contribution, I explore the treatment that Plato devotes to Protagoras’ relativism in the first section of the Theaetetus (151 E 1–186 E 12) where, among other things, the definition that knowledge is perception is put under scrutiny. What I aim to do is to understand the subtlety of Plato’s argument about Protagorean relativism and, at the same time, to assess its philosophical significance by revealing the inextric¬ability of ontological and epistemological aspects on which it is built (for this (...)
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  26. Theoria, Praxis, and the Contemplative Life After Plato and Aristotle.Thomas Bénatouïl & Mauro Bonazzi (eds.) - 2012 - Brill.
    This volume deals with the appropriations, criticism and transformation of Plato’s and Aristotle’s positions about theory, practice and the contemplative life, including their epistemological and metaphysical foundations, from ...
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  27. The Problem is Not Mathematics, but Mathematicians: Plato and the Mathematicians Again.H. H. Benson - 2012 - Philosophia Mathematica 20 (2):170-199.
    I argue against a formidable interpretation of Plato’s Divided Line image according to which dianoetic correctly applies the same method as dialectic. The difference between the dianoetic and dialectic sections of the Line is not methodological, but ontological. I maintain that while this interpretation correctly identifies the mathematical method with dialectic, ( i.e. , the method of philosophy), it incorrectly identifies the mathematical method with dianoetic. Rather, Plato takes dianoetic to be a misapplication of the mathematical method by a subset (...)
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  28. The Nature of the Spirited Part of the Soul and Its Object.Tad Brennan - 2012 - In Rachel Barney, Tad Brennan & Charles Brittain (eds.), Plato and the Divided Self. Cambridge University Press. pp. 102--127.
  29. Mathematical Entities in the Divided Line.M. J. Cresswell - 2012 - Review of Metaphysics 66 (1):89-104.
    The second highest level of the divided line in Plato’s Republic appears to be about the entities of mathematics—entities such as particular triangles. It differs from the highest level in two respects. It involves reasoning from hypotheses, and it uses visible images. This article defends the traditional view that the passage is indeed about these mathematical ‘intermediates’; and tries to show how the apparently different features of the second level are related, by focussing on Plato’s need to give an account (...)
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  30. Peter Warnek: Descent of Socrates: Self-Knowledge & Cryptic Nature in the Platonic Dialogues: Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 2005, 234 Pp, ISBN 0-253-34677-0, US$70.00 , ISBN 0-253-21816-0, US$26.95. [REVIEW]Christopher P. Long - 2012 - Continental Philosophy Review 45 (2):291-295.
    Peter Warnek: Descent of socrates: Self-knowledge & cryptic nature in the platonic dialogues Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-5 DOI 10.1007/s11007-012-9214-0 Authors Christopher P. Long, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA Journal Continental Philosophy Review Online ISSN 1573-1103 Print ISSN 1387-2842.
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  31. Ignorance, Shame and Love of Truth: Diagnosing the Sophist’s Error in Plato’s Sophist.Micah Lott - 2012 - Phoenix 66 (1-2):36-56.
  32. Meaning and Cognition in Plato’s Cratylus and Theaetetus.Deborah K. W. Modrak - 2012 - Topoi 31 (2):167-174.
    For Plato, the crucial function of human cognition is to grasp truths. Explaining how we are able to do this is fundamental to understanding our cognitive powers. Plato addresses this topic from several different angles. In the Cratylus and Theaetetus, he attempts to identify the elemental cognitions that are the foundations of language and knowledge. He considers several candidates for this role, most notably, perception and simple meaning-bearing concepts. In the first section, we will look at Plato’s worries about semantic (...)
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  33. Empeiria Kai Tribē.Jeremy R. Bell - 2011 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 15 (2):379-394.
    In this essay I trace the terms empeiria and tribē throughout the Platonic corpus in order to expose their central position within Plato’s critique of the sophists and rhetoricians. I find that these two terms—both of which indicate a knack or habitude that has been developed through experiential familiarity with certain causal tendencies—are regularly deployed in order to account for the effectiveness of these speakers even in the absence of a technē; for, what Plato identifies with these terms is the (...)
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  34. The Existence of Forms : Plato's Argument From the Possibility of Knowledge.Jurgis Brakas - 2011 - In Michael Bruce & Steven Barbone (eds.), Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
  35. Jacob Klein’s Two Prescient Discoveries.Eva Brann - 2011 - New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 11:144-153.
    I present two of Jacob Klein’s chief discoveries from a perspective of peculiar fascination to me: the enchanting (to me) contemporaneous significance, the astounding prescience, and hence longevity, of his insights. The first insight takes off from an understanding of the lowest segment of the so-called DividedLine in Plato’s Republic. In this lowest segment are located the deficient beings called reflections, shadows, and images, and a type of apprehension associatedwith them called by Klein “image-recognition” (εἰκασία). The second discovery involves a (...)
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  36. Nature and Divinity in Plato's Timaeus.Sarah Broadie - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    Plato's Timaeus is one of the most influential and challenging works of ancient philosophy to have come down to us. Sarah Broadie's rich and compelling study proposes new interpretations of major elements of the Timaeus, including the separate Demiurge, the cosmic 'beginning', the 'second mixing', the Receptacle and the Atlantis story. Broadie shows how Plato deploys the mythic themes of the Timaeus to convey fundamental philosophical insights and examines the profoundly differing methods of interpretation which have been brought to bear (...)
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  37. Rethinking Plato's Conception of Knowledge: The Non-Philosopher and the Forms.Joel A. Martinez - 2011 - Apeiron 44 (4):326-334.
  38. "It Goes Deep with Me" : Plato's Charmides on Knowledge, Self-Knowledge, and Integrity.M. M. McCabe - 2011 - In Christopher Cordner & Raimond Gaita (eds.), Philosophy, Ethics, and a Common Humanity: Essays in Honour of Raimond Gaita. Routledge.
  39. Four Educators in Plato's Theaetetus.Avi I. Mintz - 2011 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 45 (4):657-673.
    Scholars who have taken interest in Theaetetus' educational theme argue that Plato contrasts an inferior, even dangerous, sophistic education to a superior, philosophical, Socratic education. I explore the contrasting exhortations, methods, ideals and epistemological foundations of Socratic and Protagorean education and suggest that Socrates' treatment of Protagoras as educator is far less dismissive than others claim. Indeed, Plato, in Theaetetus, offers a qualified defence of both Socrates and Protagoras. Socrates and Protagoras each dwell in the middle ground between the extremes (...)
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  40. Seeking Freedom From the Fregean Under the Description Methodology.Terry Penner - 2011 - In G. Anagnostopoulos (ed.), "Socratic, Platonic and Aristotelian studies" Essays in honnor of Gerasimos Santas. pp. 103-124.
  41. The Anatomy of Three Thought Experiments in Plato’s Republic, Apology, and Alcibiades Minor.Andre M. Archie - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Research 35:305-321.
    I argue that Plato’s use of thought experiments anticipate many of the themes discussed by Thomas S. Kuhn’s classic essay, “A Function for Thought Experiments.” Kuhn’s concern is that thought experiments satisfy the condition of verisimilitude. That is, thought experiments must not be conducted merely to alter the conceptual apparatus of the scientist regarding the phenomenon explored, but rather to alter the scientist’s conceptual apparatus for the sake of altering his actions (i.e., practical rationality). Plato, too, is quite concerned with (...)
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  42. Mi-Kyoung Lee's Epistemology After Protagoras: Responses to Relativism in Plato, Aristotle, and Democritus.Timothy Chappell - 2010 - Philosophical Books 51 (2):117-125.
  43. Seeing Through Images: The Bottom of Plato's Divided Line.Yancy Hughes Dominick - 2010 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 48 (1):pp. 1-13.
    In this paper I defend a reading of eikasia as the viewing of an image as an image; this condition need not involve any confusion of image and original. The “standard reading” of eikasia, on which experiencing this state involves mistaking images for originals, is unsatisfactory, despite the fact that it offers an attractive account of the relation of the line and the cave. The initial description of eikasia makes the suggestion that Socrates believes that anyone consistently mistakes images for (...)
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  44. Stern Knowledge and Politics in Plato's Theaetetus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Pp. X + 315. £50. 9780521884297. [REVIEW]Alexander Long - 2010 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 130:275-276.
  45. The Voice Of Authority: Divination And Plato's Phaedo.Kathryn A. Morgan - 2010 - Classical Quarterly 60 (1):63-81.
  46. Ancient Models of Mind: Studies in Human and Divine Rationality.Andrea Nightingale & David Sedley (eds.) - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    How does God think? How, ideally, does a human mind function? Must a gap remain between these two paradigms of rationality? Such questions exercised the greatest ancient philosophers, including those featured in this book: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics and Plotinus. This volume encompasses a series of studies by leading scholars, revisiting key moments of ancient philosophy and highlighting the theme of human and divine rationality in both moral and cognitive psychology. It is a tribute to Professor A. A. Long, (...)
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  47. On Philosophy's Progress: From Plato to Wittgenstein : R. Read.R. Read - 2010 - Philosophy 85 (3):341-367.
    I argue that the type of progress exhibited by philosophy is not that exhibited by science, but rather is akin to the kind of progress exhibited be someone becoming ‘older and wiser’. However, as actually-existing philosophy has gotten older, it has not always gotten wiser. As an illustration, I consider Rawls's conception of justification. I argue that Rawls's notion of what it is to have a philosophical justification exhibits no progress at all from Euthyphro's. In fact, drawing on a remark (...)
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  48. “ S Knows That P ” Expanded: Apology 20 D–24 B.Elizabeth Tropman & Patrick McKee - 2010 - Social Epistemology 24 (1):29-43.
    There are calls to expand the schema “ S knows that p ” to accommodate ways of knowing that are socially important but neglected in recent epistemology. A wider, more adequate conception of human knowing is needed that will include interested or motivated inquirers as “S,” and personal traits of persons as “ p .” Historically important treatments of knowing that accommodate these features deserve examination as part of the effort to create a broader epistemology. We find such a treatment (...)
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  49. Subterranean Epistemic Blues.Jeremy Kirby - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Research 34:177-188.
    I enter a debate herein concerning the role that Plato’s Forms are thought to play in the epistemic lives of everyday people. While some scholars believe that the Forms play a major role in everyday thinking, others maintain that their part is very minor. The latter view, I contend, is the more tenable. I argue that recent attempts to draw upon the Republic to establish the former are not only unsuccessful, but they tip the scale in favor of the latter.
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  50. Ugo Zilioli, Protagoras and the Challenge of Relativism: Plato's Subtlest Enemy.Aaron James Landry - 2009 - Philosophy in Review 29 (2):152.
1 — 50 / 242