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  1. The Third Man Argument.D. T. J. Bailey - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (4):666-681.
    This paper is a brief discussion of the famous 'Third Man Argument' as it appears in Plato's dialogue Parmenides . I mention, criticise and refine the most influential analytic approach to the argument; show that the actual conclusion of the argument is different from the one attributed to it by the majority of scholars; and elaborate two responses to the argument, both of which shed interesting light on the Theory of Forms.
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  2. The Context of the Third Man Argument in Plato's.Robert Barford - 1978 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 16 (1).
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  3. The Parmenides and the 'Third Man'.R. S. Bluck - 1956 - Classical Quarterly 6 (1-2):29-37.
    In a recent article in the Philosophical Review Professor Gregory Vlastos has given an acute analysis of the ‘Third Man’ Argument as it appears in the Parmenides for which all Platonic scholars will be grateful. In view of the importance of the article and the interest that it has aroused, I should like to offer one or two criticisms of his conclusions.
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  4. Assumptions Involved in the Third Man Argument.N. B. Booth - 1958 - Phronesis 3 (2):146-149.
  5. Plato, Aristotle, and the Third Man Argument.Jurgis Brakas - 2011 - In Michael Bruce & Steven Barbone (eds.), Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
  6. Plato's Third Man and the Limits of Cognition.Robert A. Brinkley - 1982 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 60 (2):152 – 157.
    Discussions of Plato's Third Man Argument (TMA) have tended to obscure its force within the context of "Parmenides". The TMA introduces a demonstration by Parmenides of the logic of dialectic. The argument does not refute the theory of forms: rather it illuminates particular difficulties involved in any attempt to conceive of what forms do. As a form, the large enables us to observe the same attribute in a number of objects. As such it is not an object of cognition. When (...)
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  7. The Logic of the Third Man.S. Marc Cohen - 1971 - Philosophical Review 80 (4):448-475.
    The main lines of interpretation offered to date of the Third Man Argument in Plato's Parmenides (132a1-b2) are considered and rejected. A new, set-theoretic, reconstruction of the argument is offered. It is concluded that the philosophical point of the argument is different from what it has been generally supposed to be: Plato is pointing out the logical shortcomings in his earlier formulated principle of One-Over-Many.
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  8. Analyzing Plato's Arguments: Plato and Platonism.S. Marc Cohen & David Keyt - 1992 - In J. Klagge & N. Smith (eds.), Methods of Interpreting Plato and his Dialogues. Oxford University Press.
    The historian of philosophy often encounters arguments that are enthymematic: they have conclusions that follow from their explicit premises only by the addition of "tacit" or "suppressed" premises. It is a standard practice of interpretation to supply these missing premises, even where the enthymeme is "real," that is, where there is no other context in which the philosopher in question asserts the missing premises. To do so is to follow a principle of charity: other things being equal, one interpretation is (...)
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  9. Self-Predication and the "Third Man".Arnold Cusmariu - 1985 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 23 (1):105-118.
    Generations of scholars have worked to clarify the structure and content of the TMA, one of the most famous arguments in the history of philosophy. Though progress has been made, I show that a premise crucial to the argument has yet to be stated openly. This premise holds the way out of the predicament that enables Plato to retain intact the foundations of the Theory of Forms.
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  10. Plato, the 'Third Man' and the Nature of the Forms.Michael Durrant - 1979 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 17 (3):287-304.
  11. On Concrete Universals: A Modern Treatment Using Category Theory.David Ellerman - 2014 - AL-MUKHATABAT.
    Today it would be considered "bad Platonic metaphysics" to think that among all the concrete instances of a property there could be a universal instance so that all instances had the property by virtue of participating in that concrete universal. Yet there is a mathematical theory, category theory, dating from the mid-20th century that shows how to precisely model concrete universals within the "Platonic Heaven" of mathematics. This paper, written for the philosophical logician, develops this category-theoretic treatment of concrete universals (...)
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  12. Ist die Idee des Guten nicht transzendent oder ist sie es doch? Nochmals Platons ΕΠΕΚΕΙΝΑ ΤΗΣ ΟΥΣΙΑΣ.Rafael Ferber - 2005 - In Damir Barbaric (ed.), Platon über das Gute und die Gerechtigkeit / Plato on Goodness and Justice / Platone sul Bene e sulla Giustizia. Königshausen & Neumann. pp. 149-174.
    Plato scholars such as Matthias Baltes (1940-2003) and Luc Brisson have defended the thesis that Plato‘s Idea of the Good is on the one hand beyond being (epekeina tês ousias) in dignity and power, but is nevertheless not transcendent over being. The article gives first (I.), an introduction into the status questionis. Second (II.), it delivers the most important arguments for the thesis of Baltes and Brisson. Third (III.), it gives two counterarguments against the thesis. Fourth (IV), it deals with (...)
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  13. Plato's Response to the Third Man Argument in the Paradoxical Exercise of the Parmenides.Bryan Frances - 1996 - Ancient Philosophy 16 (1):47-64.
    An analysis of the Third Man Argument, especially in light of Constance Meinwald's book Plato's Parmenides. I argue that her solution to the TMA fails. Then I present my own theory as to what Plato's solution was.
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  14. "Aucun attribut universel n’est une substance" (Aristotelis Metaphysica, Z, 13, 1038b 35). Aristote critique des Idées de Plato.Leone Gazziero - 2016 - Annuaire de l'École Pratique des Hautes Études 123:121-142.
    Y a-t-il des Idées et peut-on démontrer qu’elles existent ? Parmi les protagonistes anciens de la controverse qui a opposé partisans et adversaires des Idées, Aristote mérite une attention toute particulière. De fait, si – au moment où Aristote intervient dans le débat autour de l’hypothèse des Idées – ce débat a déjà une histoire, c’est avec lui que cette histoire atteint une maturité qui est à la fois d’ordre doctrinal et doxographique. De fait, non seulement Aristote est le premier (...)
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  15. “ἐὰν ὡσαύτως τῇ ψυχῇ ἐπὶ πάντα ἴδῃς” (Platonis Parmenides, 132a 1 - 132b 2). Voir les Idées avec son âme et le “Troisième homme” de Platon.Leone Gazziero - 2014 - Revue de Philosophie Ancienne 32 (1):35-85.
    Few arguments from the past have stirred up as much interest as Aristotle’s “Third man” and not so many texts have received as much attention as its account in chapter 22 of the Sophistici elenchi. And yet, several issues about both remain highly controversial, starting from the very nature of the argument at stake and the exact signification of some of its features. The essay provides a close commentary of the text, dealing with its main difficulties and suggesting an overall (...)
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  16. Etude critique : L. Brisson, Platon. Parménide, traduction, introduction et notes, Paris, GF-Flammarion, troisième édition, revue et mise à jour, 2011. [REVIEW]Leone Gazziero - 2012 - Revue de Philosophie Ancienne 30 (2):185-197.
    Luc Brisson’s translation and challenging interpretation of the Parmenides stands out as one of the most influential contributions to contemporary exegesis of Plato’s arguably most controversial dialogue. While acknowledging its many virtues, the essay rejects Brisson’s understanding of the text’s focus and purpose. Brisson’s methodological assumptions are especially discussed and proven to be highly questionable on account of a rather straightforward transfer of the doxographical concerns which Plato is supposed to share with contemporary historians of Parmenides’ philosophy.
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  17. «καὶ ὅτι ἔστι τις τρίτος ἄνθρωπος»(Aristotelis sophistici elenchi 22 178b36–179a10). Prolégomènes à une histoire ancienne de l'argument du 'troisième homme'.Leone Gazziero - 2010 - Rhizai. A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science:181-220.
    Few arguments from the past have stirred up as much interest as Aristotle’s “Third man” and not so many texts have received as much attention as its account in chapter 22 of the Sophistici elenchi. And yet, several issues about both remain highly controversial, starting from the very nature of the argument at stake and the exact signification of some of its features. The essay provides a close commentary of the text, dealing with its main difficulties and suggesting an overall (...)
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  18. Rationes ex machina. La micrologie à l’âge de l’industrie de l’argument.Leone Gazziero - 2008 - Paris: Vrin.
    Do Ideas exist and can we prove it ? Do proofs of their existence have all the same value or not ? Aristotle addresses these issues in two famous documents of the controversy that pitted supporters of the theory of Forms against its opponents within Plato’s Academy : his lost work, quoted by Alexander of Aphrodisias by the title of Peri Ideon, and the lengthy thrust against Ideas that can be read, with some minor variations, in books A, chapter 9, (...)
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  19. Acerca del problema de lo individual y lo universal en Platón y Aristóteles (transl. to Spanish by Hardy Neumann Soto).Max Gottschlich - 2012 - Philosophica 41 (Semestres I-II):133-154.
    Philosophica. Revista del Instituto de Filosofía de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile.
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  20. How (Not) to Exempt Platonic Forms From Parmenides' Third Man.David Hunt - 1997 - Phronesis 42 (1):1-20.
  21. Plato on the Self-Predication of Forms: Early and Middle Dialogues.John Malcolm - 1991 - Oxford University Press.
    In this book, Malcolm presents a new and radical interpretation of Plato's earlier dialogues. He argues that the few cases of self-predication contained therein are acceptable simply as statements concerning universals, and that therefore Plato is not vulnerable in these cases to the Third Man Argument. In considering the middle dialogues, Malcolm takes a conservative stance, rejecting influential current doctrines which portray the Forms as being not self-predicative. He shows that the middle dialogues do indeed take Forms to be both (...)
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  22. Plato’s “Third Man” Arguments in the Parmenides.Mario Mignucci - 1990 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 72 (2):143-181.
  23. The 'Third Man' Argument and Plato's Theory of Forms1.J. M. E. Moravcsik - 1963 - Phronesis 8 (1):50-62.
  24. How to Say Goodbye to the Third Man.Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Edward N. Zalta - 2000 - Noûs 34 (2):165–202.
    In (1991), Meinwald initiated a major change of direction in the study of Plato’s Parmenides and the Third Man Argument. On her conception of the Parmenides , Plato’s language systematically distinguishes two types or kinds of predication, namely, predications of the kind ‘x is F pros ta alla’ and ‘x is F pros heauto’. Intuitively speaking, the former is the common, everyday variety of predication, which holds when x is any object (perceptible object or Form) and F is a property (...)
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  25. Nature, Knowledge, and Virtue, Essays in Memory of Joan Kung.Terry Penner & Richard Kraut (eds.) - 1989 - Academin printing and publishing.
  26. A Reasonable Self-Predication Premise for the Third Man Argument.Sandra Peterson - 1973 - Philosophical Review 82 (4):451-470.
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  27. Plato's 'Third Man' Arguments.F. R. Pickering - 1981 - Mind 90 (358):263-269.
    Plato presents us with two versions of the "third man" argument in the "parmenides": they occur in a tightly-knit passage of reasoning containing four arguments against the theory of forms (130e-133a). The orthodox interpretation is that both versions are attempts to show that certain basic tenets of the theory, including a one-over-many principle, form an inconsistent set. The author argues that this interpretation cannot be correct, since it renders incoherent the train of thought in the wider passage and is unable (...)
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  28. Unity and Development in Plato's Metaphysics.William Prior - 2012 - Routledge.
    Studies of Plato’s metaphysics have tended to emphasise either the radical change between the early Theory of Forms and the late doctrines of the Timaeus and the Sophist, or to insist on a unity of approach that is unchanged throughout Plato’s career. The author lays out an alternative approach. Focussing on two metaphysical doctrines of central importance to Plato’s thought – the Theory of Forms and the doctrine of Being and Becoming – he suggests a continuous progress can be traced (...)
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  29. The Concept of "Paradeigma" [Greek] in Plato's Theory of Forms.William J. Prior - 1983 - Apeiron 17 (1):33-42.
    Scholars often assume that when Plato said that Forms are paradeigmata he meant that they were exemplars of the property they represent. I argue that "paradeigma" is better read as "pattern" than "exemplar." This reading is compatible with Plato's use of the term in all passages except Parm. 132d, where Parmenides misinterprets the term to make the theory of Forms susceptible to the Third Man Argument.
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  30. Timaeus 48e-52d and the Third Man Argument.William J. Prior - 1983 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 9:123-147.
    In this article I argue that "Timaeus" 48e-52d, the passage in which Plato introduces the receptacle into his ontology, Contains the material for a satisfactory response to the third man argument. Plato's use of "this" and "such" to distinguish the receptacle, Becoming, And the forms clarifies the nature of his ontology and indicates that the forms are not, In general, self-predicative. This result removes one argument against regarding the "Timaeus" as a late dialogue.
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  31. Parmenides 132c-133a and the Development of Plato's Thought.William J. Prior - 1979 - Phronesis 24 (3):230-240.
    In this paper I argue against the view of G.E.L. Owen that the second version of the Third Man Argument is a sound objection to Plato's conception of Forms as paradigms and that Plato knew it. The argument can be formulated so as to be valid, but Plato need not be committed to one of its premises. Forms are self-predicative, but the ground of self-predication is not the same as that of ordinary predication.
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  32. The Duplicity of Plato's Third Man.K. W. Rankin - 1969 - Mind 78 (310):178-197.
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  33. A Necessary Falsehood in the Third Man Argument.Theodore Scaltsas - 1992 - Phronesis 37 (2):216-232.
  34. The Logic of the Dilemma of Participation and of the Third Man Argument.Theodore Scaltsas - 1989 - Apeiron 22 (4):67 - 90.
    In this paper i offer a detailed analysis of the dilemma of participation (parmenides, 130e-131e), in which plato considers the consequences of participation in the whole, and in a part of, a form. This analysis explains, in contrast to existing interpretations of the argument, plato's claim that participation in parts of a form is incompatible with the uniqueness of the form, and his modal claim that becoming equal by possessing part of the equal is absurd. In the second part of (...)
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  35. Unity and Development in Plato's Metaphysics, And: Image and Reality in Plato's Metaphysics (Review). [REVIEW]Jerome P. Schiller - 1987 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 25 (2):289-291.
  36. Self-Predication and the Third Man.Peter Schweizer - 1994 - Erkenntnis 40 (1):21-42.
    The paper addresses the widely held position that the Third Man regress in the Parmenides is caused at least in part by the self-predicational aspect of Plato's Ideas. I offer a critique of the logic behind this type of interpretation, and argue that if the Ideas are construed as genuinely applying to themselves, then the regress is dissolved. Furthermore, such an interpretation can be made technically precise by modeling Platonic Universals as non-wellfounded sets. This provides a solution to the Third (...)
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  37. Platonic Causes.David Sedley - 1998 - Phronesis 43 (2):114-132.
    This paper examines Plato's ideas on cause-effect relations in the "Phaedo." It maintains that he sees causes as things (not events, states of affairs or the like), with any information as to how that thing brings about the effect relegated to a strictly secondary status. This is argued to make good sense, so long as we recognise that aition means the "thing responsible" and exploit legal analogies in order to understand what this amounts to. Furthermore, provided that we do not (...)
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  38. Aristoteles' Entdeckung des wahrhaft Allgemeinen.Gianluigi Segalerba - 2006 - Wiener Jahrbuch für Philosophie 38:203-246.
    The essay deals with some aspects of Aristotle's second substances and of Aristotle's universals; the ontological status of second substances and of universals opposes the characteristics of the ideas; these characteristics are presented in the arguments of Aristotle's lost work On Ideas. The ontological presuppositions of the third man arguments are taken into examination. Aristotle's construction of a typological ontology is analyzed; the typological ontology builds the only possibility of obtaining a correct ontology. The ontological position of first substances in (...)
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  39. Plato’s ‘Parmenides’. Problems of Interpretation. [REVIEW]Ingeborg Seifert - 1984 - Philosophy and History 17 (2):113-114.
  40. The Anatomy of an Illusion: On Plato's Purported Commitment to Self-Predication.Ravi Sharma - 2007 - Apeiron 40 (2):159-198.
  41. Erratum: Plato's Causal Logic and the Third Man Argument.Richard Sharvy - 1987 - Noûs 21 (3):455.
  42. Plato's Causal Logic and the Third Man Argument.Richard Sharvy - 1986 - Noûs 20 (4):507-530.
    (1) anything that fs does so because it participates in the f itself. (2) it is impossible that: a form phi fs because phi participates in phi. (3) the f itself fs. These are inconsistent all right, but (1) is not a doctrine of the theory of forms, and (2) is neither reasonable nor held by plato! but the tma does not involve any of these three. Rather, the tma is aimed at (4) anything that fs does so (a) because (...)
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  43. Plato's 'Mirror-Image' Theory of Particulars.Edward Slowik - 1997 - Cogito 11 (3):199-205.
    As a means of overcoming the "Third Man" argument, several commentators have developed an influential theory of the relationship between Platonic Forms and particulars based on Plato's use of "image" analogies. This essay explores the viability of this "image-analogy" hypothesis and, in particular, examines an important, but neglected, argument advanced by R. E. Allen intent on establishing an ontological distinction between an image and its object-source.
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  44. Plato’s Third Man Paradox: Its Logic and History.Ioannis M. Vandoulakis - 2009 - Archives Internationale D’Histoire des Sciences 59 (162):3-52.
    In Plato’s Parmenides 132a-133b, the widely known Third Man Paradox is stated, which has special interest for the history of logical reasoning. It is important for philosophers because it is often thought to be a devastating argument to Plato’s theory of Forms. Some philosophers have even viewed Aristotle’s theory of predication and the categories as inspired by reflection on it [Owen 1966]. For the historians of logic it is attractive, because of the phenomenon of self-reference that involves. Bocheński denies any (...)
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