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  1. Twenty-First Century Anti-Democracy: Theory and Practice in the World.Erich Kofmel - manuscript
    Contemporary political philosophy in the West is the philosophy of democracy, is democratic theory. Philosophy under democracy has become complacent. Even the recent reaffirmation of communism by influential philosophers such as Alain Badiou and Slavoj Žižek failed to inspire a significant following. There has been no radical philosophical reaction to the near-collapse of the capitalist economic system, mainly because any criticism of capitalism would imply a criticism of democracy ("the best possible political shell for capitalism", as Lenin said). Techno-philosophical alternatives (...)
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  2. Equality and Prosperity.Werner Baer - forthcoming - Social Research.
  3. Is a Conservative Philosophical Anthropology Possible?Eliseo Vivas - forthcoming - Social Research.
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  4. Security, Local Community, and the Democratic Political Culture in Africa.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2021 - In Pathways to Alternative Epistemologies in Africa. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 111-122.
    In this study, the idea of the local African community as a social structure ensuring the security of its members is presented. An understanding of the concept of security is first briefly discussed, followed by the meaning of the concept of the local African community. The chapter also makes an a priori distinction between what one can call “moderate” and “radical” types of communal life and two case studies exemplifying them are presented. The chapter aims to analyze the trade off, (...)
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  5. Legitimacy Beyond the State: Institutional Purposes and Contextual Constraints.N. P. Adams, Antoinette Scherz & Cord Schmelzle - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:281-291.
    The essays collected in this special issue explore what legitimacy means for actors and institutions that do not function like traditional states but nevertheless wield significant power in the global realm. They are connected by the idea that the specific purposes of non-state actors and the contexts in which they operate shape what it means for them to be legitimate and so shape the standards of justification that they have to meet. In this introduction, we develop this guiding methodology further (...)
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  6. “Offensiphobia” is a Red Herring: On the Problem of Censorship and Academic Freedom.Ben Cross & Louise Richardson-Self - 2020 - The Journal of Ethics 24 (1):31-54.
    In a recent article, J. Angelo Corlett criticises what he takes to be the ‘offensiphobic’ practices characteristic of many universities. The ‘offensiphobe’, according to Corlett, believes that offensive speech ought to be censured precisely because it offends. We argue that there are three serious problems with Corlett’s discussion. First, his criticism of ‘offensiphobia’ misrepresents the kinds of censorship practiced by universities; many universities may in some way censure speech which they regard as offensive, but this is seldom if ever a (...)
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  7. 欢迎来到地球上的地狱: 婴儿,气候变化,比特币,卡特尔,中国,民主,多样性,养成基因,平等,黑客,人权,伊斯兰教,自由主义,繁荣,网络,混乱。饥饿,疾病,暴力,人工智能,战争.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    美国和世界正处于人口过度增长的崩溃过程中,大部分都发生在上个世纪,现在这一切都是由于第三世界人民造成的。资源消耗和增加10亿至2100亿美元,将使工业文明崩溃,并造成饥饿、疾病、暴力和战争。" ;数十亿人将死去,核战争几乎可以肯定。在美国,大规模移民和移民再生产,加上民主带来的滥用,大大加速了这一速度。堕落的人性无情地把民主和多样性的梦想变成犯罪和贫穷的噩梦。崩溃的根本原因是我们天生的心理无 法适应现代世界,这导致人们把不相关的人当作他们有共同的兴趣对待。再加上对基本生物学和心理的无知,导致部分受教育者的社会工程妄想,他们控制着民主社会。很少有人明白,如果你帮助一个人,你伤害了别人——没有 免费的午餐,任何人消费的每一件物品都会破坏地球,无法修复。因此,世界各地的社会政策都是不可持续的,如果不严格控制自私,所有社会都会陷入无政府状态或独裁。如果不立即作出戏剧性改变,就没有希望阻止美国或任 何遵循民主制度的国家的崩溃。因此,我的文章"民主自杀"。 现在很清楚,统治中国的七个社会道路正在赢得第三次世界大战,所以我关于他们的结论性文章。唯一更大的威胁是人工智能,我简要地评论。 我们一切的关键是生物学,而正是它所忽视它,导致数百万聪明受过教育的人,如奥巴马,乔姆斯基,克林顿,民主党和教皇支持自杀的乌托邦理想,无情地直接导致地球上的地狱。 正如W指出的,我们眼前最难看的就是什么。 我们生活在有意识的议事语言系统2的世界里,但它是无意识的,自动反射系统1的规则。这是西尔的《现象幻象》(TPI)、平克的《空白石板》和《图比》和《科斯米德的标准社会科学模型》中描述的普遍失明的根源。 第一组文章试图让我们了解我们是如何合理摆脱理论错觉的。在接下来的三个组中,我评论了阻碍可持续世界的三个主要错觉——技术、宗教和政治(合作团体)。人们相信社会可以由他们拯救,所以我在书的其余部分提供一些 建议,为什么这不太可能通过短篇文章和评论最近出版的著名作家的书。 另一节描述了宗教错觉——有一些超级力量会拯救我们。 下一节将数字错觉描述为将系统2的语言游戏与系统1的自动化混为一谈,因此无法区分生物机器(即人)和其他种类的机器(即计算机)。 其他数字错觉是,我们将从系统1的纯邪恶(自私)由计算机/AI/机器人/纳米技术/基因工程由系统2创建。 没有免费午餐校长告诉我们,将有严重,甚至致命的后果。 最后一节描述了"一个幸福家庭"的幻想,即我们被选中与大家合作,如果我们只是正确管理事情(政治的可能性),民主、多样性和平等等异想天意将引导我们进入乌托邦。 再次,没有免费午餐原则应该警告我们,它不能是真实的,我们看到整个历史和整个当代世界,没有严格的控制,自私和愚蠢占上风,并很快摧毁任何国家,拥抱这些妄想。此外,猴子的头脑大大折扣的未来,所以我们合作出售 我们的后代的遗产为临时舒适,大大加剧了问题。 .
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  8. Centripetal Federalism.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2020 - 50 Shades of Federalism, Ed. By S. Keil, P. Anderson.
    Centripetalism is often perceived as a type of a political system for a multi-segmental, especially multi-ethnic, country in order to create among the members of the political elite of moderate, accomodative, and integrative political behavior cross-cutting segmental divisions which, reaching beyond group interests, depoliticize the segmental separateness and, in this manner, reduce their significance. One of the central institutions of centripetalism is decentralization leading to a division of large segments into smaller parts that inhabit different, ideally multi-segmental regions, thus inclining (...)
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  9. The Role of Consent in Locke's Theory of State.Elena Yi-Jia Zeng - 2020 - Historical Inquiry, Journal of National Taiwan University 66:201-236.
    John Locke’s theory of state is heavily constructed around his doctrine of consent. The doctrine indeed signifies a critical moment in the development of liberal and democratic theories in the history of political thought. Nevertheless, the doctrine has provoked various controversies and raises doubts on whether Locke’s early and later positions are reconcilable. This paper joins the scholarly debate through investigating the role of consent in Locke’s theory of state. It rejects the ahistorical readings of the doctrine that deliberation and (...)
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  10. Book Review: Assembly, by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri. [REVIEW]Samuel A. Chambers - 2019 - Political Theory 47 (5):724-733.
  11. Sovereignty in Action.Bas Leijssenaar & Neil Walker (eds.) - 2019 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Sovereignty in premodern times evoked the dynastic figure of the 'sovereign' or territorial monarch. In modern times, it became a more abstract idea, referring to the power of the state, later of the people or 'the popular sovereign' as articulated and refined through constitutional arrangements. Today these inherited understandings of sovereignty confront various new challenges, including those of globalization, privatization of power, and the rise of sub-state nationalism. An examination of key historical writers and trends from the seventeenth century onwards, (...)
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  12. How Far Does the European Union Reach? Foreign Land Acquisitions and the Boundaries of Political Communities.Torsten Menge - 2019 - Land 8 (3).
    The recent global surge in large-scale foreign land acquisitions marks a radical transformation of the global economic and political landscape. Since land that attracts capital often becomes the site of expulsions and displacement, it also leads to new forms of migration. In this paper, I explore this connection from the perspective of a political philosopher. I argue that changes in global land governance unsettle the congruence of political community and bounded territory that we often take for granted. As a case (...)
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  13. Book Review: Against Marriage: An Egalitarian Defence of the Marriage-Free State, by Clare Chambers. [REVIEW]Tamara Metz - 2019 - Political Theory 47 (3):414-418.
  14. Understanding Complicity: Memory, Hope and the Imagination.Mihaela Mihai - 2019 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 22 (5):504-522.
  15. 21 वीं सदी में आत्मघाती यूटोपियाई भ्रम दर्शन, मानव प्रकृति और सभ्यता का पतन लेख और समीक्षाएं 2006-2019 5वीं संस्करण.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    वह लेख के पहले समूह के लिए हम कैसे व्यवहार है कि काफी सैद्धांतिक भ्रम से मुक्त है में कुछ अंतर्दृष्टि देने का प्रयास. अगले तीन समूहों में मैं एक स्थायी दुनिया को रोकने के प्रमुख भ्रम के तीन पर टिप्पणी - प्रौद्योगिकी, धर्म और pol(सहकारी समूह)। लोगों का मानना है कि समाज उनके द्वारा बचाया जा सकता है, तो मैं क्यों यह छोटे लेख और प्रसिद्ध लेखकों द्वारा हाल ही में पुस्तकों की समीक्षा के माध्यम से संभावना नहीं है (...)
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  16. Book Review: The Misinterpellated Subject, by James R. Martel. [REVIEW]Lasse Thomassen - 2019 - Political Theory 47 (2):282-286.
  17. Taking Sides.Nadia Urbinati - 2019 - Political Theory 47 (1):97-105.
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  18. Institutional Legitimacy.N. P. Adams - 2018 - Journal of Political Philosophy:84-102.
    Political legitimacy is best understood as one type of a broader notion, which I call institutional legitimacy. An institution is legitimate in my sense when it has the right to function. The right to function correlates to a duty of non-interference. Understanding legitimacy in this way favorably contrasts with legitimacy understood in the traditional way, as the right to rule correlating to a duty of obedience. It helps unify our discourses of legitimacy across a wider range of practices, especially including (...)
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  19. Is There a Distinctively Political Normativity?Jonathan Leader Maynard & Alex Worsnip - 2018 - Ethics 128 (4):756-787.
    A slew of recent political theorists—many taking their cue from the political writings of Bernard Williams—have recently contended that political normativity is its own kind of normativity, distinct from moral normativity. In this article, we first attempt to clarify what this claim amounts to and then reconstruct and interrogate five major arguments for it. We contend that all these arguments are unconvincing and fail to establish a sense in which political normativity is genuinely separate from morality.
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  20. Andrew Fiala: The Bloomsbury Companion to Political Philosophy: Bloomsbury Academic, New York, NY, 2015, 264 Pp + Index, $171.00 Hc. [REVIEW]Gregory McCreery - 2018 - Human Studies 41 (4):719-726.
  21. Imparcialidad ejemplar.María G. Navarro - 2018 - In Ricardo Gutiérrez Aguilar (ed.), Predicar con el ejemplo. Ser y deber (de) ser en lo público. Barcelona: Edicions Bellaterra. pp. 215-226.
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  22. The Trigger Effect: Cognitive Biases and Fake News.Tommaso Ostillio - 2018 - Internetowy Magazyn Filozoficzny Hybris 44 (01):86-104.
    This research study focuses on the problem of populistic propaganda online. In particular, this research study provides three case studies gathered in a Facebook Group of the Italian populistic movement Movimento 5 Stelle. On the one hand, the three case studies provide three powerful counterexamples to the thesis that online media are purposeful aggregator of people. In fact, this research study finds that online media are the perfect environment for populism to thrive. For online media seem to foster the aggregation (...)
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  23. New Twist to Political Corruption in 4th Republic Nigeria Given Non-Human Animals Stealing Millions: A Case for the Defense of Animal Rights.Amaobi Nelson Osuala - 2018 - GNOSI: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Human Theory and Praxis 1 (2).
    Corruption has assumed a new turn in 4th Republic Nigeria, particularly where non-human animals are alleged by human animals to deep their hands into the public tilt for their selfish non-human animal purposes. This is a clear case of hypocrisy on the part of human animals in that, at one instance we contend that non-human animals are inferior to human beings and at the other instance, we affirm though inadvertently that non-human animals are not inferior but equal since they have (...)
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  24. Ethics and Migration Crises.Alex Sager - 2018 - In Cecilia Menjívar, Marie Ruiz & Immanuel Ness (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Migration Crises. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 589-602.
    The topic of ethics and migration crises has two dimensions. First, there are questions in the ethics of representation. Media, pundits, and researchers frequently describe large-scale migration as a crisis with insufficient attention to the cogency of the crisis label or the ethical issues it raises. Second, migration crises give rise to duties not to deprive people of their rights to seek safety and asylum, to protect people deprived of their rights, and to aid migrants in crisis situations. There are (...)
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  25. Why Theorize Modus Vivendi?Fabian Wendt - 2018 - In John Horton, Manon Westphal & Ulrich Willems (eds.), The Political Theory of Modus Vivendi. Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 31-47.
    There have been four main motives to introduce the notion of modus vivendi in the political-philosophical literature. One is to use it as a negative contrast to what one regards as the ideal goal in politics. The second is to use it within a distinctively realist political theory that refrains from advocating utopian ideals. The third is to defend liberal institutions as a modus vivendi. The fourth is to have a concept for the institutional tools for peace. Depending on the (...)
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  26. Peter Sloterdijk’s General Ascetology.Amir Ahmadi - 2017 - Critical Horizons 18 (4):333-346.
    Peter Sloterdijk maintains that modern institutions and their fundamental ethos, namely self-discipline, training and the orientation to achievement, can be traced back to spiritual self-mastery and ancient ascetic models, exemplified in Christian monastic life. This article examines the bases of this claim and argues that Sloterdijk’s theory empties ascetic formations of their concrete content and removes them from their historical context. The ambition to derive the main features of modern society from a single matrix necessarily produces abstractions and self-serving definitions (...)
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  27. The Grammar of Indifference: Tocqueville and the Language of Democracy.Richard Avramenko - 2017 - Political Theory 45 (4):495-523.
    This essay analyzes what Alexis de Tocqueville calls an “application of linguistics to history.” Beginning with Tocqueville’s position that language is the ground of meaningful bonds between people, I argue that the internal logic of a language—the grammar—is correlated with the internal logic governing the social order that both begets and is begotten by that language. Social orders therefore have both linguistic and political grammars and, as the internal logic of language changes, so too can the political grammar. This essay (...)
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  28. Political Corruption.Emanuela Ceva & Maria Paola Ferretti - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (12):e12461.
    The corruption of public officials and institutions is generally regarded as wrong. But in what exactly does this form of corruption consist and what kind of wrong does it imply? This article aims to take stock of the current philosophical discussion of the different senses in which political corruption is wrong in a general sense, beyond the specific negative legal, economic, and social costs it may happen to have in specific circumstances. Political corruption is usually presented as a pathology of (...)
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  29. Offsetting Race Privilege.Jeremey Dunham & Holly Lawford-Smith - 2017 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 11 (2):1-23.
    For all the talk there has been lately about privilege, few have commented on the moral obligations that are associated with having privilege. Those who have commented haven't gone much beyond the idea that the privileged should be conscious of their privilege, should listen to those who don't have it. Here we want to go further, and build an account of the moral obligations of those with a particular kind of privilege: race privilege. In this paper we articulate an understanding (...)
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  30. The Concept of Violence in International Theory: A Double-Intent Account.Christopher J. Finlay - 2017 - International Theory 9 (1):67-100.
    The ability of international ethics and political theory to establish a genuinely critical standpoint from which to evaluate uses of armed force has been challenged by various lines of argument. On one, theorists question the narrow conception of violence on which analysis relies. Were they right, it would overturn two key assumptions: first, that violence is sufficiently distinctive to merit attention as a category separate from other modes of human harming; second, that it is troubling in a special way that (...)
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  31. On the Messy “Utopophobia Vs Factophobia” Controversy.Laura Valentini - 2017 - In Kevin Vallier & Michael Weber (eds.), Political Utopias. New York, NY, USA: pp. 11-31.
    In recent years, political philosophers have been fiercely arguing over the virtues and vices of utopian vs realistic theorizing. Partly due to the lack of a common and consistently used vocabulary, these debates have become rather confusing. In this chapter, I attempt to bring some clarity to them and, in doing so, I offer a conciliatory perspective on the “utopian vs realistic theorizing” controversy. I argue that, once the notion of a normative or evaluative theory is clearly defined and distinguished (...)
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  32. The Moderating Effect of Fair Trade on the Relationship Between Social Capital, Subjective Wellbeing, and Quality of Life.Reynaldo Bautista Jr, Johnny Amora, Raymond Charles Anicete, Beni Alfred Estepa & Ferdinand Alversado - 2016 - Journal of Catholic Social Thought 13 (1):147-162.
  33. All of Us Are Vulnerable, But Some Are More Vulnerable Than Others: The Political Ambiguity of Vulnerability Studies, an Ambivalent Critique.Alyson Cole - 2016 - Critical Horizons 17 (2):260-277.
    This paper raises several concerns about vulnerability as an alternative language to conceptualize injustice and politicize its attendant injuries. First, the project of resignifying “vulnerability” by emphasizing its universality and amplifying its generative capacity, I suggest, might dilute perceptions of inequality and muddle important distinctions among specific vulnerabilities, as well as differences between those who are injurable and those who are already injured. Vulnerability scholars, moreover, have yet to elaborate the path from acknowledging constitutive vulnerability to addressing concrete injustices. Second, (...)
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  34. Conceptual Histories and Critical Theories.Andrew Gilbert - 2016 - Thesis Eleven 132:87-101.
    Recent scholarship has drawn on Koselleck’s methods of conceptual history and his diagnosis of ‘crisis’ in modernity to make sense of 21st-century developments in political, social and economic life and thought. This review essay looks at two texts that, in different ways, test Koselleck’s ideas in challenging and innovative ways. Lara’s use of conceptual history to shed light on the debates over secularization demonstrates how concepts become central to struggles over the definition of politics – definitions which thereafter disclose the (...)
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  35. Something to Die For. The Individual as Interruption of the Political in Carl Schmitt’s The Concept of the Political.Marin Lavinia - 2016 - Revue Roumaine de Philosophie 60 (2):311–325.
    This article aims to question the anti-individualist stance in Carl Schmitt's concept of the political by uncovering the historical bias of Schmitt's anti-individualism, seen here as one of the main driving forces behind his argument. For Schmitt, the political can take place only when a collectivity is able to declare war to another collectivity on the basis of feeling existentially threatened by the latter. As such, Schmitt's framework implies the inescapable possibility of war, as the condition which makes possible the (...)
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  36. J. M. Bocheński’s Definition of the Concept of Nation. A Critique and Analysis From the Pragmatic-Logical Point of View.Piotr Michał Sękowski - 2016 - Diametros 48:89-104.
    The article offers an analysis of Józef Bocheński's studies of the concept of nation. Bocheński acknowledges that there are difficulties in defining a nation. After that he claims that he will attempt to propose a definition of the Polish nation. Nation is a social group centered around some cultural ideal. The analysis shows that Bocheński did not avoid serious logical problems. First of all, he constantly falls into a circular reasoning. Furthermore, it is called into question if it makes sense (...)
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  37. Political Liberalism. Reason and Truth in Politics.Dorota Sepczyńska - 2016 - Diametros 48:105-118.
    In this article I try to prove that John Rawls, in his lectures published in _Political Liberalism_ and later works, recommended the independence of one’s world-view and politics, and that at the same time he allowed the existence of non-conflicting factual truths in politics. His reflections on the problem of truth in the political realm are closely related to his reflections on reason, not only the public one. Thus, the aim of this article is to present and analyze Rawls’ understanding (...)
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  38. "Actual" Does Not Imply "Feasible".Nicholas Southwood & David Wiens - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (11):3037-3060.
    The familiar complaint that some ambitious proposal is infeasible naturally invites the following response: Once upon a time, the abolition of slavery and the enfranchisement of women seemed infeasible, yet these things were actually achieved. Presumably, then, many of those things that seem infeasible in our own time may well be achieved too and, thus, turn out to have been perfectly feasible after all. The Appeal to History, as we call it, is a bad argument. It is not true that (...)
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  39. Collective Obligations: Their Existence, Their Explanatory Power, and Their Supervenience on the Obligations of Individuals.Bill Wringe - 2016 - European Journal of Philosophy 24 (2):472-497.
    In this paper I discuss a number of different relationships between two kinds of obligation: those which have individuals as their subject, and those which have groups of individuals as their subject. I use the name collective obligations to refer to obligations of the second sort. I argue that there are collective obligations, in this sense; that such obligations can give rise to and explain obligations which fall on individuals; that because of these facts collective obligations are not simply reducible (...)
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  40. The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Protectionism in Turn of the Century America.Peter H. Bent - 2015 - Economic Thought 4 (2):68.
    One of the main economic debates taking place in late-nineteenth and early-twentieth-century America was between supporters of protectionism and advocates of free-trade policies. Protectionists won this debate, as the 1897 Dingley Tariff raised tariff rates to record highs. An analysis of this outcome highlights the overlapping interests of Republican politicians and business groups. Both of these groups endorsed particular economic arguments in favour of protectionism. Contemporary studies by academic economists informed the debates surrounding protectionist policies at this time, and also (...)
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  41. Security: Dialogue Across Disciplines.Philippe Bourbeau (ed.) - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
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  42. Book Review: Political Conduct, by Mark PhilpPolitical Conduct, by PhilpMark. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2007. [REVIEW]Peter Breiner - 2015 - Political Theory 43 (1):134-141.
  43. Rousseau's Critique of Inequality. Reconstructing the Second Discourse. By Frederick Neuhouser.Dagmar Comtesse - 2015 - Constellations 22 (3):475-476.
  44. Why Moralists Should Be Afraid of Political Values.Robert Jubb & Enzo Rossi - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Research 40:465-468.
    In this rejoinder to Erman and Möller’s reply to our “Political Norms and Moral Values” we clarify the sense in which there can be specifically political values, and expound the practice-dependent notion of legitimacy adopted by our preferred version of political realism.
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  45. Political Norms and Moral Values.Robert Jubb & Enzo Rossi - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Research 40:455-458.
    This is a response to Erman and Moller's response to our reply to their 'Political Legitimacy in the Real Normative World', both also in this journal.
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  46. Political Ideals and the Feasibility Frontier.David Wiens - 2015 - Economics and Philosophy 31 (3):447-477.
    Recent methodological debates regarding the place of feasibility considerations in normative political theory are hindered for want of a rigorous model of the feasibility frontier. To address this shortfall, I present an analysis of feasibility that generalizes the economic concept of a production possibility frontier and then develop a rigorous model of the feasibility frontier using the familiar possible worlds technology. I then show that this model has significant methodological implications for political philosophy. On the Target View, a political ideal (...)
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  47. Introduction.Adam Etinson & Joshua Keton - 2014 - Journal of Social Philosophy 45 (1):3-6.
  48. Hobbes and the Question of Power.Sandra Field - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (1):61-85.
    Thomas Hobbes has been hailed as the philosopher of power par excellence; however, I demonstrate that Hobbes’s conceptualization of political power is not stable across his texts. Once the distinction is made between the authorized and the effective power of the sovereign, it is no longer sufficient simply to defend a doctrine of the authorized power of the sovereign; such a doctrine must be robustly complemented by an account of how the effective power commensurate to this authority might be achieved. (...)
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  49. Left Wing Philosophy.Dustin Garlitz - 2014 - In Sherwood Thompson (ed.), Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  50. Rural Development with Special Reference to Drinking Water, Health and Agriculture in India.Shailendra Kumar - 2014 - SOCRATES 2 (1):210-221.
    Rural India comprises 73 %of the country’s population, but its share in the total national income is less than 45 %. The rural sector is characterized by low income levels, poor quality of life and a weak human capital-base. There are many problems in rural India related with the health, agriculture & drinking water. Generally rural public health facilities across the country are having a difficult time attracting, retaining, and ensuring regular presence of highly trained medical professionals. The higher the (...)
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