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  1. Pigden Revisited, or In Defence of Popper’s Critique of the Conspiracy Theory of Society.Deane Galbraith - forthcoming - Philosophy of the Social Sciences:004839312210810.
    Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Ahead of Print. Charles Pigden’s 1995 article “Popper Revisited, or What is Wrong with Conspiracy Theories?” stimulated what is today a fertile sub-field of philosophical enquiry into conspiracy theories. In his article, Pigden identifies Karl Popper as the originator of the philosophical argument that it is naïve to believe in any conspiracy theory. But Popper was not criticizing belief in conspiracy theories at all, as Pigden defined them or as they have usually come to be (...)
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  2. Pigden Revisited, or In Defence of Popper’s Critique of the Conspiracy Theory of Society.Deane Galbraith - forthcoming - Sage Publications Inc: Philosophy of the Social Sciences.
    Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Ahead of Print. Charles Pigden’s 1995 article “Popper Revisited, or What is Wrong with Conspiracy Theories?” stimulated what is today a fertile sub-field of philosophical enquiry into conspiracy theories. In his article, Pigden identifies Karl Popper as the originator of the philosophical argument that it is naïve to believe in any conspiracy theory. But Popper was not criticizing belief in conspiracy theories at all, as Pigden defined them or as they have usually come to be (...)
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  3. New Developments in the Theory of the Historical Process: Polish Contributions to Non-Marxian Historical Materialism.Krzysztof Brzechczyn (ed.) - 2022 - Leiden/Boston: Brill.
    The first part of this book contains a selection of Leszek Nowak’s (1943-2009) works on non-Marxian historical materialism, which are published here in English for the first time. In these papers, Nowak constructs a dynamic model of religious community, reconstructs historiosophical assumptions of liberalism and considers the methodological status of prognosis of totalitarization of capitalist society. In the second part of the book, new contributions to non-Marxian historical materialism are presented. Their authors analyze mechanisms of the oligarchization of liberal democracy, (...)
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  4. Correction To: Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development.Oseni Taiwo Afisi - 2021 - In Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer.
    This book was inadvertently published with the funder acknowledgment excluded in chapters 4 and 15.
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  5. Karl Popper’s Social Engineering: Piecemeal or ‘Many-Pieces-at-Once’?Oseni Taiwo Afisi - 2021 - In Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 31-42.
    I agree with Karl Popper that piecemeal engineering is a requirement for peer review, social learning and social transformation. While piecemeal engineering is intended primarily to detect social problems, and assess the results of public policies with the aim of solving them in bits and pieces, in this paper, I defend a modified view of Popper’s thesis. I argue the position that social reforms often require “many pieces at once” social engineering. The justification of this modified Popperian thesis on piecemeal (...)
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  6. Karl Popper, Tribalism and the Question of Africa’s Development.Oseni Taiwo Afisi - 2021 - In Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 187-194.
    In his Open Society and Its Enemies, Popper defends the enlightenment values of individual freedom against any form of totalitarianism. Popper likens totalitarianism with collectivism. Collectivism denotes a society that is static and intellectually stagnated. In Popper’s view, “tribal” societies approximate this condition. Popper avers that collectivism is apt only of “tribal” “closed” intellectually stagnated societies, and not apt of an open society. However, a tribal closed society that Popper proclaimed are of two significantly distinct connotations: tribe and tribal. The (...)
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  7. “How Far May We Tolerate the Intolerant?” Assessing Popper’s Reflections on Tolerance From the Nigerian Polity.Mohammed Akinola Akomolafe - 2021 - In Oseni Taiwo Afisi (ed.), Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 139-147.
    Popper emphasizes that one makes her problem very clear in research. Following Popper, allow me to state clearly my problem – the skepticism tied to the application of his principle of toleration within the Nigerian space. Hence, I will argue within the pages of this article that to adopt Popper’s discourse on toleration to its logical conclusion for resolving the regional crises in Nigeria, will lead to chaos and anarchy rather than peace and mutual coexistence. Caveat however! I do not (...)
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  8. Popper and Youth Participation in Democracy in Africa: Perspectives on Applying the Dynamics of an Information Society.Casimir Kingston Chukwunonyelum Ani & Uche Miriam Okoye - 2021 - In Oseni Taiwo Afisi (ed.), Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 109-116.
    Popper provided an account of the values and institutions needed to sustain an open society in the contemporary world. He defended modern liberal democracies as open societies, the best of all political frameworks for human organization. For him, a government is judged democratic by the degree of adequacy allowed for the expression of the will of the people and their involvement in decision making. Every democracy depends on the will of the majority and in Africa, the youth are the majority. (...)
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  9. Karl Popper on Nationalism and the Issue of Indigenization in Lagos.Bashir Olalekan Animashaun - 2021 - In Oseni Taiwo Afisi (ed.), Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 195-201.
    At the core of his liberal politics, Karl Popper rejected the idea of nationalism on the premise that it possesses a potential for totalitarianism. His rejection of the idea was based on his conviction that people can be united to declare an autonomous single national political and cultural identity. According to Popper, the principle of national self-determination often degenerates into ethnic terrorism because it lacks what Popper refers to as scientific objectivity. Although what Popper was opposed to was the establishment (...)
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  10. Karl Popper, the Nigerian State and Democratic Consolidation.‘Dele Ashiru - 2021 - In Oseni Taiwo Afisi (ed.), Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 57-68.
    It is a truism that African states emerged from the ashes of colonialism. This historical circumstance has always compelled the inherited states of Africa to act in such a manner that can neither create an “open society” nor guarantee freedom in the Popperian conception. Indeed, Popper argues that ‘nobody should be at mercy of others, but all should have the right to be protected by the state and that these ideas should be extended to the economic realm’. He insists that (...)
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  11. Shedding the Subaltern Condition: Karl Popper and the New Cosmopolitanism.Adam Chmielewski - 2021 - In Oseni Taiwo Afisi (ed.), Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 97-108.
    One of the possible ways of conceptualising the overwhelming challenges now facing the countries of the African continent is to say that the people of Africa cope with the condition of subalternity. By subalternity, I understand as an inability to direct one’s own fate and to shape the structures of one own society. In this paper, I pose the question, to what extent does the intellectual resources capable of meeting this challenge be found in Karl Popper’s philosophy? In order to (...)
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  12. Karl Popper and Intellectual Openness in Africa: The Rationale for Political Emancipation.Christabel Chidimma Ezeh - 2021 - In Oseni Taiwo Afisi (ed.), Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 219-234.
    Economic poverty remains an endemic problem that has persistently befallen most developing countries of Africa. This has resulted into decadences in the social, cultural, moral, political, intellectual, religious and economic aspects of African people. African societies are largely underdeveloped, due to poverty and corruption. Intellectual openness is lacking in most African countries. By intellectual openness, one depicts openness to new possibilities. Karl Popper’s advocacy for openness of society, critical approach, democracy as a framework, piecemeal engineering, detest for blueprints are essential (...)
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  13. Out of Rationalist Politics’ Crises: Popper and Oakeshott.Haosheng Li - 2021 - In Eric S. Kos (ed.), Oakeshott’s Skepticism, Politics, and Aesthetics. Springer Verlag. pp. 51-65.
    The political thought of both Popper and Oakeshott are embodied in how each criticizes rationalist politics. There are two fundamental crises in rationalist politics: The utopianism of seeking perfect ideals and the technical politics of abridging political practices into social engineering. Popper holds a view of “critical rationalism” to recall rational critique to rescue rationalism, then puts forwards a project called “Piecemeal Social Engineering.” Oakeshott takes a view of “intimation in tradition,” and then presents a project named “Civil Association.” Both (...)
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  14. Assessing Faith-Based Terrorism Through Popper’s Conception of Tolerance.Olawunmi Cordelia Macaulay-Adeyelure - 2021 - In Oseni Taiwo Afisi (ed.), Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 117-126.
    Four factors have been generally adduced for faith-based violence, extremism and terrorism. The first factor stems from dearth in the recognition of the Other. The second reason which is not too far from the first is informed by campaigns of hatred and blackmail. The third is connected to the lack of a genuine understanding of the Other’s beliefs and values, when the fourth is extremism and intolerance. These factors present themselves even when faith has served some positive and veritable ends (...)
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  15. Popper’s Politics in the Light of African Values (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - In Oseni Taiwo Afisi (ed.), Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 9-29.
    Karl Popper is famous for favoring an open society, one in which the individual is treated as an end in himself and social arrangements are subjected to critical evaluation, which he defends largely by appeal to a Kantian ethic of respecting the dignity of rational beings. In this essay, I consider for the first time what the implications of a characteristically African ethic, instead prescribing respect for our capacity to relate communally, are for how the state should operate in an (...)
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  16. Towards an Ethos of Toleration in Multicultural Societies: The Significance of Popper’s Critical Rationalism.Peter Osimiri - 2021 - In Oseni Taiwo Afisi (ed.), Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 127-137.
    One fundamental challenge that most post-colonial African states have to grapple with is how to contain the pull of centrifugal forces emanating from the ethno-cultural diversity that characterized these states, and how to evolve a state–wide national identity from the mélange of ethno-cultural groupings which presently constitute them. Unfortunately, efforts in this direction have yielded little results: many African states are plagued by political instability, ethnic conflict and, in some cases civil wars, demonstrating that these national societies remain deeply divided (...)
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  17. Africa’s Development Crisis and the Limits of Popper’s Negative Utilitarianism.Adeolu Oluwaseyi Oyekan - 2021 - In Oseni Taiwo Afisi (ed.), Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 43-56.
    The extent of Africa’s developmental challenges conspicuously manifests themselves in the poor living standards of most of its people. Poverty, low literacy and life expectancy rate, hunger and poor sanitary environment are some of the features that characterize life in a region widely acclaimed as most backward in the world today. How best should states in the kind of situation most of Africa has found itself react? What areas of life deserve or require the involvement of the state, and to (...)
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  18. Situating Postcolonial Africa Within Popper’s Critique of Nationalism.Adeolu Oluwaseyi Oyekan - 2021 - In Oseni Taiwo Afisi (ed.), Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 169-185.
    The resurgence of nationalist sentiments, from the United States to Europe as well as Africa has fuelled rising political divisions, the drift towards insularity and many other manifestations that threaten cohesion between and within different states across the world. Unsurprisingly, this has led to a renewed scholarly engagement of the concept of nationalism with a view to gaining new understandings as well as thinking through how best its fallouts are to be managed. This paper engages Karl Popper’s views on nationalism (...)
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  19. The Sociologist of Knowledge in the Positivism Dispute.Iaan Reynolds - 2021 - Distinktion: Journal of Social Theory 2021.
    This paper studies the conflict between critical rationalism and critical theory in Karl Popper and Theodor Adorno’s 1961 debate by analyzing their shared rejection of Karl Mannheim’s sociology of knowledge. Despite the divergences in their respective projects of critical social research, Popper and Adorno agree that Mannheim’s sociology of knowledge is uncritical. By investigating their respective assessments of this research program I reveal a deeper similarity between critical rationalism and critical theory. Though both agree on the importance of critique, they (...)
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  20. Karl Popper’s Critique of Nationalism: Exorcising Tribal Mentality in Modern African Society.Olayemi Salami - 2021 - In Oseni Taiwo Afisi (ed.), Karl Popper and Africa: Knowledge, Politics and Development. Springer. pp. 161-167.
    Karl Popper believes that anti-nationalist posture enhances societal peace and harmony. He is therefore averse to tribalism most especially in a modern plural society. To Popper, nationalism is borne out of a closed tribal mentality and a belief in the supremacy of one’s tribe over every other tribe. Tribalism presupposes exclusiveness, solidarity, affinity, affiliation and nationalism. Such a mentality is the integrating factor that unites ethnic groups. This mentality can be noticed in many modern African societies which seems to have (...)
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  21. Popper’s Politics and Law in the Light of African Values.Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - Jus Cogens 2:185-204.
    Karl Popper is famous for favoring an open society, one in which the individual is treated as an end in himself and social arrangements are subjected to critical evaluation, which he defends largely by appeal to a Kantian ethic of respecting the dignity of rational beings. In this essay, I consider for the first time what the implications of a characteristically African ethic, instead prescribing respect for our capacity to relate communally, are for how the state should operate in an (...)
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  22. 21. Popper and Liberalism.Alan Ryan - 2015 - In The Making of Modern Liberalism. Princeton University Press. pp. 413-426.
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  23. Returning to Karl Popper: A Reassessment of His Politics and Philosophy.Alexander Naraniecki (ed.) - 2014 - Editions Rodopi.
    Over the last few years there has been a resurgent interest in various scientific disciplines in Popper’s arguments. To gain a greater appreciation of Popper’s scientific arguments, they need to be viewed in relation to his broader philosophy and where this stands within the history of ideas. This book aims to take seriously those aspects of Popper’s writings that have received less attention and wherein he advanced metaphysical, speculative, mystical-poetic, aesthetic and Platonic arguments. Such arguments are crucial for an appreciation (...)
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  24. A Popperian Approach to Education for Open Society.L. A. M. Chi-Ming - 2013 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (8):845-859.
  25. Karl Popper: Political Philosophy.William Gorton - 2013 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Karl Popper: Political Philosophy Among philosophers, Karl Popper (1902-1994) is best known for his contributions to the philosophy of science and epistemology. Most of his published work addressed philosophical problems in the natural sciences, especially physics; and Popper himself acknowledged that his primary interest was nature and not politics. However, his political thought has arguably […].
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  26. Karl Popper on Jewish Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism.Alexander Naraniecki - 2012 - The European Legacy 17 (5):623 - 637.
    This paper re-contextualizes Karl Popper's thought within the anti-nationalist cosmopolitan tradition of the Central European intelligentsia. It argues that, although Popper was brought up in an assimilated Jewish Viennese household, from the perspective of the Jewish Enlightenment or Haskalah tradition, he can be seen to be a modern day heterodox Maskil (scholar). Popper's ever present fear of anti-Semitism and his refusal to see Judaism as compatible with cosmopolitanism raise important questions as to the realisable limits of the cosmopolitan ideal. His (...)
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  27. Popper's Paradox of Democracy.Bastiaan Rijpkema - 2012 - Think 11 (32):93-96.
    In a footnote to Chapter 7 of ‘The Open Society and Its Enemies’ Karl Popper describes what he calls the ‘Paradox of Democracy’: the possibility that a majority decides for a tyrant to rule. This is the lesser known paradox of the three to which he pays attention, the other two being the ‘paradox of freedom’ – total freedom leads to suppression of the weak by the strong – and the ‘paradox of tolerance’ – unlimited tolerance leads to the disappearance (...)
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  28. Sociedad abierta, progreso y discusión crítica en Popper.Amparo Muñoz Ferriol - 2011 - Anuario Filosófico 44 (2):277-304.
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  29. Popper y la libertad Había una vez un país que perdió el rumbo.Luis Aquiles Mejía Arnal - 2010 - Apuntes Filosóficos 19 (36).
    Karl Popper postula que no puede haber una teoría científica del desarrollo histórico que sirva de base para la predicción. Para mejorar la sociedad es necesario recurrir a la ingeniería social gradual, que busca introducir cambios tentativos, en sí mismos valiosos, al margen de que exista o no un plan general. Si no se obtiene el resultado esperado, habrá oportunidad de rectificar. El progreso gradual, la necesidad de un equilibrio de fuerzas bajo el poder del Estado, y la proporción entre (...)
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  30. Popper y la libertad. Había una vez un país que perdió el rumbo.Juan Luis Mejía - 2010 - Apuntes Filosóficos 19 (36):19-214.
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  31. Popper's Insights Into the State of Economics.Joseph Agassi - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 357--368.
  32. Open Rationality: Making Guesses About Nature, Society and Justice.Alain Boyer - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Prague: Springer. pp. 245--255.
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  33. Epistemología, ética y política según Karl Popper.Mauro Cardoso Simões - 2009 - Enfoques 21 (2):5-14.
    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la visión popperiana de la discusión crítica que, en última instancia, es responsable por la creación de conjeturas osadas, tanto en el campo epistemológico, como en el campo político y social. Presentaremos el presupuesto falibilista de nuestras aleg..
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  34. Karl Popper. After the Open Society: Selected Social and Political Writings. Edited by Jeremy Shearmur and Piers Norris Turner. Xxxiv + 493 Pp., Index. London/New York: Routledge, 2008. $90. [REVIEW]Steve Fuller - 2009 - Isis 100 (4):963-964.
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  35. Tradition in a Free Society: The Fideism of Michael Polanyi and the Rationalism of Karl Popper.Struan Jacobs - 2009 - Tradition and Discovery 36 (2):8-25.
    Michael Polanyi and Karl Popper offer contrasting accounts of social tradition. Popper is steeped in the heritage of the Enlightenment, while Polanyi interweaves religious and diverse secular strands of thought. Explaining the liberal tradition, Polanyi features tacit knowledge of rules, standards, applications and interpretations being transmitted by “craftsmen” to “apprentices.” Each generation adopts the liberal tradition on “faith,” commits to creatively developing its art of knowledge-in-practice, and is drawn to the spiritual reality of ideal ends. Of particular interest to Popper (...)
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  36. Popper's Communitarianism.Jeff Kochan - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & Robert S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 272). Springer. pp. 287--303.
    In this chapter, I argue that Karl Popper was a communitarian philosopher. This will surprise some readers. Liberals often tout Popper as one of their champions. Indeed, there is no doubt that Popper shared much in common with liberals. However, I will argue that Popper rejected a central, though perhaps not essential, pillar of liberal theory, namely, individualism. This claim may seem to contradict Popper's professed methodological individualism. Yet I argue that Popper was a methodological individualist in name only. In (...)
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  37. The Moral Underpinnings of Popper's Philosophy.Noretta Koertge - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 323--338.
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  38. Popper and Communitarianism: Justification and Criticism of Moral Standards.Harald Stelzer - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 273--285.
  39. The Principles of Open Society and Ideals of Buddhist Civilization.Sergey Yu Lepekhov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 8:163-171.
    According to Popper, democracy, and the one of the western type at that, is the best form of the state system which makes open society possible. At the same time, democratic traditions and institutions have been historically developing not only in the West but also in the East. A number of crucial principles of Buddhistcivilization forming throughout the millennium appear to be quite corresponding to the model of open society. The principles of universal humanism and compassion as the staple of (...)
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  40. After the Open Society: Selected Social and Political Writings.Karl Popper, Jeremy Shearmur & Piers Norris Turner - 2008 - Routledge.
    In this long-awaited volume, Jeremy Shearmur and Piers Norris Turner bring to light Popper's most important unpublished and uncollected writings from the time of The Open Society until his death in 1994. After The Open Society: Selected Social and Political Writings reveals the development of Popper's political and philosophical thought during and after the Second World War, from his early socialism through to the radical humanitarianism of The Open Society. The papers in this collection, many of which are available here (...)
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  41. Popper's Philosophy and Practical Politics.Bryan Magee - 2007 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 93 (1):55.
  42. Notas sobre el principio de racionalidad.Agustina Borella - 2006 - Revista Libertas (45):1-5.
    El objetivo del presente trabajo es señalar algunas primeras aproximaciones a la cuestión del principio de racionalidad en el pensamiento de Karl Popper. Si bien este tema específicamente pareciera no mostrarse con precisión, (cuestión marcada por diversos autores), al menos no como lo es su propuesta falsacionista, se intentará retomar las principales notas sobre el principio de racionalidad e indicar algunas aproximaciones al debate epistemológico que surge en torno a este principio.
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  43. The Necessity of the a Priori in Science.Gene Callahan - 2006 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 18 (4):417-429.
    Jeffrey Friedman has attempted to make a case for limiting state social engineering that is based on the skeptical epistemology of Sir Karl Popper. But Popper's epistemology is flawed, both in its rejection of a priori theorizing and its insistence on empirical falsification rather than confirmation. Classical liberalism of the sort that Friedman advocates requires, as its basis, positive knowledge of economics and social reality?not Popperian skepticism.
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  44. Popper's Legacy: Rethinking Politics, Economics and Science.Raphael Sassower - 2006 - Mcgill-Queen's University Press.
    Karl Popper has had an extraordinary influence on scientific and social thought.
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  45. Popper's Legacy: Rethinking Politics, Economics and Science.Raphael Sassower - 2006 - Routledge.
    The work of Karl Popper has had extraordinary influence across the fields of scientific and social thought. Widely regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the twentieth century, he was also a highly influential social and political philosopher, a proponent and defender of the "open society". "Popper's Legacy" examines Popper in the round, analysing in particular his moral and psychological insights. Once Popper's scientific legacy is couched in political and moral terms, it becomes apparent that his concern (...)
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  46. Popper and the Establishment.Nimrod Bar‐Am & Joseph Agassi - 2005 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 17 (1-2):13-23.
    Abstract The central thesis of Karl Popper's philosophy is that intellectual and political progress are best achieved by not deferring to dogmatic authority. His philosophy of science is a plea for the replacement of classic dogmatic methodology with critical debate. His philosophy of politics, similarly, is a plea for replacing Utopian social and political engineering with a more fallibilist, piecemeal variety. Many confuse his anti?dogmatism with relativism, and his anti?authoritarianism with Cold War conservatism or even with libertarian politics. Not so: (...)
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  47. Singularism and Multiplism in the Work of Karl Popper.Philip Benesch - 2005 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 12 (1):23-32.
    In this article I argue that Karl Popper embraced a muitiplist approach to ethics, politics, history, and cultural practices. Although Popper combined metaphysical realism with a hermeneutic approach that had the potential to support a multiplist philosophy of science, a commitment to verisimilitude and to the identification of universal laws required him to adopt a singularist approach to natural science. I suggest, therefore, that Michael Krausz’ description of Popper as a singularist should be qualified’ that Popper’s philosophy of natural science (...)
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  48. Recovering Popper: For the Left?Bruce Caldwell - 2005 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 17 (1-2):49-68.
    In his biography of Karl Popper, Malachi Hacohen brilliantly reconstructs the development of Popper's ideas through 1946, correcting many errors regarding the sequence of their emergence. In addition he recreates Popper's Vienna and provides insights into Popper's complex personality. A larger goal of Hacohen's narrative is to show the relevance of Popper's philosophical and political thought for the left. Unfortunately this leads him to neglect and distort certain aspects of the story he tells, particularly when it comes to the relationship (...)
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  49. Popper's Social‐Democratic Politics and Free‐Market Liberalism.Fred Eidlin - 2005 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 17 (1-2):25-48.
    Abstract Holding unlimited economic freedom to be nearly as dangerous as physical violence, Karl Popper advocated ?piecemeanl? economic intervention by the state. Jeremy Shearmur's recent book on Popper contends that as the philosopher aged, his views grew closer to classical liberalism than those expressed in The Open Society?consistently with what Shearmur sees as the logic of Popper's arguments. But Popper's philosophy, while recognizing that any project aimed at bringing about social change must be immensely complex and fraught with difficulty, retains (...)
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  50. Popper, Weber, and Hayek: The Epistemology and Politics of Ignorance.Jeffrey Friedman - 2005 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 17 (1-2):1-58.
    Karl Popper's methodology highlights our scientific ignorance: hence the need to institutionalize open?mindedness through controlled experiments that may falsify our fallible theories about the world. In his endorsement of?piecemeal social engineering,? Popper assumes that the social?democratic state and its citizens are capable of detecting social problems, and of assessing the results of policies aimed at solving them, through a process of experimentation analogous to that of natural science. But we are not only scientifically but politically ignorant: ignorant of the facts (...)
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