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  1. Andrew Abelson (1979). Population Structure in the Western Pyrenees: I. Population Density, Social Class Composition, and Migration, 1850–1915. Journal of Biosocial Science 11 (3):353-362.
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  2. Mark B. Adams (1970). Towards a Synthesis: Population Concepts in Russian Evolutionary Thought, 1925?1935. Journal of the History of Biology 3 (1):107-129.
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  3. R. M. Alexander (2006). Paul R. Moorcraft and Mark A. Lewis, Mechanistic Home Range Analysis. Biological Theory 1 (4):433.
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  4. Thomas R. Alley (1985). Organism-Environment Mutuality Epistemics, and the Concept of an Ecological Niche. Synthese 65 (3):411 - 444.
    The concept of an ecological niche (econiche) has been used in a variety of ways, some of which are incompatible with a relational or functional interpretation of the term. This essay seeks to standardize usage by limiting the concept to functional relations between organisms and their surroundings, and to revise the concept to include epistemic relations. For most organisms, epistemics are a vital aspect of their functional relationships to their surroundings and, hence, a major determinant of their econiche. Rejecting the (...)
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  5. Pierre M. Auger & Bruno Faivre (1993). Effects of Individual Activity Sequences on Prey-Predator Models. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (1-2):13-22.
    We study the influence of the individual behaviour of animals on predator-prey models. Populations of preys and predators are divided into sub-populations corresponding to different activity classes. The animals are assumed to do many activities all day long such as searching for food of different types. The preys are more vulnerable when doing some activities during which they are very exposed to predators attacks rather than for others during which they are hidden. We study activity sequences of the animals and (...)
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  6. Pierre M. Auger & Robert Roussarie (1994). Complex Ecological Models with Simple Dynamics: From Individuals to Populations. Acta Biotheoretica 42 (2-3):111-136.
    The aim of this work is to study complex ecological models exhibiting simple dynamics. We consider large scale systems which can be decomposed into weakly coupled subsystems. Perturbation Theory is used in order to get a reduced set of differential equations governing slow time varying global variables. As examples, we study the influence of the individual behaviour of animals in competition and predator-prey models. The animals are assumed to do many activities all day long such as searching for food of (...)
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  7. Melvin Avrami (1941). Geometry and Dynamics of Populations. Philosophy of Science 8 (1):115-132.
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  8. Larry D. Barnett (1974). Zero Population Growth, Inc.: A Second Study. Journal of Biosocial Science 6 (1):1.
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  9. Larry D. Barnett (1973). A Study of the Relationship Between Attitudes Towards World Population Growth and USA Population Growth. Journal of Biosocial Science 5 (1):61.
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  10. Ángel Blasco, Luis Sanz, Pierre Auger & Rafael Bravo de la Parra (2002). Linear Discrete Population Models with Two Time Scales in Fast Changing Environments II: Non-Autonomous Case. Acta Biotheoretica 50 (1):15-38.
    As the result of the complexity inherent in nature, mathematical models employed in ecology are often governed by a large number of variables. For instance, in the study of population dynamics we often deal with models for structured populations in which individuals are classified regarding their age, size, activity or location, and this structuring of the population leads to high dimensional systems. In many instances, the dynamics of the system is controlled by processes whose time scales are very different from (...)
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  11. Jorge Paulo Cancela & Kimon Hadjibiros (1977). Le Modele Matriciel Deterministe de Leslie Et Ses Applications En Dynamique Des Populations. Acta Biotheoretica 26 (4).
    The Leslie matrix model (Leslie, 1945) for discrete population growth has been modified and used several times in population dynamics. A review is given of the basic model (n t + 1 = An t) and of its principal modifications. The modifications relating to the influences of internal or external factors to the population are studied with greater detail. The same applies to models where the population is divided in stages rather than in age classes.In the same line, Hadjibiros (1975, (...)
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  12. S. Charles, R. Bravo de la Parra, J. P. Mallet, H. Persat & P. Auger (1998). Population Dynamics Modelling in an Hierarchical Arborescent River Network: An Attempt with Salmo Trutta. Acta Biotheoretica 46 (3):223-234.
    The balance between births and deaths in an age-structured population is strongly influenced by the spatial distribution of sub-populations. Our aim was to describe the demographic process of a fish population in an hierarchical dendritic river network, by taking into account the possible movements of individuals. We tried also to quantify the effect of river network changes (damming or channelling) on the global fish population dynamics. The Salmo trutta life pattern was taken as an example for.We proposed a model which (...)
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  13. Christabel M. Young (1972). A Cohort Approach to the Study of Population Growth in Australia. Journal of Biosocial Science 4 (1):75.
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  14. S. P. Cilliers (1978). A Sociologist's View on the Meaning of the Strains in the Relationship Between a High Population Growth Rate and Environment. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 43 (1):79-83.
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  15. Mark Colyvan, The Undeniable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Special Sciences.
    In many of the special sciences, mathematical models are used to provide information about specified target systems. For instance, population models are used in ecology to make predictions about the abundance of real populations of particular organisms. The status of mathematical models, though, is unclear and their use is hotly contested by some practitioners. A common objection levelled against the use of these models is that they ignore all the known, causally-relevant details of the often complex target systems. Indeed, the (...)
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  16. Mark Colyvan (2013). Idealisations in Normative Models. Synthese 190 (8):1337-1350.
    In this paper I discuss the kinds of idealisations invoked in normative theories—logic, epistemology, and decision theory. I argue that very often the so-called norms of rationality are in fact mere idealisations invoked to make life easier. As such, these idealisations are not too different from various idealisations employed in scientific modelling. Examples of the latter include: fluids are incompressible (in fluid mechanics), growth rates are constant (in population ecology), and the gravitational influence of distant bodies can be ignored (in (...)
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  17. Mark Colyvan (2005). Probability and Ecological Complexity. Biology and Philosophy 20 (4):869-879.
    There is something genuinely puzzling about large-scale simplicity emerging in systems that are complex at the small scale. Consider, for example, a population of hares. Clearly, the number of hares at any given time depends on hare fertility rates, the weather, the number of predators, the health of the predators, availability of hare resources, motor vehicle traffic, individual hare locations, colour of individual hares, and so on. Indeed, given the incredibly complexity of the hares’ environment at the small-scale, it is (...)
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  18. Mark Colyvan & Lev R. Ginzburg (2003). The Galilean Turn in Population Ecology. Biology and Philosophy 18 (3):401-414.
    The standard mathematical models in population ecology assume that a population's growth rate is a function of its environment. In this paper we investigate an alternative proposal according to which the rate of change of the growth rate is a function of the environment and of environmental change. We focus on the philosophical issues involved in such a fundamental shift in theoretical assumptions, as well as on the explanations the two theories offer for some of the key data such as (...)
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  19. Mark Colyvan, William Grey, Paul E. Griffiths, Jay Odenbaugh & Stefan Linquist (2009). Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions. Ecology and Society 14 (2).
    A good philosophical understanding of ecology is important for a number of reasons. First, ecology is an important and fascinating branch of biology, with distinctive philosophical issues. Second, ecology is only one small step away from urgent political, ethical, and management decisions about how best to live in an apparently fragile and increasingly-degraded environment. Third, philosophy of ecology, properly conceived, can contribute directly to both our understanding of ecology and help with its advancement. Philosophy of ecology can thus be seen (...)
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  20. Gregory Cooper (2001). Must There Be a Balance of Nature? Biology and Philosophy 16 (4):481-506.
    The balance of nature concept is an old idea that manifests itself in anumber of forms in population and community ecology. This paper focuseson population ecology, where controversy surrounding the balance ofnature takes the form of perennial debates over the significance ofdensity dependence, population regulation, and species interactions suchas competition. One of the most striking features of these debates, overthe course of the previous century in ecology, is the tendency to arguethe case on largely conceptual grounds. This paper explores twoquestions. (...)
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  21. Kim Cuddington (2001). The “Balance of Nature” Metaphor and Equilibrium in Population Ecology. Biology and Philosophy 16 (4):463-479.
    I claim that the balance of nature metaphoris shorthand for a paradigmatic view of natureas a beneficent force. I trace the historicalorigins of this concept and demonstrate that itoperates today in the discipline of populationecology. Although it might be suspected thatthis metaphor is a pre-theoretic description ofthe more precisely defined notion ofequilibrium, I demonstrate that balance ofnature has constricted the meaning ofmathematical equilibrium in population ecology.As well as influencing the meaning ofequilibrium, the metaphor has also loaded themathematical term with values.Environmentalists (...)
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  22. Gérard Cusset (1991). Les modeLes Sigmoides En Biologie Vegetale. Acta Biotheoretica 39 (3-4):197-205.
    Observed biological growth curves generally are sigmoid in appearance. It is common practice to fit such data with either a Verhulst logistic or a Gompertz curve. This paper critically considers the conceptual bases underlying these descriptive models.The logistic model was developed by Verhulst to accommodate the common sense observation that populations cannot keep growing indefinitely. A justification for using the same equation to describe the growth of individuals, based on considerations from chemical kinetics (autocatalysis of a monomolecular reaction), was put (...)
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  23. Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.) (2011). Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland.
    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology (...)
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  24. Denise E. Dollimore (2014). Untangling the Conceptual Issues Raised in Reydon and Scholz's Critique of Organizational Ecology and Darwinian Populations. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44 (3):282-315.
    Reydon and Scholz raise doubts about the Darwinian status of organizational ecology by arguing that Darwinian principles are not applicable to organizational populations. Although their critique of organizational ecology’s typological essentialism is correct, they go on to reject the Darwinian status of organizational populations. This paper claims that the replicator-interactor distinction raised in modern philosophy of biology but overlooked for discussion by Reydon and Scholz provides a way forward. It is possible to conceptualize evolving Darwinian populations providing that the inheritance (...)
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  25. John M. Drake (2004). Lande, R., S. Engen and B.-E. Sæther (2003). Stochastic Population Dynamics in Ecology and Conservation. Acta Biotheoretica 52 (3):219-220.
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  26. Frank N. Egerton (1968). Leeuwenhoek as a Founder of Animal Demography. Journal of the History of Biology 1 (1):1-22.
    Leeuwenhoek's observations relating to animal population, though scattered through many letters written during a period of over forty years, when seen in toto, were important contributions to the subject now known as animal demography. He maintained enough contact with other scientists to have received encouragement and some helpful suggestions, but the language barrier and the novelty of doing microscopic work forced him to be resourceful, inventive, and original. His multifarious investigations impinged upon population biology before he discovered a direct interest (...)
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  27. Frank N. Egerton (1968). Studies of Animal Populations From Lamarck to Darwin. Journal of the History of Biology 1 (2):225-259.
    Darwin's theory of evolution brought to an end the static view of nature. It was no longer possible to think of species as immortal, with secure places in nature. Fluctuation of population could no longer be thought of as occurring within definite limits which had been set at the time of creation. Nor was it any longer possible to generalize from the differential reproductive potentials, or from a few cases of mutualism between species, that everything in nature was “fitted to (...)
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  28. Paul R. Ehrlich & John P. Holdren (2010). 56 Impact of Population Growth. Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions 171:426.
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  29. A. Falek & M. J. Konner (1999). World Population Prospects: The Impact of Ecological and Genetic Factors on Human Population Growth in the 21st Century. Global Bioethics 12 (1-4):31-41.
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  30. John S. Fenlon, Malcolm J. Faddy, Menia Toussidou & Michael E. Courcy Williamdes (forthcoming). Egg Distributions of Insect Parasitoids: Modelling and Analysis of Temporal Data with Host Density Dependence. Acta Biotheoretica.
    A simple numerical procedure is presented for the problem of estimating the parameters of models for the distribution of eggs oviposited in a host. The modelling is extended to incorporate both host density and time dependence to produce a remarkably parsimonious structure with only seven parameters to describe a data set of over 3,000 observations. This is further refined using a mixed model to accommodate several large outliers. Both models show that the level of superparasitism declines with increasing host density, (...)
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  31. Peter Gildenhuys (2012). Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (1):192-195.
    Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Volume 90, Issue 1, Page 192-195, March 2012.
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  32. Lev Ginzburg & Mark Colyvan, Ecological Orbits: How Planets Move and Populations Grow.
    The main focus of the book is the presentation of the 'inertial' view of population growth. This view provides a rather simple model for complex population dynamics, and is achieved at the level of the single species without invoking species interactions. An important part of this account is the maternal effect. Investment of mothers in the quality of their daughters makes the rate of reproduction of the current generation depend not only on the current environment, but also on the environment (...)
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  33. D. V. Glass (1937). Sex Ratio and Population Growth. The Eugenics Review 29 (3):223.
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  34. Johan Grasman, Willem B. E. Van Deventer & Vincent van Laar (2012). Estimation of Parameters in a Bertalanffy Type of Temperature Dependent Growth Model Using Data on Juvenile Stone Loach (Barbatula Barbatula). Acta Biotheoretica 60 (4):393-405.
    Parameters of a Bertalanffy type of temperature dependent growth model are fitted using data from a population of stone loach ( Barbatula barbatula ). Over two periods respectively in 1990 and 2010 length data of this population has been collected at a lowland stream in the central part of the Netherlands. The estimation of the maximum length of a fully grown individual is given special attention because it is in fact found as the result of an extrapolation over a large (...)
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  35. Hans-Rolf Gregorius (1996). Differentiation Between Populations and its Measurement. Acta Biotheoretica 44 (1):23-36.
    When applied to a family of sets, the term differentiation designates a measure of the totality of those members which appear in only one of the sets. This basic set theoretic concept involves the formation of intersections, unions, and complements of sets. However, populations as special kinds of sets may share types, but they do not share the carriers of these types; intersections of different populations are thus always empty. The resulting conceptual dilemma is resolved by considering the joint representation (...)
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  36. Christian Haak (2002). The History of Models. Does It Matter? Mind and Society 3 (1):33-41.
    This paper investigates the justification of the concept of a balance of nature in population ecology as a case of model based reasoning. The ecologist A.J. Nicholson understood balance as an outcome of intraspecific competition in populations. His models implied density dependent growth of populations oscillating around an equilibrium state. Today the assumption of density dependence is tested statistically by using models that represent certain data dynamics. This however, does not test for density dependence in the sense suggested by Nicholson. (...)
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  37. Maurice Halbwachs (1935). Les facteurs biologiques et la population. Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 119 (5/6):285 - 303.
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  38. Alan Hastings (2011). Single Species Population Dynamics and its Theoretical Underpinnings. In Samuel M. Scheiner & Michael R. Willig (eds.), The Theory of Ecology. University of Chicago Press. pp. 109-123.
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  39. Christoph Hauert, Arne Traulsen, Hannelore Brandt, Martin A. Nowak & Karl Sigmund (2008). Public Goods with Punishment and Abstaining in Finite and Infinite Populations. Biological Theory 3 (2):114.
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  40. Rob Hengeveld (2002). Methodology Going Astray in Population Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 50 (2):77-93.
    This paper analyses the broad methodological structure of population-biological theorising. In it, I show that the distinction between initial exploratory, hypothesis-generating research and the subsequent process-reconstructing, hypothesis-testing type of research is not being made. Rather, the hypotheses generated in population biology are elaborated in such detail that students confound the initial research phase with the subsequent hypotheses-testing phase of research. In this context, I therefore analyse some testing procedures within the exploration phase and show that, as an extreme form of (...)
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  41. F. Jackson, W. R. Siegfried & J. Cooper (1976). A Simulation Model for the Population Dynamics of the Jackass Penguin. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 42 (1):11-21.
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  42. Soovoojeet Jana, Swapan Kumar Nandi & T. K. Kar (2016). Complex Dynamics of an SIR Epidemic Model with Saturated Incidence Rate and Treatment. Acta Biotheoretica 64 (1):65-84.
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  43. Marc Jarry, Patrick Davaine & Edward Beall (1998). A Matrix Model to Study the Colonization by Brown Trout of a Virgin Ecosystem in the Kerguelen Islands. Acta Biotheoretica 46 (3):253-272.
    We present a matrix model for the study of the population dynamics of brown trout Salmo trutta L., introduced in the '60s in the virgin aquatic ecosystems of the Kerguelen Islands. This species clearly acclimatized very well: a portion of the population became migratory and spent a part of its life cycle in the sea, which allowed the rapid colonization of two rivers close to the stream of origin in the same bay (Baie Norvégienne).These migratory trout can become a smolt (...)
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  44. Marc Jarry, Jean-Paul Gouteux & Mohamed Khaladi (1996). Are Tsetse Fly Populations Close to Equilibrium? Acta Biotheoretica 44 (3-4):317-333.
    Glossina or tsetse flies, the vectors of sleeping sickness, form a unique group of insects with remarkable characteristics. They are viviparous with a slow rhythm of reproduction (one larva approximately every 10 days) determined by the regular ovulation of alternate ovaries. This unusual physiology enables the age of the females to be estimated by examining the ovaries.The resulting ovarian age structure of tsetse fly populations has been used to develop research into the demography of tsetse flies. Several authors have proposed (...)
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  45. Marc Jarry, Mohamed Khaladi, Martine Hossaert-McKey & Doyle McKey (1995). Modeling the Population Dynamics of Annual Plants with Seed Bank and Density Dependent Effects. Acta Biotheoretica 43 (1-2):53-65.
    A model is proposed for the population dynamics of an annual plant (Sesbania vesicaria) with a seed bank (i.e. in which a proportion of seeds remain dormant for at least one year). A simple linear matrix model is deduced from the life cycle graph. The dominant eigenvalue of the projection matrix is estimated from demographic parameters derived from field studies. The estimated values for population growth rate () indicates that the study population should be experiencing a rapid exponential increase, but (...)
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  46. Timothy H. Keitt (1997). Population Dynamics in Ecological Space and Time. Complexity 3 (1):58-58.
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  47. John Maynard Keynes (forthcoming). The Economic Effects of a Declining Population. Eugenics Review.
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  48. Mohamed Khaladi, Jean-Dominique Lebreton & Abdelaziz Khermjioui (2012). The Evolution of Dispersal in Random Environment. Acta Biotheoretica 60 (1-2):155-165.
    In this paper we introduce a stochastic model for a population living and migrating between s sites without distinction in the states between residents and immigrants. The evolutionary stable strategies is characterized by the maximization of a stochastic growth rate. We obtain that the expectation of reproductive values, normalized by some random quantity, are constant on all sites and that the expectation of the normalized vector population structure is proportional to eigenvector of the dispersion matrix associated to eigenvalue one, which (...)
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  49. Sharon E. Kingsland (1986). Mathematical Figments, Biological Facts: Population Ecology in the Thirties. Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):235-256.
  50. Chris Klok & Andre M. de Roos (2007). Effects of Vole Fluctuations on the Population Dynamics of the Barn Owl Tyto Alba. Acta Biotheoretica 55 (3):227-241.
    Many predator species feed on prey that fluctuates in abundance from year to year. Birds of prey can face large fluctuations in food abundance i.e. small mammals, especially voles. These annual changes in prey abundance strongly affect the reproductive success and mortality of the individual predators and thus can be expected to influence their population dynamics and persistence. The barn owl, for example, shows large fluctuations in breeding success that correlate with the dynamics in voles, their main prey species. Analysis (...)
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