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  1. Biological Individuals.Robert A. Wilson & Matthew J. Barker - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 1 (1).
    The impressive variation amongst biological individuals generates many complexities in addressing the simple-sounding question what is a biological individual? A distinction between evolutionary and physiological individuals is useful in thinking about biological individuals, as is attention to the kinds of groups, such as superorganisms and species, that have sometimes been thought of as biological individuals. More fully understanding the conceptual space that biological individuals occupy also involves considering a range of other concepts, such as life, reproduction, and agency. There has (...)
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  2. Scott Lidgard and Lynn K. Nyhart, Eds. Biological Individuality: Integrating Scientific, Philosophical, and Historical Perspectives. [REVIEW]Catherine Kendig - 2018 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 8 (2):475-480.
    Biologists, historians of biology, and philosophers of biology often ask what is it to be an individual, really. This book does not answer that question. Instead, it answers a much more interesting one: How do biologists individuate individuals? In answering that question, the authors explore why biologists individuate individuals, in what ways, and for what purposes. The cross-disciplinary, dialogical approach to answering metaphysical questions that is pursued in the volume may seem strange to metaphysicians who are not biologically focused, but (...)
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  3. Individuating Population Lineages: A New Genealogical Criterion.Beckett Sterner - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (5):683-703.
    Contemporary biology has inherited two key assumptions from the Modern Synthesis about the nature of population lineages: sexual reproduction is the exemplar for how individuals in population lineages inherit traits from their parents, and random mating is the exemplar for reproductive interaction. While these assumptions have been extremely fruitful for a number of fields, such as population genetics and phylogenetics, they are increasingly unviable for studying the full diversity and evolution of life. I introduce the “mixture” account of population lineages (...)
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  4. Introduction. Research Into Global Ageing and Its Consequences.Leonid Grinin, J. Goldstone & Andrey Koortayev - 2015 - In Leonid Grinin, Jack A. Goldstone & Andrey V. Korotayev (eds.), History & Mathematics: Political Demography and Global Ageing. Volgograd,Russia: Uchitel Publishing House. pp. 5-9.
    With the further growth of the world population and the further intensification of the processes of interaction between countries and increasing movements of the masses of people, the role of Political Demography becomes more and more important. Issues of global ageing, migration, low fertility in developed countries (or very high fertility in some African countries), high mortality in many developing states (including deaths from AIDS); rapid change in the ethnic composition in Europe and in several other regions and many other (...)
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  5. Глобальное старение населения, шестой технологический уклад и мировая финансовая система.Leonid Grinin & Andrey Korotayev - 2015 - In Leonid Grinin, Andrey Korotayev & V. Bondarenko (eds.), Кондратьевские волны: наследие и современность. Volgograd,Russia: Uchitel Publishing House. pp. 107-132.
    Процесс старения населения захватил не только развитые страны, но и многие развивающиеся, превратившись в глобальный. Представляется, что он будет одним из самых важных процессов в ближайшие десятилетия, определяющим облик общества буду-щего и направление развития технологий. В статье дается анализ некоторых параметров процесса старения населения, показыва-ются его важные следствия для общества и мира в целом. На ос-новании этого анализа делается вывод о том, что грядущий тех-нологический переворот (обозначаемый авторами как завершаю-щая фаза кибернетической революции) и предполагаемый шестой технологический уклад, связанный с наступающей (...)
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  6. Modeling of Biological and Social Phases of Big History.Leonid Grinin, Andrey V. Korotayev & Alexander V. Markov - 2015 - In Leonid Grinin & Andrey Korotayev (eds.), Evolution: From Big Bang to Nanorobots. Volgograd,Russia: Uchitel Publishing House. pp. 111-150.
    In the first part of this article we survey general similarities and differences between biological and social macroevolution. In the second (and main) part, we consider a concrete mathematical model capable of describing important features of both biological and social macroevolution. In mathematical models of historical macrodynamics, a hyperbolic pattern of world population growth arises from non-linear, second-order positive feedback between demographic growth and technological development. Based on diverse paleontological data and an analogy with macrosociological models, we suggest that the (...)
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  7. “A Temporary Oversimplification”: Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the Origins of the Typology/Population Dichotomy (Part 1 of 2).Joeri Witteveen - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54.
    The dichotomy between ‘typological thinking’ and ‘population thinking’ features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably more complicated and more interesting (...)
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  8. Deep Conventionalism About Evolutionary Groups.Matthew J. Barker & Joel D. Velasco - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):971-982.
    We argue for a new conventionalism about many kinds of evolutionary groups, including clades, cohesive units, and populations. This rejects a consensus, which says that given any one of the many legitimate grouping concepts, only objective biological facts determine whether a collection is such a group. Surprisingly, being any one kind of evolutionary group typically depends on which of many incompatible values are taken by suppressed variables. This is a novel pluralism underlying most any one group concept, rather than a (...)
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  9. Phylogeny as Population History.Joel D. Velasco - 2013 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 5:e402.
    The project of this paper is to understand what a phylogenetic tree represents and to discuss some of the implications that this has for the practice of systematics. At least the first part of this task, if not both parts, might appear trivial—or perhaps better suited for a single page in a textbook rather than a scholarly research paper. But this would be a mistake. While the task of interpreting phylogenetic trees is often treated in a trivial way, their interpretation (...)
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  10. A Fundamental Principle Governing Populations.Marvin Chester - 2012 - Acta Biotheoretica 60 (3):289-302.
    Proposed here is that an overriding principle of nature governs all population behavior; that a single tenet drives the many regimes observed in nature—exponential-like growth, saturated growth, population decline, population extinction, and oscillatory behavior. The signature of such an all embracing principle is a differential equation which, in a single statement, embraces the entire panoply of observations. In current orthodox theory, this diverse range of population behaviors is described by many different equations—each with its own specific justification. Here, a single (...)
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  11. Incidence of Metacarpal Fractures in the US Population.Michael N. Nakashian, Lauren Pointer, Brett D. Owens & Jennifer Moriatis Wolf - 2012 - In Zdravko Radman (ed.), The Hand. MIT Press. pp. 426-430.
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  12. Introduction: Key Levels of Biocommunication of Bacteria.Guenther Witzany - 2011 - In Witzany (ed.), Biocommunication in Soil Microorganisms. Springer. pp. 1--34.
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  13. Should We Be Population Pluralists? A Reply to Stegenga.Roberta L. Millstein - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):271-276.
    In “‘Population’ is Not a Natural Kind of Kinds,” Jacob Stegenga argues against the claim that the concept of “population” is a natural kind and in favor of conceptual pluralism, ostensibly in response to two papers of mine (Millstein 2009, 2010). Pluralism is often an attractive position in the philosophy of science. It certainly is a live possibility for the concept of population in ecology and evolutionary biology, and I welcome the opportunity to discuss the topic further. However, I argue (...)
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  14. The Concepts of Population and Metapopulation in Evolutionary Biology and Ecology.Roberta L. Millstein - 2010 - In M. A. Bell, D. J. Futuyma, W. F. Eanes & J. S. Levinton (eds.), Evolution Since Darwin: The First 150 Years. Sinauer.
    This paper aims to illustrate one of the primary goals of the philosophy of biology⎯namely, the examination of central concepts in biological theory and practice⎯through an analysis of the concepts of population and metapopulation in evolutionary biology and ecology. I will first provide a brief background for my analysis, followed by a characterization of my proposed concepts: the causal interactionist concepts of population and metapopulation. I will then illustrate how the concepts apply to six cases that differ in their population (...)
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  15. Jacob Stegenga—“Population” Is Not a Natural Kind of Kinds : Should We Be Population Pluralists? A Reply to Stegenga.Roberta L. Millstein - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):271-275.
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  16. “Population” Is Not a Natural Kind of Kinds.Jacob Stegenga - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (2):154–160.
    Millstein argues against conceptual pluralism with respect to the definition of “population,” and proposes her own definition of the term. I challenge both Millstein’s negative arguments against conceptual pluralism and her positive proposal for a singular definition of population. The concept of population, I argue, does not refer to a natural kind; populations are constructs of biologists variably defined by contexts of inquiry.
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  17. “Population" Is Not a Natural Kind of Kinds.Jacob Stegenga - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):271.
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  18. 30. Population.Daniel Goldstick - 2009 - In Reason, Truth and Reality. University of Toronto Press. pp. 302-308.
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  19. Populations as Individuals.Roberta L. Millstein - 2009 - Biological Theory 4 (3):267-273.
    Biologists studying ecology and evolution use the term “population” in many different ways. Yet little philosophical analysis of the concept has been done, either by biologists or philosophers, in contrast to the voluminous literature on the concept of “species.” This is in spite of the fact that “population” is arguably a far more central concept in ecological and evolutionary studies than “species” is. The fact that such a central concept has been employed in so many different ways is potentially problematic (...)
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  20. Editorial: Systematics, Darwinism, and the Philosophy of Science.Francisco Vergara-Silva & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2009 - Acta Biotheoretica 57 (1-2):1-3.
  21. Finland's Galapagos: Founder Effect, Drift, and Isolation in the Inheritance of Susceptibility Alleles.Tom Campbell, Daria Osipova & Seppo Kähkönen - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):409-410.
    The target article excludes ancestral neutrality as a cause for the inheritance of schizophrenia, with an argument relating to selection against a single allele in the Finnish population. However, drift would predominate over selection within subisolates of the Finnish population. Comparisons of subisolates with heterogeneous populations may provide clues to the endophenotypic structure of complex polygenetic heritable mental disorders. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  22. Why and How Population Matters.David Levine - 2006 - In Robert E. Goodin & Charles Tilly (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis. Oxford University Press.
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  23. Should We Value Population?John Broome - 2005 - Journal of Political Philosophy 13 (4):399-413.
  24. Structural Stability of a Stage Structured Model of Fish: The Case of the Anchovy (Engraulis Encrasicolus L.) in the Bay of Biscay.Valère Calaud & Yvan Lagadeuc - 2005 - Acta Biotheoretica 53 (4):341-358.
    A study of stage structured model of fish population is presented. This model focuse on the anchovy population in the Bay of Biscay (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) is presented. The method of study is based on an intermediate complexity mathematical model, taking into account the spatialisation, the environmental conditions and the stage-structure of the fishes. First, to test the model, we show mathematical properties, such as unicity of the solution of structural stability. Then we provide numerical simulations, to validate the model (...)
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  25. Keynes on Population.John Toye - 2005 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The topic of population is treated only lightly in the major modern biographies of John Maynard Keynes, yet Keynes himself had strong - if varying - views on the subject. For many years he maintained a neo-Malthusian view of population, based on a postulated link between population growth and deteriorating terms of trade. This led him to take up a militant stance towards 'overpopulated' countries, notably India, China, and Egypt. Keynes on Population publishes two of John Maynard Keynes's manuscripts not (...)
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  26. Optimum Population.Lindsey Grant - 2004 - Free Inquiry 24.
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  27. What Population Stabilization Requires.Edward Tabash - 2004 - Free Inquiry 24.
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  28. Surveying the Population Biobankers.Genevieve Cardinal & Mylene Deschenes - 2003 - In Bartha Maria Knoppers (ed.), Populations and Genetics: Legal and Socio-Ethical Perspectives. Martinus Nijhoff. pp. 37--94.
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  29. On the Concept of Biological Race and its Applicability to Humans.Massimo Pigliucci & Jonathan Kaplan - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1161-1172.
    Biological research on race has often been seen as motivated by or lending credence to underlying racist attitudes; in part for this reason, recently philosophers and biologists have gone through great pains to essentially deny the existence of biological human races. We argue that human races, in the biological sense of local populations adapted to particular environments, do in fact exist; such races are best understood through the common ecological concept of ecotypes. However, human ecotypic races do not in general (...)
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  30. Linear Discrete Population Models with Two Time Scales in Fast Changing Environments II: Non-Autonomous Case.Ángel Blasco, Luis Sanz, Pierre Auger & Rafael Bravo de la Parra - 2002 - Acta Biotheoretica 50 (1):15-38.
    As the result of the complexity inherent in nature, mathematical models employed in ecology are often governed by a large number of variables. For instance, in the study of population dynamics we often deal with models for structured populations in which individuals are classified regarding their age, size, activity or location, and this structuring of the population leads to high dimensional systems. In many instances, the dynamics of the system is controlled by processes whose time scales are very different from (...)
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  31. What Do Population Geneticists Know and How Do They Know It.R. C. Lewontin - 2000 - In Richard Creath & Jane Maienschein (eds.), Biology and Epistemology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 191--214.
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  32. Species, Demes, and the Omega Taxonomy: Gilmour and the Newsystematics. [REVIEW]Mary Pickard Winsor - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (3):349-388.
    The word ``deme'' was coined by the botanists J.S.L. Gilmour and J.W.Gregor in 1939, following the pattern of J.S. Huxley's ``cline''. Its purposewas not only to rationalize the plethora of terms describing chromosomaland genetic variation, but also to reduce hostility between traditionaltaxonomists and researchers on evolution, who sometimes scorned eachother's understanding of species. A multi-layered system of compoundterms based on deme was published by Gilmour and J. Heslop-Harrison in1954 but not widely used. Deme was adopted with a modified meaning byzoologists (...)
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  33. The Indigenous Population in Al-Andalus and Traces of the First Andalusi Population.M. Acien Almansa - 1999 - Al-Qantara 20 (1):47-64.
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  34. Assessing the Impact of Disease Vectors on Animal Populations.Mauricio Canals, Ramiro O. Bustamante, Mildred H. Ehrenfeld & Pedro E. Cattan - 1998 - Acta Biotheoretica 46 (4):337-345.
    Many studies have attempted to assess the relative effects of different vectors of a disease on animal populations. To this end, three measures have been proposed: Vectorial efficiency, Vectorial capacity and recently Vectorial effectiveness (or Vectorial impact). In this study we relate these measures to derive some of their properties emphasising in the vectorial impact for its importance in both, population performance of parasites and the proportion of the prevalence of one parasite due to a given vector. We applied the (...)
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  35. Population Thinking and Tree Thinking in Systematics.Robert J. O'Hara - 1997 - Zoologica Scripta 26 (4): 323–329.
    Two new modes of thinking have spread through systematics in the twentieth century. Both have deep historical roots, but they have been widely accepted only during this century. Population thinking overtook the field in the early part of the century, culminating in the full development of population systematics in the 1930s and 1940s, and the subsequent growth of the entire field of population biology. Population thinking rejects the idea that each species has a natural type (as the earlier essentialist view (...)
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  36. Population: Myth and Reality: The Cairo International Conference on Population and Development.S. Faizi - 1995 - Radical Philosophy 73.
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  37. De l'Équité du Marché : Résultats d'Un Sondage Sur les Opinions de la Population.Bruno S. Frey & Werner W. Pommerehne - 1991 - Journal de Economistes Et des Etudes Humaines 2 (4):449-464.
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  38. 7. Population: Proaemium.John StuartHG Mill - 1988 - In Journals and Debating Speeches. University of Toronto Press. pp. 286-287.
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  39. 9. Population: Reply to Thirlwall.John StuartHG Mill - 1988 - In Journals and Debating Speeches. University of Toronto Press. pp. 296-307.
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  40. 8. Population.John StuartHG Mill - 1988 - In Journals and Debating Speeches. University of Toronto Press. pp. 287-296.
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  41. À Propos des Subdivisions de la Population Argienne.Marcel Piérart - 1985 - Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 109 (1):345-356.
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  42. Le Modele Matriciel Deterministe de Leslie Et Ses Applications En Dynamique Des Populations.Jorge Paulo Cancela & Kimon Hadjibiros - 1977 - Acta Biotheoretica 26 (4).
    The Leslie matrix model (Leslie, 1945) for discrete population growth has been modified and used several times in population dynamics. A review is given of the basic model (n t + 1 = An t) and of its principal modifications. The modifications relating to the influences of internal or external factors to the population are studied with greater detail. The same applies to models where the population is divided in stages rather than in age classes.In the same line, Hadjibiros (1975, (...)
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  43. The Concept of Population in Biology.L. H. M. Jonckers - 1973 - Acta Biotheoretica 22 (2):78-108.
    In view of the confusion about the use of the term ‘population’ in biology, an analysis has been made of the use of the concept of population in biology. Origin and development, logic and epistemology of the population-concept have been investigated for that purpose. It appears that several concepts of population coexist in biology. The term ‘population’ is used for all these concepts, so it is not amazing that confusion has arisen. This confusion is the more dangerous, since ‘population’ plays (...)
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  44. Towards a Synthesis: Population Concepts in Russian Evolutionary Thought, 1925?1935.Mark B. Adams - 1970 - Journal of the History of Biology 3 (1):107-129.
  45. Humboldt, Darwin, and Population.Frank N. Egerton - 1970 - Journal of the History of Biology 3 (2):325-360.
    I have attempted to clarify some of the pathways in the development of Darwin's thinking. The foregoing examples of influence by no means include all that can be found by comparing Darwin's writings with Humboldt's. However, the above examples seem adequate to show the nature and extent of this influence. It now seems clear that Humboldt not only, as had been previously known, inspired Darwin to make a voyage of exploration, but also provided him with his basic orientation concerning how (...)
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  46. Principles of Systematic Zoology.Ernst Mayr - 1969 - McGraw-Hill.
  47. Studies of Animal Populations From Lamarck to Darwin.Frank N. Egerton - 1968 - Journal of the History of Biology 1 (2):225-259.
    Darwin's theory of evolution brought to an end the static view of nature. It was no longer possible to think of species as immortal, with secure places in nature. Fluctuation of population could no longer be thought of as occurring within definite limits which had been set at the time of creation. Nor was it any longer possible to generalize from the differential reproductive potentials, or from a few cases of mutualism between species, that everything in nature was “fitted to (...)
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  48. The Problem of Population.Sherwin Bailey - 1967 - The Eugenics Review 59 (1):63.
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  49. The World Population Conference, Belgrade, 1965.Peter R. Cox, John Peel & Clifford J. Thomas - 1966 - The Eugenics Review 58 (1):7.
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  50. Typology and Empiricism in Taxonomy.Robert R. Sokal - 1962 - Journal of Theoretical Biology 3 (2):230-267.
    The term typology has been used in taxonomy to imply procedures and philosophies of somewhat diverse meanings. Not all typological work meets every criterion suggested for such work by various authors. Some of these criteria are untenable when viewed in the context of modern biological theory, while others seem eminently reasonable in the light of present day knowledge. Mere reference to a work as typological will not convey to the reader or listener a clear idea why a reviewer has decided (...)
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