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  1. added 2020-05-17
    Collectivistic Individualism: Dewey and MacIntyre.Lee A. McBride - 2006 - Contemporary Pragmatism 3 (1):69-83.
    John Dewey and Alasdair MacIntyre are seldom considered philosophically compatible. Yet, both critique contemporary liberalism by focusing on the pervasiveness of atomistic, pecuniary, laissez-faire individualism. I argue that Dewey and MacIntyre have not abandoned individualism as much as reconstructed the concept. Dewey's and MacIntyre's conceptions of human flourishing rely on a nuanced conception of individualism, which I term "collectivistic individualism.".
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  2. added 2020-04-18
    Freedom and Actual Interference.Jonah Goldwater - 2020 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 17 (2).
    Liberal and republican conceptions of freedom differ as to whether freedom consists in noninterference or non-domination. Pettit defends the republican non-domination conception on the grounds that one can be unfree without being interfered with if one is dominated, and that one can be interfered with yet free if not dominated. I show that these claims mistake the scope of actual interference. In particular, I show that cases said to involve unfreedom without interference do involve interference, and that cases said to (...)
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  3. added 2019-12-27
    Individualismo.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 1993 - In Enrico Berti & Giorgio Campanini (eds.), Dizionario delle idee politiche. Rome, Italy: AVE. pp. 389-392.
    A short reconstruction of the discussion on the genesis of Western Modern individualism, of the arguments advanced by its critics and by recent vindications of ethical and political individualism.
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  4. added 2019-12-09
    Sugar, Taxes, & Choice.Carissa Véliz, Hannah Maslen, Michael Essman, Lindsey Smith Taillie & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (6):22-31.
    Population obesity and associated morbidities pose significant public health and economic burdens in the United Kingdom, United States, and globally. As a response, public health initiatives often seek to change individuals’ unhealthy behavior, with the dual aims of improving their health and conserving health care resources. One such initiative—taxes on sugar‐sweetened beverages (SSB)—has sparked considerable ethical debate. Prominent in the debate are arguments seeking to demonstrate the supposed impermissibility of SSB taxes and similar policies on the grounds that they interfere (...)
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  5. added 2019-10-31
    Szabadság és politikai részvétel a republikánus elméletben.Szilárd János Tóth - 2019 - Politikatudományi Szemle 18 (2):61-80..
    A tanulmány a republikánus szabadságideálról szól, és annak összefüggéséről a politikai részvétellel. Két fölfogást különít el: az "erőst", mely önértéket, és a "gyöngét" , mely eszközértéket tulajdonít a részvételnek.
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  6. added 2019-10-29
    Shaftesbury on Liberty and Self-Mastery.Ruth Boeker - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 27 (5):731-752.
    The aim of this paper is to show that Shaftesbury’s thinking about liberty is best understood in terms of self-mastery. To examine his understanding of liberty, I turn to a painting that he commissioned on the ancient theme of the choice of Hercules and the notes that he prepared for the artist. Questions of human choice are also present in the so-called story of an amour, which addresses the difficulties of controlling human passions. Jaffro distinguishes three notions of self-control that (...)
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  7. added 2019-09-25
    In the Name of Liberty: An Argument for Universal Unionization.Mark R. Reiff - 2020 - Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    For years now, unionization has been under vigorous attack. Membership has been steadily declining, and with it union bargaining power. As a result, unions may soon lose their ability to protect workers from economic and personal abuse, as well as their significance as a political force. In the Name of Liberty responds to this worrying state of affairs by presenting a new argument for unionization, one that derives an argument for universal unionization in both the private and public sector from (...)
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  8. added 2019-09-06
    Negativität: Kunst - Recht - Politik.Thomas Khurana, Dirk Quadflieg, Juliane Rebentisch, Dirk Setton & Francesca Raimondi (eds.) - 2018 - Berlin: Suhrkamp.
    Gegen die verbreitete Vorstellung, dass Negativität im Interesse von mehr Selbstverwirklichung, Produktivität und Positivität überwunden oder be-grenzt werden muss, eröffnet dieser Band eine andere Perspektive. Er geht den verschiedenen Formen des Negativen in Kunst, Recht und Politik nach, um zu zeigen, dass es nicht allein eine Negativität gibt, die dem Gelingen im Weg steht oder zu dessen sicher beherrschtem Mittel wird. Die Beiträge des Bandes erweisen Negativität vielmehr als eine Kraft der Befreiung, die ein Gelingen anderer Art ermöglicht.
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  9. added 2019-08-19
    Politics of Second Nature: On the Democratic Dimension of Ethical Life.Thomas Khurana - 2018 - In Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer & Benno Zabel (eds.), Philosophie der Republik. Tübingen: Mohr. pp. 422-436.
    In this chapter, I consider the relation of the three major spheres of ethical life that Hegel distinguishes – family, civil society, and the state – and analyse their contribution to the constitution of the "second nature" of objective spirit. Family and civil society are both analyzed by Hegel as ways of taking up and transforming our given nature such that a second ethical nature can be produced. Where the family helps bring forth such a second nature by means of (...)
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Against Liberty: Adorno, Levinas, and the Pathologies of Freedom.Eric S. Nelson - 2012 - Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 59 (131):64-83.
    Adorno and Levinas argue from distinct yet intersecting perspectives that there are pathological forms of freedom, formed by systems of power and economic exchange, which legitimate the neglect, exploitation and domination of others. In this paper, I examine how the works of Adorno and Levinas assist in diagnosing the aporias of liberty in contemporary capitalist societies by providing critical models and strategies for confronting present discourses and systems of freedom that perpetuate unfreedom such as those ideologically expressed in possessive individualist (...)
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  11. added 2019-06-06
    The Concept of Freedom in Henryk Elzenberg’s Thought.Agnieszka Nogal - 2009 - Dialogue and Universalism 19 (8-9):135-140.
    Elzenberg opposes the rightness of violence. This is a horizon on which appears a space for freedom in its two dimensions, which contemporarily is defined as negative and positive. Elzenberg’s negative freedom—necessary and essential—is freedom from one’s own biologicality but also from violence, whilst positive freedom—desired and valuable—the freedom to pursue values, is conditioned by the first.Man can be enslaved by his own body, the force applied by political authority or by ideology. He will not pursue truth then. He can (...)
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    Positive and Negative Economic Freedom.James A. Gould - 1982 - Critica 14 (41):55-64.
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  13. added 2019-06-05
    Consonances Between Liberalism and Pragmatism. Hay - 2012 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 48 (2):141.
    This paper is an attempt to identify certain consonances between contemporary liberalism and classical pragmatism. I identify four of the most trenchant criticisms of classical liberalism presented by pragmatist figures such as James, Peirce, Dewey, Addams, and Hocking: that liberalism overemphasizes negative liberty, that it is overly individualistic, that its pluralism is suspect, that it is overly abstract. I then argue that these deficits of liberalism in its historical incarnations are being addressed by contemporary liberals. Contemporary liberals, I show, have (...)
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  14. added 2019-06-05
    Liberty: One or Two Concepts Liberty.Eric Nelson - 2005 - Political Theory 33 (1):58-78.
    Isaiah Berlin’s distinction between “negative” and “positive” concepts of liberty has recently been defended on newand interesting grounds. Proponents of this dichotomy used to equate positive liberty with “self-mastery”—the rule of our rational nature over our passions and impulses. However, Berlin’s critics have made the case that this account does not employ a separate “ concept” of liberty: although the constraints it envisions are internal, rather than external, forces, the freedom in question remains “negative” . Responding to this development, Berlin’s (...)
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  15. added 2019-04-15
    "Violence and the Boundaries of the Community: A Relational Approach to Autonomy".John Lawless - 2019 - In Jennifer Kling (ed.), Pacifism, Politics, and Feminism: Intersections and Innovations. Leiden, NL: Brill. pp. 07-27.
    One common approach to autonomy begins by drawing boundaries around the agent, dividing her from external forces that limit her options, hostile agents who would harness her to their projects, and rebellious motivations embedded within her own psychology. Relational approaches to autonomy blur these boundaries, demonstrating the ways in which autonomy is possible only in mutually respectful, caring relationships. I develop a particular kind of relational approach, on which autonomy requires others’ recognition that certain choices belong to us. That is (...)
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  16. added 2019-03-27
    An Analysis of the Equal Freedom.Andrzej Stoiński - 2017 - Studia Humana 6 (3):5-14.
    The article concerns selected problems related to the postulates of equalizing the level of positive liberty. The classic understanding of individual freedom, called as negative, identified with a lack of compulsion, can be in opposition to the so-called positive liberty. The last notion is generally defined by an ability, which brings its relation with a concept of power. The postulate of equality in “freedom to” can be justification for conducting a social redistribution of goods. The cases of voluntary and compulsory (...)
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  17. added 2019-03-07
    Gruesome Freedom: The Moral Limits of Non-Constraint.John Lawless - 2018 - Philosophers' Imprint 18.
    Many philosophers conceive of freedom as non-interference. Such conceptions unify two core commitments. First, they associate freedom with non-constraint. And second, they take seriously a distinction between the interpersonal and the non-personal. As a result, they focus our attention exclusively on constraints attributable to other people’s choices – that is, on interference. I argue that these commitments manifest two distinct concerns: first, for a wide range of options; and second, for other people’s respect. However, construing freedom as non-interference unifies these (...)
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  18. added 2019-03-07
    Agency in Social Context.John Lawless - 2017 - Res Philosophica 94 (4):471-498.
    Many political philosophers argue that interference threatens a person’s agency. And they cast political freedom in opposition to interpersonal threats to agency, as non-interference. I argue that this approach relies on an inapt model of agency, crucial aspects of which emerge from our relationships with other people. Such relationships involve complex patterns of vulnerability and subjection, essential to our constitution as particular kinds of agents: as owners of property, as members of families, and as participants in a market for labor. (...)
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  19. added 2019-02-26
    Libraries, Electronic Resources, and Privacy: The Case for Positive Intellectual Freedom.Alan Rubel - 2014 - Library Quarterly 84 (2):183-208.
    Public and research libraries have long provided resources in electronic formats, and the tension between providing electronic resources and patron privacy is widely recognized. But assessing trade-offs between privacy and access to electronic resources remains difficult. One reason is a conceptual problem regarding intellectual freedom. Traditionally, the LIS literature has plausibly understood privacy as a facet of intellectual freedom. However, while certain types of electronic resource use may diminish patron privacy, thereby diminishing intellectual freedom, the opportunities created by such resources (...)
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  20. added 2019-02-05
    ‘Ownness Created a New Freedom’: Max Stirner’s Alternative Concept of Liberty.Saul Newman - 2017 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-21.
  21. added 2018-12-21
    Ryzyko równej wolności pozytywnej.Andrzej Stoiński - 2016 - Diametros 49:121-138.
    The article deals with selected problems related to the postulates of equalizing the level of positive liberty. The classic understanding of individual freedom as negative freedom, identified with the lack of compulsion, can be opposed to the so-called positive liberty. The latter notion is usually defined in terms of ability, which suggests that there is a relation between the concept of freedom and the concept of power. The postulate of equality with regard to the ‘freedom to’ would occasionally justify social (...)
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  22. added 2018-11-24
    Saving Positive Freedom.John Christman - 2005 - Political Theory 33 (1):79-88.
  23. added 2018-10-20
    Positive and Negative Rights of Migration: A Reply to My Critics.Blake Michael - 2016 - Ethics and Global Politics 9 (1):33553.
  24. added 2018-10-14
    Problems with the Modern Approach to Negative Liberty.Nathan G. Bernhard - unknown
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  25. added 2018-08-09
    Kant's Doctrine of Right in the 21st Century.Larry Krasnoff, Nuria Sánchez Madrid & Paula Satne (eds.) - 2018 - Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
    For a long time, Kant’s Doctrine of Right languished in relative neglect, even among Kantians. The work was best known for its uncompromising views on punishment and revolution, and for a seemingly limited and not particularly original emphasis on private property. Kant’s more interesting political claims were often said to be located elsewhere: in the third Critique (Hannah Arendt, Patrick Riley), or the structure of the critical project (Onora O’Neill). When John Rawls explained why his theory of justice could be (...)
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  26. added 2018-05-17
    #Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media. [REVIEW]George J. Aulisio - 2018 - The European Legacy 23 (7-8):866-867.
  27. added 2018-03-05
    Market Unfreedom.Paul Gowder - 2014 - Critical Review 26 (3-4):306-347.
    John Tomasi's “market democrat” is right to suppose that Rawlsians have erred in omitting economic liberty from their theories of justice. A Rawlsian ought to include economic liberty as a basic freedom because it facilitates individuals' development and pursuit of their conceptions of the good. However, the most plausible version of economic liberty will require the state to guarantee, if possible, that no one will be driven by economic desperation to engage in immiserating work, which may impair rather than facilitate (...)
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  28. added 2018-03-05
    Rethinking Democracy: Freedom and Social Cooperation in Politics, Economy, and Society.Carol C. Gould - 1988 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Carol Gould offers a fundamental reconsideration of the theory of democracy, arguing that democratic decision-making should apply not only to politics but also to economic and social life. Professor Gould redefines traditional concepts of freedom and social equality, and proposes a principle of Equal Positive Freedom in which individual freedom and social co-operation are seen to be compatible. Reformulating basic conceptions of property, authority, economic justice and human rights, the author suggests a number of ways in which (...)
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  29. added 2018-02-17
    Two Spheres of Domination: Republican Theory, Social Norms and the Insufficiency of Negative Freedom.Alan M. S. J. Coffee - 2015 - Contemporary Political Theory 14 (1):45-62.
    Republicans understand freedom as the guaranteed protection against any arbitrary use of coercive power. This freedom is exercised within a political community, and the concept of arbitrariness is defined with reference to the actual ideas of its citizens about what is in their shared interests. According to many current defenders of the republican model, this form of freedom is understood in strictly negative terms representing an absence of domination. I argue that this assumption is misguided. First, it is internally inconsistent. (...)
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  30. added 2018-02-17
    The Economics of Freedom: Theory, Measurement, and Policy Implications.Sebastiano Bavetta & Pietro Navarra - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    What is freedom? Can we measure it? Does it affect policy? This book develops an original measure of freedom called 'Autonomy Freedom', consistent with J. S. Mill's view of autonomy, and applies it to issues in policy and political design. The work pursues three aims. First, it extends classical liberalism beyond exclusive reliance on negative freedom so as to take autonomous behavior explicitly into account. Second, it grounds on firm conceptual foundations a new standard in the measurement of freedom that (...)
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  31. added 2018-02-17
    Contemporary Legal Conceptions of Property and Their Implications for Democracy.Carol Gould - 1980 - Journal of Philosophy 77 (11):716-729.
  32. added 2018-01-10
    Immigrants, Precarious Workforce as a Structural Necessity of Modern Global Capitalism.Łukasz Rąb - 2016 - Studies in Global Ethics and Global Education 6:69-75.
    This article focuses on the socio-economic aspects of migration and migrants – economic refugees. The author presents the migrants as a precarious workforce, which is an indispensable part of modern global capitalism. In this article, the author points out that among the many factors influencing migration, the economic ones play the most crucial role. Forces released by the neo-liberal paradigm led to the global economic and social tensions. This is due to the fact that the market has become the only (...)
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  33. added 2017-10-30
    “Book Review: Libertarian Quandaries“. [REVIEW]Aiden P. Gregg - 2016 - Libertarian Papers 8:319-327.
    Libertarian Quandaries is a slim volume of tight reasoning that makes a resolute case for libertarianism. Libertarianism is “the social philosophy that identifies individual liberty as the most fundamental social value, and by extension treats moral cooperation as the only morally permissible form of social interaction.” More specifically, the book is a compendium of concise rebuttals to commonplace counterarguments advanced against libertarianism. It attempts to show that libertarianism withstands wide-ranging criticisms in principle, but also that it can be implemented in (...)
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  34. added 2017-10-30
    Homebirth, Midwives, and the State: A Libertarian Look.Kimberley A. Johnson - 2016 - Libertarian Papers 8:247-266.
    This study steps beyond the traditional arguments of feminism and examines homebirth from a libertarian perspective. It addresses the debate over homebirth and midwifery, which includes the use of direct-entry midwives as well as the philosophical implications of individual autonomy expressed through consumer choice. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that the medical establishment gains economic and political control primarily through medical licensing, and uses the state to undermine personal freedom as it advances a government-enforced monopoly on birth. At the same time, (...)
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  35. added 2017-10-06
    Solinas, Introduzione a "Forme di vita e capitalismo" di Rahel Jaeggi (Turin: 2016), pp. 7-31.Marco Solinas (ed.) - 2016 - Turin: Rosenberg & Sellier.
    "Introduzione" alla raccolta di articoli di Rahel Jaeggi "Forme di vita e capitalismo", curata e tradotta da Marco Solinas, e uscita per Rosenberg & Sellier nel 20016.
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  36. added 2017-09-28
    Marx's Social Ontology.Laird Addis - 1980 - Noûs 14 (4):648-652.
  37. added 2017-09-22
    Beyond Positive and Negative Liberty: Samuel Fleischacker’s Personal Freedom of Judgment.Shawn D. Kaplan - 2001 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 22 (2):165-183.
    It is widely acknowledged that Isaiah Berlin’s seminal essay “Two Concepts of Liberty” has to a large extent set the tone and determined the content of the debates within political philosophy in the English-speaking world. Berlin maintains that the conceptual and institutional history of liberty can be understood in terms of the various responses to the logically distinct questions: “Who governs me?” and “How far does government interfere with me?”. In Berlin’s first question, the salient issue is whether the valid (...)
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  38. added 2017-07-01
    Paradoxien der Autonomie.Thomas Khurana & Christoph Menke (eds.) - 2011 - Berlin: August.
    Der Gedanke, der sich in der modernen Idee der Autonomie verdichtet, ist ein doppelter: Die Figur der Autonomie enthält zugleich eine neue Auffassung von Normativität und eine eigene Konzeption von Freiheit. Dem Gedanken der Autonomie zufolge ist ein Gesetz, das wahrhaft normativ ist, eines, als dessen Urheber wir uns selbst betrachten können; und eine Freiheit, die im vollen Sinne wirklich ist, drückt sich in Gestalt eben solcher selbstgegebener Gesetze aus. Die Idee der Autonomie artikuliert so die Einsicht, dass man Freiheit (...)
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  39. added 2017-06-09
    The Power to Nudge.Andreas T. Schmidt - 2017 - American Political Science Review 111 (2):404-417.
    Nudging policies rely on behavioral science to improve people's decisions through small changes in the environments within which people make choices. This article first seeks to rebut a prominent objection to this approach: furnishing governments with the power to nudge leads to relations of alien control, that is, relations in which some people can impose their will on others—a concern which resonates with republican, Kantian, and Rousseauvian theories of freedom and relational theories of autonomy. I respond that alien control can (...)
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  40. added 2017-03-02
    An Unresolved Problem: Freedom Across Lifetimes.Andreas Schmidt - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (6):1413-1438.
    Freedom is one of the central values in political and moral philosophy. A number of theorists hold that freedom should either be the only or at least one of the central distribuenda in our theories of distributive justice. Moreover, many follow Mill and hold that a concern for personal freedom should guide, and limit, how paternalist public policy can be. For the most part, theorists have focussed on a person’s freedom at one specific point in time but have failed to (...)
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  41. added 2017-03-02
    Withdrawing Versus Withholding Freedoms: Nudging and the Case of Tobacco Control.Andreas T. Schmidt - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (7):3-14.
    Is it a stronger interference with people's freedom to withdraw options they currently have than to withhold similar options they do not have? Drawing on recent theorizing about sociopolitical freedom, this article identifies considerations that often make this the case for public policy. However, when applied to tobacco control, these considerations are shown to give us at best only very weak freedom-based reason to prioritize the status quo. This supports a popular argument for so-called “endgame” tobacco control measures: If we (...)
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  42. added 2017-02-15
    Just Freedom?: Philip Pettit: Just Freedom: A Moral Compass for a Complex World. Norton Books, New York, 2014, 288 Pp. [REVIEW]Sven Nyholm - 2014 - Res Publica 20 (4):441-445.
    In Just Freedom, Pettit presents a powerful new statement and defense of the traditional “republican” conception of liberty or freedom. And he claims that freedom can serve as an ecumenical value with broad appeal, which we can put at the basis of a distinctively republican theory of justice. That is, Pettit argues that this “conception of freedom as non-domination allows us to see all issues of justice as issues, ultimately, of what freedom demands.” It is not, however, clear that liberty (...)
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  43. added 2017-02-14
    Beyond Positive and Negative Liberty: Samuel Fleischacker’s Personal Freedom of Judgment.Shawn D. Kaplan - 2000 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 22 (2):165-184.
    It is widely acknowledged that Isaiah Berlin’s seminal essay “Two Concepts of Liberty” has to a large extent set the tone and determined the content of the debates within political philosophy in the English-speaking world. Berlin maintains that the conceptual and institutional history of liberty can be understood in terms of the various responses to the logically distinct questions: “Who governs me?” and “How far does government interfere with me?”. In Berlin’s first question, the salient issue is whether the valid (...)
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  44. added 2017-02-12
    Concepts and Consequences of Liberty: From Smith and Mill to Libertarian Paternalism.David Meskill - 2013 - Critical Review 25 (1):86-106.
    Isaiah Berlin distinguished between negative liberty, which is freedom from external coercion, and positive liberty, the freedom to master oneself. But the schema is too simple. Adam Smith thought that God had harmoniously arranged the world in such a way that the freedom provided by our negative liberty tended to redound to the public good. Mill, worried about the deleterious effects of public ignorance, accorded elites a prominent role in ensuring that negative liberty would lead to positive results. More recently, (...)
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  45. added 2017-02-11
    Abilities and the Sources of Unfreedom.Andreas T. Schmidt - 2016 - Ethics 127 (1): 179-207.
    What distinguishes constraints on our actions that make us unfree (in the sociopolitical sense) from those that make us merely unable? I provide a new account: roughly, a constraint makes a person unfree, if and only if, first, someone else was morally responsible for the constraint and, second, it impedes an ability the person would have in the best available distribution of abilities. This new account is shown to overcome shortcomings of existing proposals. Moreover, by linking its account of unfreedom (...)
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  46. added 2017-02-11
    Positive Freedom as Exercise of Rational Ability: A Kantian Defense of Positive Liberty. [REVIEW]Nobel Ang - 2014 - Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (1):1-16.
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  47. added 2017-02-10
    A Theory of Freedom.M. Edge - 2013 - European Journal of Political Theory 12 (4):368-387.
    The traditional dispute over whether there are one or two ‘concepts’ of freedom has recently been reignited. Despite this, Isaiah Berlin’s distinction between positive and negative freedom retains a significant amount of influence over academic and popular disputes about freedom, continuing to withstand recent attempts, in Eric Nelson’s words, to ‘lift the shadow’ of Berlin’s famous dichotomy. Berlin’s distinction has traditionally been assailed by two separate schools of thought. One line of argument, propounded by Quentin Skinner and Philip Pettit, has (...)
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  48. added 2017-02-08
    Some Recent Work on the Concept of Liberty.William A. Parent - 1974 - American Philosophical Quarterly 11 (3):149 - 167.
    In this essay I advance major criticisms of recent work on the concept of liberty by, Among others, I berlin, G maccallum, H j mccluskey, S I benn, And f oppenheim. Emerging from these critical analyses is a new definition of 'liberty, In the spirit of negative liberalism', Which differentiates it from the related but distinct goods of human autonomy, Opportunity, Ability, Power, And self-Development.
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  49. added 2017-02-07
    For One Concept of Liberty.Rodger Beehler - 1991 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 8 (1):27-44.
  50. added 2017-02-03
    Liberty: One Concept Too Many?Eric Nelson - 2005 - Political Theory 33 (1):58 - 78.
    Isaiah Berlin's distinction between "negative" and "positive" concepts of liberty has recently been defended on new and interesting grounds. Proponents of this dichotomy used to equate positive liberty with "self-mastery "-the rule of our rational nature over ourpassions and impulses. However, Berlin's critics have made the case that this account does not employ a separate "concept" of liberty: although the constraints it envisions are internal, rather than external, forces, the freedom in question remains "negative" (freedom is still seen as the (...)
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