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1 — 50 / 187
  1. added 2019-01-04
    Counterfactuals and Knowledge.Karen S. Lewis - 2017 - In Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Epistemic Contextualism. pp. 411-424.
  2. added 2018-11-26
    A Logic for the Natural Language Conditional.Monique Whitaker - 2018 - South African Journal of Philosophy 37 (3):261-283.
    Ordinary speakers intuitively assign truth-values to conditional utterances in everyday conversation, but, despite the general ease with which this occurs, it is notoriously difficult to give an account of the implicit logic that is followed in making these truth-value assignments. I propose a twofold logic of the conditional – a relatively simple “factual” logic for conditionals interpreted with regard to what is actually the case, largely following the logic of the material conditional; combined with a variably strict possible-worlds counterfactual logic (...)
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  3. added 2018-09-10
    A Compositional Semantics for 'If Then' Conditionals.Mathieu Vidal - 2016 - In Maxime Amblard, Philippe de Groote, Sylvain Pogodalla & Christian Retoré (eds.), LACL 2016 LNCS 10054. Springer. pp. 291-307.
    This paper presents the first compositional semantics for if then conditionals. The semantics of each element are first examined separately. The meaning of if is modeled according to a possible worlds semantics. The particle then is analyzed as an anaphoric word that places its focused element inside the context settled by a previous element. Their meanings are subsequently combined in order to provide a formal semantics of if A then C conditionals, which differs from the simple if A, C form. (...)
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  4. added 2018-07-28
    Sequential Counterfactuals, Cotenability and Temporal Becoming.Luc Bovens - 1998 - Philosophical Studies 90 (1):79-101.
    It has received little attention that the truth values of sequential counterfactuals (i.e. counterfactuals in which the antecedent event precedes the consequent event) can shift over time. In the footsteps of Goodman, I develop a theory of sequential counterfactuals that can account for this feature. The theory (i) defends a semifactual test of cotenability, (ii) spells out the truth conditions for semifactuals in probabilistic terms and (iii) accounts for truth-value shifts by appealing to a dynamic view of time.
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  5. added 2018-07-05
    Causal Counterfactuals and Impossible Worlds.Daniel Nolan - 2017 - In Helen Beebee, Christopher Hitchcock & Huw Price (eds.), Making a Difference. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 14-32.
    A standing challenge in the theory of counterfactuals is to solve the “deviation problem”. Consider ordinary counterfactuals involving an antecedent concerning a difference from the actual course of events at a particular time, and a consequent concerning, at least in part, what happens at a later time. In the possible worlds framework, the problem is often put in terms of which are the relevant antecedent worlds. Desiderata for the solution include that the relevant antecedent worlds be governed by the actual (...)
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  6. added 2018-06-16
    Two Switches in the Theory of Counterfactuals.Ivano Ciardelli, Linmin Zhang & Lucas Champollion - 2018 - Linguistics and Philosophy (6).
    Based on a crowdsourced truth value judgment experiment, we provide empirical evidence challenging two classical views in semantics, and we develop a novel account of counterfactuals that combines ideas from inquisitive semantics and causal reasoning. First, we show that two truth-conditionally equivalent clauses can make different semantic contributions when embedded in a counterfactual antecedent. Assuming compositionality, this means that the meaning of these clauses is not fully determined by their truth conditions. This finding has a clear explanation in inquisitive semantics: (...)
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  7. added 2018-06-07
    The Case of the Missing ‘If’: Accessibility Relations in Stalnaker’s Theory of Conditionals.Matthew Mandelkern - forthcoming - Semantics and Pragmatics.
    A part of Stalnaker (1968)’s influential theory of conditionals has been neglected, namely the role for an accessibility relation between worlds. I argue that the accessibility relation does not play the role intended for it in the theory as stated, and propose a minimal revision which solves the problem, and brings the theory in line with the formulation in Stalnaker & Thomason 1970.
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  8. added 2018-06-05
    Impossible Worlds: A Modest Approach.Daniel Nolan - 1997 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 38 (4):535-572.
    Reasoning about situations we take to be impossible is useful for a variety of theoretical purposes. Furthermore, using a device of impossible worlds when reasoning about the impossible is useful in the same sorts of ways that the device of possible worlds is useful when reasoning about the possible. This paper discusses some of the uses of impossible worlds and argues that commitment to them can and should be had without great metaphysical or logical cost. The paper then provides an (...)
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  9. added 2018-02-17
    Ceteris Paribus Conditionals and Comparative Normalcy.Martin Smith - 2006 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (1):97-121.
    Our understanding of subjunctive conditionals has been greatly enhanced through the use of possible world semantics and, more precisely, by the idea that they involve variably strict quantification over possible worlds. I propose to extend this treatment to ceteris paribus conditionals – that is, conditionals that incorporate a ceteris paribus or ‘other things being equal’ clause. Although such conditionals are commonly invoked in scientific theorising, they traditionally arouse suspicion and apprehensiveness amongst philosophers. By treating ceteris paribus conditionals as a species (...)
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  10. added 2018-02-16
    An Indexical Theory of Conditionals.Ken Warmbrod - 1981 - Dialogue 20 (4):644-664.
    Language theorists have recently come to have an increasing appreciation for the fact that context contributes heavily in determining our interpretation of what is said. Indeed, it now seems clear that no complete understanding of a natural language is possible without some account of the way in which context affects our interpretation of discourse. In this paper, I will attempt to explore one facet of the language – context relationship, namely, the relation between conditionals and context. The first part of (...)
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  11. added 2018-01-02
    Wierenga on Theism and Counterpossibles.Fabio Lampert - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-15.
    Several theists, including Linda Zagzebski, have claimed that theism is somehow committed to nonvacuism about counterpossibles. Even though Zagzebski herself has rejected vacuism, she has offered an argument in favour of it, which Edward Wierenga has defended as providing strong support for vacuism that is independent of the orthodox semantics for counterfactuals, mainly developed by David Lewis and Robert Stalnaker. In this paper I show that argument to be sound only relative to the orthodox semantics, which entails vacuism, and give (...)
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  12. added 2017-12-27
    Strengthening Principles and Counterfactual Semantics.David Boylan & Ginger Schultheis - 2017 - Proceedings of the 21st Amsterdam Colloquium.
  13. added 2017-12-05
    The Temporal Asymmetry of Counterfactuals.Terrance A. Tomkow & Kadri Vihvelin - manuscript
  14. added 2017-09-19
    The Metaphysical Consequences of Counterfactual Skepticism.Nina Emery - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 94 (2):399-432.
    A series of recent arguments purport to show that most counterfactuals of the form if A had happened then C would have happened are not true. These arguments pose a challenge to those of us who think that counterfactual discourse is a useful part of ordinary conversation, of philosophical reasoning, and of scientific inquiry. Either we find a way to revise the semantics for counterfactuals in order to avoid these arguments, or we find a way to ensure that the relevant (...)
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  15. added 2017-06-07
    Presuppositional Anaphora Is The Sobel Truth.Daniel Dohrn - 2017 - In Salvatore Pistoia-Reda & Filippo Domaneschi (eds.), Linguistic and Psycholinguistic Approaches on Implicatures and Presuppositions. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 199-238.
    Sobel sequences have had a huge impact on the discussion of counterfactuals. They can be composed of conditionals and mere descriptions. What is especially puzzling about them is that they are often felicitously uttered when their reversal is not. Up to now, there is no unified explanation. I examine two strategies. We might begin with conditionals and proceed to descriptions. Or we might begin with descriptions and proceed to conditionals. I argue for the latter variant and outline a universal theory (...)
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  16. added 2017-06-04
    In Defense of Brogaard-Salerno Stricture.Matheus Silva - forthcoming - The Reasoner 11 (7).
    Brogaard and Salerno (2008) argued that counter-examples to contraposition, strengthening the antecedent, and hypothetical syllogism involving subjunctive conditionals only seem to work because they involve a contextual fallacy where the context assumed in the premise(s) is illicitly shifted in the conclusion. To avoid such counter-examples they have proposed that the context must remain fixed when evaluating an argument for validity. That is the Brogaard-Salerno Stricture. Tristan Haze (2016), however, has recently objected that intuitively valid argumentative forms such as conjunction introduction (...)
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  17. added 2017-05-30
    A New Future Similarity Objection.Thomas Kroedel - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (6):1477-1493.
    The future similarity objection against David Lewis’s theory of counterfactuals re-emerges once the space-time of possible worlds is adequately represented. Given such a representation, it can be shown that a number of counterfactuals that seem clearly true, such as Kit Fine’s example ‘If Nixon had pressed the button, there would have been a nuclear holocaust’, come out false, even if determinism is assumed. Lewis’s similarity criteria can be modified in different ways to avoid the problem, but some of the modifications (...)
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  18. added 2017-05-29
    A Compositional Semantics for ‘Even If’ Conditionals.Mathieu Vidal - 2017 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 26 (2):237-276.
    This paper presents the first possible world semantics for concessive conditionals (i.e., even if A, C conditionals) constructed in a compositional way. First, the meaning of if is formalized through a semantics that builds on the proposal given by Stalnaker (1968). A major difference from Stalnaker’s approach is that irrelevant conditionals (i.e., conditionals where the antecedent and the consequent have no connection) are false in this new setting. Second, the meaning of even is analyzed through a formal semantics based on (...)
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  19. added 2017-02-15
    Counterfactuals and Arbitrariness.Moritz Schulz - 2014 - Mind 123 (492):1021-1055.
    The pattern of credences we are inclined to assign to counterfactuals challenges standard accounts of counterfactuals. In response to this problem, the paper develops a semantics of counterfactuals in terms of the epsilon-operator. The proposed semantics stays close to the standard account: the epsilon-operator substitutes the universal quantifier present in standard semantics by arbitrarily binding the open world-variable. Various applications of the suggested semantics are explored including, in particular, an explanation of how the puzzling credences in counterfactuals come about.
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  20. added 2017-02-15
    On the Rightness of Certain Counterfactuals.Ernest W. Adams - 1993 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 74 (1):1-10.
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  21. added 2017-02-13
    “The (Non)-Existence of Molinist Counterfactuals”.William Hasker - 2011 - In Ken Perszyk (ed.), Molinism: The Contemporary Debate. Oxford University Press. pp. 25--37.
  22. added 2017-02-13
    Facts and Counterfactuals in Economic Law.Jörg Guido Hülsmann - 2003 - Journal of Libertarian Studies 17 (1):57-102.
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  23. added 2017-02-11
    Counterfactuals with Disjunctive Antecedents.Thomas Mckay & Peter Van Inwagen - 1977 - Philosophical Studies 31 (5):353 - 356.
  24. added 2017-02-10
    Getting Serious About Similarity.Michael Weisberg - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (5):785-794.
  25. added 2017-02-10
    Counterfactuals: Reply to Claudio Pizzi.O. Chateaubriand - 2004 - Manuscrito 27 (1):65-77.
    After some preliminary remarks in §1, I argue in §2 that Claudio’s considerations about my treatment of Quine’s Bizet-Verdi counterfactuals do not constitute a difficulty for the structural analysis of such counterfactuals. I discuss some of his other examples and argue that counterfactuals are ambiguous both structurally and contextually. I conclude with an examination of the principle of transitivity for counterfactuals.
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  26. added 2017-02-09
    The Problems of Similarity.Joseph Margolis - 1978 - The Monist 61 (3):384-400.
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  27. added 2017-02-08
    Morals, Beliefs, and Counterfactuals.Vittorio Girotto, Luca Surian & Michael Siegal - 2010 - Brain and Behavioral Sciences 33 (4):337-338.
    We have found that moral considerations interact with belief ascription in determining intentionality judgment. We attribute this finding to a differential availability of plausible counterfactual alternatives that undo the negative side-effect of an action. We conclude that Knobe's thesis does not account for processes by which counterfactuals are generated and how these processes affect moral evaluations.
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  28. added 2017-02-08
    Counterfactuals and Two Kinds of Expected Utility.Allan Gibbard & William Harper - 1978 - In A. Hooker, J. J. Leach & E. F. McClennen (eds.), Foundations and Applications of Decision Theory. D. Reidel. pp. 125-162.
  29. added 2017-02-08
    ``Causes and Counterfactuals&Quot.Jaegwon Kim - 1973 - Journal of Philosophy 70:570-572.
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  30. added 2017-02-07
    Free Choice Counterfactual Donkeys.R. van Rooij - 2006 - Journal of Semantics 23 (4):383-402.
    We propose a straightforward analysis of counterfactual donkey sentences, by combining the Lewis/Stalnaker analysis of counterfactuals with standard dynamic semantics. The main idea is to define a similarity relation between world-assignment pairs such that two such pairs are unconnected if their assignments differ. We show that with the help of this ordering relation we can also account for a number of related problems involving disjunctions and the use of any in counterfactuals and permission sentences.
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  31. added 2017-02-07
    Counterfactuals in Economics: A Commentary.Nancy Cartwright - unknown
  32. added 2017-02-06
    Counterfactuals and Nontrivial Deremodalities.Alan Sussman - 1981 - Ratio.
  33. added 2017-02-02
    In Search of Radical Similarity.Oscar Vilarroya - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):35-35.
    It is difficult to see how one can support the continuum between rules and similarity, as Pothos proposes. A similarity theory could dispense with the rules end of the continuum. The only thing that we need is one (or more than one) theory of similarity that goes beyond the stimulus-carrying information and behavioristic restrictions that have usually been attributed to similarity theories.
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  34. added 2017-01-29
    LEWIS, D.: "Counterfactuals". [REVIEW]Brian Carr - 1976 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 27:403.
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  35. added 2017-01-28
    Understanding Counterfactuals.Charles Jeffrey Mclean - 1976 - Dissertation, Brown University
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  36. added 2017-01-26
    And Counterfactuals.John T. Roberts - 2013 - In Stephen Mumford & Matthew Tugby (eds.), Metaphysics and Science. Oxford University Press. pp. 29.
  37. added 2017-01-26
    Is Prior to Counterfactuals.Dorothy Edgington - 2011 - In Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack & Sarah R. Beck (eds.), Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation. Oxford University Press. pp. 230.
  38. added 2017-01-26
    Counterfactuals Beyond Paradox1.Wolfgang Heydrich - 2009 - In G. Ernst, J. Steinbrenner & O. Scholz (eds.), From Logic to Art: Themes From Nelson Goodman. Ontos. pp. 7--71.
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  39. added 2017-01-26
    10 Counterfactuals in Economics: A Commentary.Nancy Cartwright - 2007 - In J. K. Campbell, M. O'Rourke & H. S. Silverstein (eds.), Causation and Explanation. MIT Press. pp. 4--191.
  40. added 2017-01-26
    Possible Worlds, Counterfactuals, and Epistemic Operators.Maria Luisa Dalla Chiara - 1992 - In Cristina Bicchieri, Dalla Chiara & Maria Luisa (eds.), Knowledge, Belief, and Strategic Interaction. Cambridge University Press.
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  41. added 2017-01-26
    Counterfactuals.W. S. Sellars - 1975 - In Ernest Sosa (ed.), Causation and Conditionals. Oxford University Press. pp. 126--146.
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  42. added 2017-01-25
    Gundersen on Counterfactuals and Tracking.Joshua A. Smith - 2005 - SATS 6 (2):165-171.
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  43. added 2017-01-24
    Counterfactuals.P. L. Mott - 1975 - Philosophical Books 16 (1):19-21.
  44. added 2017-01-22
    Non-Backtracking Counterfactuals and the Conditional Analysis.Mark Heller - 1985 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 15 (1):75 - 85.
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  45. added 2017-01-22
    Cans and Counterfactuals.Douglas N. Walton - 1980 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 10 (3):489 - 496.
  46. added 2017-01-21
    Counterfactuals and the Self.David Cockburn - 1994 - Philosophical Investigations 17 (2):380-387.
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  47. added 2017-01-18
    Similarity as an Intertheory Relation.Geoffrey Gorham - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (Proceedings):S220-S229.
    In line with the semantic conception of scientific theories, I develop an account of the intertheory relation of comparative structural similarity. I argue that this relation is useful in explaining the concept of verisimilitude and I support this contention with a concrete historical example. Finally, I defend this relation against the familiar charge that the concept of similarity is insufficiently objective.
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  48. added 2017-01-15
    Morgenbesser's Coin, Counterfactuals and Independence.P. Noordhof - 2005 - Analysis 65 (3):261-263.
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  49. added 2017-01-15
    Backward Causation and the Stalnaker-Lewis Approach to Counterfactuals.M. Tooley - 2002 - Analysis 62 (3):191-197.
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  50. added 2017-01-15
    A Note on Lewis on Counterfactual Dependence in a Chancy World.P. Percival - 1999 - Analysis 59 (3):165-173.
1 — 50 / 187