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Summary For some, the problem of personal identity is a practical, not a metaphysical, problem.  Most generally, it is viewed as a problem of agency: what unifies our actions and experiences--both at a time and across time--as our own, and so what unifies us as the agents that we are? What most theorists have pursued is an answer that makes reference to narrative identity, according to which we are unified via the stories we tell about ourselves.  But there are other features of us independent of our self-construals that provide constraints on our movements in the world, namely, those features taken to be of societal importance, including race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, and so on.  These are the features of our social identity.
Key works Many have found seeds of talk of attribution and practical identity in Frankfurt 1971.  Later works on practical identity include MacIntyre 2007, Korsgaard 1989, Taylor 1989, Schechtman 1996, and Paul Ricoeur, "Narrative Identity," in D. Wood, On Paul Ricoeur: Narrative and Interpretation (London: Routledge, 1991) .  For important discussions on social identity, see Appiah 1990, and Amy Gutmann, ed., Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994).  For an important critique of narrative identity, see Strawson 2004.
Introductions Encyclopedia entries discussing narrative identity include Dauenhauer 2008 and Shoemaker 2008.  Encyclopedia entries discussing aspects of social identity include Heyes 2008 and Mikkola 2008. An introductory collection of essays on practical identity and narrative agency is Kim & Catriona 2008.
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  1. Anthony C. Ajah (2014). On Truthful Narrative-Identity and a Development Model for Nigeria. Open Journal of Philosophy 4 (4):531-540.
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  2. Daniel René Akendengue (2002). Narrative Anachronies In.. 201 Narrative Anachronies in Adam Bede and the Mill on the Floss. Humanitas 1:201.
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  3. Pamela Anderson (1993). Narrative Identity and the Mythico-Poetic Imagination. In David E. Klemm & William Schweiker (eds.), Meanings in Texts and Actions: Questioning Paul Ricoeur. University Press of Virginia. pp. 195--204.
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  4. Kim Atkins (2010). Narrative Identity and Moral Identity: A Practical Perspective. Routledge.
    This book is part of the growing field of practical approaches to philosophical questions relating to identity, agency and ethics--approaches which work across continental and analytical traditions and which Atkins justifies through an explication of how the structures of human embodiment necessitate a narrative model of selfhood, understanding, and ethics.
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  5. Kim Atkins & Catriona Mackenzie (eds.) (2010). Practical Identity and Narrative Agency. Routledge.
    The essays collected in this volume address a range of issues that arise when the focus of philosophical reflection on identity is shifted from metaphysical to practical and evaluative concerns. They also explore the usefulness of the notion of narrative for articulating and responding to these issues. The chapters, written by an outstanding roster of international scholars, address a range of complex philosophical issues concerning the relationship between practical and metaphysical identity, the embodied dimensions of the first-personal perspective, the kind (...)
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  6. V. Barnard, J. Carson, Eugene Doe, Robin Driben, Anonymous One, Anonymous Two, Charles Kelley, Michael Kerins, D. Millman, Anonymous Three, Viesia Novosielski, Ben Zion & Anonymous Four (2011). Narrative Symposium: Personal Narratives Experiences of Psychiatric Hospitalization. Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 1 (1):8-10.
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  7. Corey L. Barnes, The Social Nature of Individual Self-Identity: Akan and Narrative Conceptions of Personhood.
    Marya Schechtman has given us reasons to think that there are different questions that compose personal identity. On the one hand, there is the question of reidentification, which concerns what makes a person the same person through different time-slices. On the other hand, there is the question of characterization, which concerns the actions, experiences, beliefs, values, desires, character traits, etc. that we take to be attributable to a person over time. While leaving the former question for another work, Schechtman answers (...)
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  8. Shape Bible (2010). Identity Pragmatics: Narrative/Identity/Ethics 41. In Eleanor Milligan & Emma Woodley (eds.), Confessions: Confounding Narrative and Ethics. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 41.
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  9. Claudia J. Brodsky (1987). 2. Kant and Narrative Theory. In The Imposition of Form: Studies in Narrative Representation and Knowledge. Princeton University Press. pp. 21-87.
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  10. W. J. Brown (1962). One Man's Life a Personal Narrative. Epworth Press.
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  11. Nico Buitendag (2013). Contrasting Differences in Identity and Agency Between Narrative and Autopoietic Systems. Hts Theological Studies 69 (1):01-09.
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  12. Richard Francis Burton (1893). Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah & Meccah, Ed. By I. Burton. Memorial Ed.
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  13. Bruce Clarke (2014). Neocybernetics and Narrative. Univ of Minnesota Press.
    _Neocybernetics and Narrative_ opens a new chapter in Bruce Clarke’s project of rethinking narrative and media through systems theory. Reconceiving interrelations among subjects, media, significations, and the social, this study demonstrates second-order systems theory’s potential to provide fresh insights into the familiar topics of media studies and narrative theory. A pioneer of systems narratology, Clarke offers readers a synthesis of the neocybernetic theories of cognition formulated by biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela, incubated by cyberneticist Heinz von Foerster, and cultivated (...)
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  14. J. L. Cullen (1998). Ruthellen Josselson (Ed.), Ethics and Process in the Narrative Study of Lives. Teaching Business Ethics 1:341-344.
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  15. Joy L. Cullen (1997). Ethics and Process in the Narrative Study of Lives, Ruthellen Josselson (Ed.). Teaching Business Ethics 1 (3):341-344.
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  16. John J. Davenport (2012). Narrative Identity, Autonomy, and Mortality: From Frankfurt and Macintyre to Kierkegaard. Routledge.
    In the last two decades, interest in narrative conceptions of identity has grown exponentially, though there is little agreement about what a "life-narrative" might be. In connecting Kierkegaard with virtue ethics, several scholars have recently argued that narrative models of selves and MacIntyre's concept of the unity of a life help make sense of Kierkegaard's existential stages and, in particular, explain the transition from "aesthetic" to "ethical" modes of life. But others have recently raised difficult questions both for these readings (...)
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  17. Diane Derr (2014). Capturing Gaddafi: Narrative as System Currency. Technoetic Arts 12 (2):365-373.
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  18. Louise Du Toit (1997). Cultural Identity as Narrative and Performance. South African Journal of Philosophy 16 (3):85-93.
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  19. Hélène Eraly (2013). L'identité narrative mise à l'épreuve de la retraite : une analyse de récits biographiques. Temporalités 17 (17).
    Le passage à la retraite bouleverse les individus dans leur temporalité vécue aussi bien que dans leur temporalité narrative. Le récit de la retraite prend la forme d’une épreuve qu’il faut traverser et dépasser. Pour y parvenir, les individus puisent dans des schémas narratifs typiques de notre modernité, en particulier la rhétorique du choix, de la responsabilité et de la réalisation personnelle. Quelle forme prend le récit de l’épreuve de la retraite ? Quelles ressources réflexives sont-elles mobilisées ? Et en (...)
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  20. Erler Michael (2015). Detailed Completeness and Pleasure of the Narrative. Some Remarks on the Narrative Tradition and Plato. In Gabriele Cornelli (ed.), Plato's Styles and Characters: Between Literature and Philosophy. De Gruyter. pp. 103-118.
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  21. Linda Ethell (2010). Narrative Identity and Personal Responsibility. Lexington Books.
    The exploration of personal identity and theories of narrative in Narrative Identity and Personal Responsibility is extraordinarily suggestive, resulting in implications for theories of action as well as ethics and psychology. Taking seriously the thought that we mediate our relations with the world by means of self-defining narratives grounded in the natural phenomenon of desire provides new answers to old puzzles of what it means to be human.
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  22. Mark Freeman (2012). 12 Storied Persons: The Double Triad of Narrative Identity. In Jack Martin & Mark H. Bickhard (eds.), The Psychology of Personhood: Philosophical, Historical, Social-Developmental and Narrative Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. pp. 223.
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  23. Henry Frendo (ed.) (2010). The European Mind: Narrative and Identity.
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  24. Chris Gardiner (2001). Whose Justice, Which Narrative*? Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics 3 (2).
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  25. Jessica Garrahy (2009). His Controversial Materials: Philip Pullman and Religious Narrative Identity. Literature & Aesthetics 19 (2):105-122.
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  26. Kenneth J. Gergen (2005). Narrative, Moral Identity, and Historical Consciousness. In Jürgen Straub (ed.), Narration, Identity, and Historical Consciousness. Berghan Books. pp. 3--99.
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  27. Joseph P. Gone (1999). "We Were Through as Keepers of It": The "Missing Pipe Narrative" and Gros Ventre Cultural Identity. Ethos 27 (4):415-440.
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  28. Lorenzo Greco (2010). Harry G. Frankfurt, Catturati dall'amore (Reggio Emilia: Diabasis, 2009). [REVIEW] Rivista di Filosofia 101 (2):298-99.
  29. Lorenzo Greco (2008). L'io morale: David Hume e l'etica contemporanea. Liguori Editore.
  30. Lorenzo Greco (2007). Charles Larmore, Pratiche dell'io (Roma: Meltemi, 2006). [REVIEW] Rivista di Filosofia 98 (1):132-33.
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  31. Lorenzo Greco (2004). Antonio pavan (ed.), Dire persona. Luoghi critici e saggi di applicazione di un'idea (Bologna: Il Mulino, 2003). [REVIEW] Rivista di Filosofia 95 (3):529-30.
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  32. Fran Hagstrom (2005). Creating Creative Identity. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 24 (4):19-28.
    The construction of creative identity from a Vygotskian perspective is explored in this paper. A theoretical link is made between Vygotsky’s claims about the development of creativity and Penuet and Wertsch’s use of Vygotskian theory to address identity formation. Narrative is suggested as the link between culturally organized activities, mediated mental functioning, and the storied self. Data from semi-structured interviews about creativity conducted with a second grade child and his parents illustrate how discourses from home and school come together during (...)
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  33. Herselman Hattingh & Pieter Van Veuren (1995). Identity and the Narrative Structure of Life. South African Journal of Philosophy 14 (2):60-71.
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  34. Henning Tim, Person Sein Und Geschichten Erzählenbeing a Person and Telling a Story: Personal Autonomy, Biographical Knowledge and Narrative Reasons: Eine Studie Über Personale Autonomie Und Narrative Gründe.
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  35. Silke Horstkotte & Karin Leonhard (2007). Intermedial Narrative: Ekphrasis and Perspectival Montage, or Sorting Out the Gaze of Narrative Agents. In Karin Leonhard & Silke Horstkotte (eds.), Seeing Perception. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 166--96.
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  36. Kathryn Montgomery Hunter (1995). Narrative. Encyclopedia of Bioethics 4:1791.
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  37. Daniel D. Hutto (2007). Narrative and Understanding Persons. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 60:1-16.
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  38. Laurie Elizabeth Julian (1997). Narrative Act: The Path to Organizational Transformation. Dissertation, University of San Francisco
    This research explores how narrative act creates the path to organizational transformation. Narrative act is defined as entering into the stories of self, other, and the organization in order to recover the past and create the future. Transformation is defined as a fundamental change in condition and an increase in capacity; a movement from one of being to another. The articulation of a path to organizational transformation based in narrative is this work's distinct contribution to learning. The research develops six (...)
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  39. Sharon Kehoe (1997). One Woman's Way: A Self-Reflexive Narrative. Dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies
    This dissertation is a cross-cultural and interdisciplinary study using the juxtapositions of East to West, ancient to contemporary, and masculine to feminine, for the purpose of showing embodied movement toward wisdom. It aims to show the translation of a philosophy of transformative learning into praxis through reflection and the creative process of narrative. Put more simply, it explores the relationship of stories within and as mirrors of themselves. It makes use of the disciplines of religion and philosophy, education, feminist thought, (...)
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  40. Peter Lamarque (2014). The Opacity of Narrative. Rowman & Littlefield International.
    What is narrative? What is distinctive about the great literary narratives? In virtue of what is a narrative fictional or non-fictional? In this important new book Peter Lamarque, one of the leading philosophers of literature at work today, explores these and related questions to bring new clarity and insight to debates about narrative in philosophy, critical theory, and narratology.
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  41. Tomas Lindgren (2004). The Narrative Construction of Muslim Identity: A Single Case Study. Archive for the Psychology of Religion 26 (1):51-74.
    This article presents an analysis of how a male convert to Islam incorporates events from his life history into a narrative structure in order to construct and maintain a Muslim identity. The study focuses on how the individual and in particular a person's life history becomes social and universal, and how the social and universal becomes particularized and individualized, in the narration of life. The results of the analysis showed that the valued endpoint determines the selection and ordering of different (...)
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  42. John Lippitt & Patrick Stokes (eds.) (2015). Narrative, Identity and the Kierkegaardian Self. Edinburgh University Press.
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  43. Ajit K. Maan (1997). Unbinding the Structures of Narrative Agency: Internarrative Subjectivity and the Classical Aesthetic Foundation of Ricoeurean Identity. Dissertation, University of Oregon
    While contemporary inquiries into the nature of the "self" are inclined to allow previously marginalized groups to assert their status as subjects and their stories as narratives, the postmodern denial of authorship and deconstruction of the self as a linguistic construction throws this entire inquiry into question. But while deconstruction calls autobiography into question by problematizing the authority and source of any utterance, others point out that the postmodern deconstruction of subjectivity is a luxury of the privileged. As one philosopher (...)
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  44. Giovanni Maddalena (2013). A Synthetic Pattern: Figural and Narrative Identity. Contemporary Pragmatism 10 (1):145-165.
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  45. David Massey (2010). Identity Pragmatics: Narrative/Identity/Ethics‖. In Eleanor Milligan & Emma Woodley (eds.), Confessions: Confounding Narrative and Ethics. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 35--66.
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  46. Malin Masterton, Mats G. Hansson & Anna T. Höglund (2010). In Search of the Missing Subject: Narrative Identity and Posthumous Wronging. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (4):340-346.
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  47. D. Matravers (2014). The Opacity of Narrative. Philosophical Quarterly 64 (257):667-669.
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  48. Dan P. McAdams (2011). Narrative Identity. In Seth J. Schwartz, Koen Luyckx & Vivian L. Vignoles (eds.), Handbook of Identity Theory and Research. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 99--115.
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  49. Nancy McLoughlin (2008). Personal Narrative and the Systematization. Mediaevalia 29:83.
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  50. Nancy Mcloughlin (2008). Personal Narrative And The Systematization Of Knowledge In The Thought Of Jean Gerson. Mediaevalia 29 (1).
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