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  1. Christian Witness in the 21 Century - Incarnantional Engaged Approach.Edvard Kristian Foshaugen - 1997 - Dissertation, Free State University
    Research for this study was served by the hypothesis that the Christian’s lifestyle and witness in a postmodern world will depend on the definition and practice of worship and spirituality. The Old Testament reveals a spirituality that has ‘Yahweh’ involved in all aspects of life. Awareness and experience of the presence of God is linked to obedience to God. New Testament spirituality implies imitation of Christ and an effort to obey Christ's twofold command: to love God and neighbor as self. (...)
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  2. W. K. Clifford and William James on Doxastic Norms.Alberto Oya - 2018 - Comprendre 20 (2):61-77.
    The main aim of this paper is to explain and analyze the debate between W. K. Clifford ("The Ethics of Belief", 1877) and William James ("The Will to Believe", 1896). Given that the main assumption shared by Clifford and James in this debate is doxastic voluntarism –i.e., the claim that we can, at least in some occasions, willingly decide what to believe–, I will explain the arguments offered by Bernard Williams in his “Deciding to Believe” (1973) against doxastic voluntarism. Finally, (...)
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  3. Introducció. El debat entre W. K. Clifford i William James.Alberto Oya - 2016 - Quaderns de Filosofia i Ciència (2):123-127.
    In this paper I comment on the debate between W. K. Clifford ("The Ethics of Belief", 1877) and William James ("The Will to Believe", 1896). I argue that both authors assume doxastic voluntarism -i.e., the claim that we can, at least in some occasions, willingly decide what to believe- and I argue that doxastic voluntarism is unacceptable.
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  4. A PHILOSOPHICAL ENQUIRY INTO THE SCANDAL OF EVIL AND SUFFERING.Edvard Kristian Foshaugen - 2004 - Baptis Journal South Africa (q):q.
    In 1 Peter 1:3-7 we read that the Christians were facing persecution because of their faith and the author reminds them that every trial is a test of their faith. The trials and consequential suffering can be withstood because they are able to look forward to an inheritance – eternal life with God. Christians can endure all trials and suffering because of the hope of glory and ultimate joy. There is a grace afforded by God in the presence to match (...)
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  5. Pragmatic Decisions About God From Different Points of View: The Costs of Apostasy.Cei Maslen - 2016 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 80 (2):103-113.
    Pascal, with his famous wager, argued in favour of religious practice and faith by appeal to expected payoffs. Here I discuss an asymmetry in similar pragmatic arguments for decisions about God. I begin with the observation that apostates pay costs not shared by those who never adopt a religion in the first place. Noticing this asymmetry shows these arguments from a new perspective and may also contribute to an explanation of the endurance of religion.
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  6. Taking Stock of Infinite Value: Pascal’s Wager and Relative Utilities.Paul Bartha - 2007 - Synthese 154 (1):5-52.
    Among recent objections to Pascal's Wager, two are especially compelling. The first is that decision theory, and specifically the requirement of maximizing expected utility, is incompatible with infinite utility values. The second is that even if infinite utility values are admitted, the argument of the Wager is invalid provided that we allow mixed strategies. Furthermore, Hájek has shown that reformulations of Pascal's Wager that address these criticisms inevitably lead to arguments that are philosophically unsatisfying and historically unfaithful. Both the objections (...)
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  7. The Will to Come Out All Right.Herb Yarvin - 1976 - Religious Studies 12 (3):303.
    William James presents Pascal's wager in this manner: if you believe in God and God exists, then your gain is infinite; if you believe in God and God doesn't exist, then your loss is finite. Therefore, since a finite loss is reasonable where there is the possibility of infinite gain, you ought to believe in God. ‘What have you to lose?’ James asks . 1.
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  8. What Is Mormon Transhumanism?Lincoln Cannon - 2015 - Theology and Science 13 (2):202-218.
    Mormon transhumanism is the idea that humanity should learn how to be compassionate creators. This idea is essential to Mormonism, which provides a religious framework consistent with naturalism and supportive of human transformation. Mormon transhumanists are not limited to traditional or popular accounts of religion, and embrace opportunities and risks of technological evolution. Although usually considered secular, transhumanism has some religious origins and sometimes functions as religion. Accelerating change contextualizes a Mormon transhumanist narrative of common expectations, aspirations, and parallels between (...)
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  9. To Prove or Not to Prove: Pascal on Natural Theology.Douglas Richard Groothuis - 1993 - Dissertation, University of Oregon
    In this dissertation I argue that Pascal's reasons for rejecting the enterprise of natural theology are inadequate to negate the discipline's possible value for Christian theism. ;I begin by explaining the nature, function, and scope of natural theology or the attempt to argue for God's existence apart from revelation. ;Pascal argues that the Bible itself precludes the activity of natural theology. I dispute this claim by giving reasons why the omission of natural in the Bible does not mean that the (...)
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  10. Wagering Belief: Examining Two Objections to Pascal's Wager: D. GROOTHUIS.D. Groothuis - 1994 - Religious Studies 30 (4):479-486.
    This paper concerns two objections to Pascal's wager. The first claims that Pascal's recommendation to habituate oneself to believe in God is tantamount to religious brainwashing. I argue that this construal misses important aspects of what Pascal had in mind, which may render the habituation process a legitimate means to acquire new understanding. The second objection is based on the idea that a key assumption of the wager – that theistic belief is required for eternal felicity – is morally absurd. (...)
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  11. Infinite Return: Two Ways of Wagering with Pascal: James Wetzel.James Wetzel - 1993 - Religious Studies 29 (2):139-149.
    Pascal's wager has fascinated philosophers far in excess of its reputation as effective apologetics. Very few of the wager's defenders, in fact, have retained more than an academic interest in its power to persuade. Partly this is a matter of good manners. Pascal is supposed to have pitched his wager at folks who understand only self-interested motivations, and today it is no longer fashionable for defenders of theism to disparage the character of their opponents. But partly the low-key concern with (...)
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  12. Pragmatic Justification of Religious Faith.Joshua Lewis Golding - 1982 - Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    Pascal's Wager is analyzed and critiqued in Part I. The main objections to Pascal's argument are raised and various attempts to salvage the argument are discussed. These problems include the dubious assumption that one is forced to believe either that God exists or that God does not exist, and the questionable assumption that one will gain infinite happiness if and only if God exists and one believes in God's existence. Also problematic is the use of an infinite value in an (...)
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  13. The Precautionary Principle, the Catastrophe Argument, and Pascal's Wager.Neil Manson - 1999 - Ends and Means 4 (1).
  14. Tragic Closure and the Cornelian Wager.John Lyons - 1984 - Analecta Husserliana 18:409.
  15. Pascalian Fictions Antagonism and Absent Agency in the Wager and Other Pensées. Van Kelly - 1992
  16. Pascalův Argument Sázky.Richard JureČka - 2000 - Filosoficky Casopis 48:541-556.
  17. Pascal on Certainty and Utility.John C. McCarthy - 1995 - Interpretation 22 (2):247-269.
  18. N. Rescher, "Pascal's Wager: A Study of Practical Reasoning in Philosophical Theology".C. D. Kay - 1987 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 22 (1/2):112.
  19. An Unwarranted Farewell to Pascal's Wager: A Reply to Alan Carter.Douglas Groothius - 2002 - Philosophia Christi 4 (2):501-508.
  20. Are All Bets Off? A Defense of Pascal’s Wager.Douglas Groothuis - 2001 - Philosophia Christi 3 (2):517-524.
  21. Search, Rest, and Grace in Pascal.Jennifer L. Soerensen - 2014 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 76 (1):19-40.
    For Pascal, how are human beings related, or how do they relate themselves, to the summum bonum in this life? In what sense do they share in it, and how do they come to share in it? These are questions that emerge in many ways in Pascal’s writing, significantly in his concept of repos. To answer these questions, especially by elucidating what repos is for human beings in this life, I would like to begin with Graeme Hunter’s “Motion and Rest (...)
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  22. Treatment Option or Pharmacological Wager?Ann Boyd - 2013 - Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics 4 (4).
  23. Is the Wager Back On? A Response to Douglas Groothuis.Alan Carter - 2002 - Philosophia Christi 4 (2):493-500.
  24. Pascal and the Nature of Belief.W. Moore - 1945 - Hibbert Journal 44:353-357.
  25. Loki's Wager and Laudan's Error.On Genuine & Territorial Demarcation - 2013 - In Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. pp. 79.
  26. The Metaphysical Structure of Pascal Theology.G. Varani - 1984 - Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 13 (1):79-97.
  27. Vom Literarischen Diskurs Zum Christlichen Aufruf. Uberlegungen Zum Ersten Teil der von Pascal Provisorisch Geordneten Pensées (Du Discours Littéraire À l'Exhortation Chrétienne. Réflexions Sur la 1 Partie des Pensées Dans Leur Ordre Provisoire).P. Grotzer - 1988 - Theologie Und Philosophie 63 (3):370-383.
  28. Pascal's Argument of Stake.R. Jurecka - 2000 - Filosoficky Casopis 48 (4):541-556.
  29. What is the Self? Imitation and Subjectivity in Blaise Pascal's Pensées.William Wood - 2010 - Modern Theology 26 (3):417-436.
  30. Faith as a Mustard Seed.Dale Jacquette - 2012 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 17 (2):141-173.
  31. Henryk Elzenberg Wager for Values. Axiological and Methodological Aspects.Krzysztof Stachewicz - 2009 - Dialogue and Universalism 19 (8-9):39-47.
    The wager for values proposed by Henryk Elzenberg seems to be an interesting and important problem in axiological thinking. That is why one should take a close look at Elzenberg’s reasoning and at certain consequences of such point of view. We analyze this problem as a parallel to Pascal’s Wager for God. One should live and act as if God existed—it is an effect of Pascal’s Wager. One should live and behave as if perfect values existed—this is the essence of (...)
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  32. Scepticism and Mathematization: Pascal and Peirce on Mathematical Epistemology.Johannes Lenhard - 2004 - Philosophica 74.
    In his Pensées, Pascal introduced the very influential distinction between the subtle intelligence and the geometrical intelligence. In the first part of the present paper Pascal’s distinction is considered by looking at his famous wager argument where Pascal acts as a skeptical philosopher and at the same time as an applied mathematician. This argument employs the esprit de finesse in a way that is of fundamental significance for the epistemology of mathematics. This claim will be backed up in the second (...)
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  33. Wetsel, David. Pascal and Disbelief: Catechesis and Conversion in the Pensées.Timothy J. Williams - 1996 - Review of Metaphysics 50 (2):428-429.
  34. Pascal.J. J. R. - 1967 - Review of Metaphysics 20 (4):742-742.
  35. Pragmatic Arguments in the Qur'an for Belief.M. Shahid Alam - manuscript
  36. Pascal on Self-Caused Belief.Stephen T. Davis - 1991 - Religious Studies 27 (1):27 - 37.
  37. Duff and the Wager.Jeff Jordan - 1991 - Analysis 51 (3):174 - 176.
  38. Pragmatic Arguments and Belief.Jeff Jordan - 1996 - American Philosophical Quarterly 33 (4):409 - 420.
  39. Wager.Simon Blackburn - 2008 - In exploring philosophy of religion.
  40. Pascal's Syndrome: Positivism as a Symptom of Depression and Mania.Hiram Caton - 1986 - Zygon 21 (3):319-351.
    . The present study applies results and methods of psychobiology to intellectual history. Pascal's syndrome is a depressive neurosis associated with morbid effects of scientific certainty. The syndrome is characterized by self‐mortification and conversion experience that represses distressing certainties. The dynamics of the syndrome are assessed from Blake Pascal's psychosis. The ideation of the syndrome is evaluated by reference to the neurology of altered states of consciousness and the biogenic amine hypothesis of depression and mania. The evaluation yields a description (...)
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  41. Morality and Method in Pascal's.Ann T. Delehanty - 2004 - Philosophy and Literature 28 (1).
    : This essay argues that Pascal's work both questions the accuracy of perspective in an infinite universe, and describes a model for moral truth that escapes the limitations of perspective. This model, rooted in Christianity, requires a total reorientation of approach towards moral truth. By asserting the limits of rational method, making use of recent scientific developments, and constructing a new model for moral truth, Pascal's work sought to update the role of Christianity to be not only consonant with the (...)
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  42. The Science of Conjecture: Probability Before Pascal: Contents.James Franklin - 2001 - Johns Hopkins University Press.
    The Dark Ages The Gregorian Revolution The Glossators Invent "Half-Proof" Presumptions in Canon Law Innocent III Grades of Evidence, and Torture The Post-Glossators Bartolus and Baldus: The Completed Theory The Inquisition Maimonides on Testimony Law in the East Ch. 3 Renaissance Law..
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  43. Motion and Rest in the Pensées – a Note on Pascal's Modernism.Graeme Hunter - 2000 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 47 (2):87-99.
  44. Prudential Arguments, Naturalized Epistemology, and the Will to Believe.Henry Jackman - 1999 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 35 (1):1 - 37.
    This paper argues that treating James' "The Will to Believe" as a defense of prudential reasoning about belief seriously misrepresents it. Rather than being a precursor to current defenses of prudential arguments, James paper has, if anything, more affinities to certain prominent strains in contemporary naturalized epistemology.
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  45. The Christian Wager.R. G. Swinburne - 1984 - In J. Houston (ed.), Religious Studies. Handsel Press. pp. 217--228.
Pascal's Wager
  1. Pascal’s Wager and the Origins of Decision Theory: Decision-Making by Real Decision-Makers.James Franklin - 2018 - In Paul Bartha & Lawrence Pasternack (eds.), Pascal's Wager. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 27-44.
    Pascal’s Wager does not exist in a Platonic world of possible gods, abstract probabilities and arbitrary payoffs. Real decision-makers, such as Pascal’s “man of the world” of 1660, face a range of religious options they take to be serious, with fixed probabilities grounded in their evidence, and with utilities that are fixed quantities in actual minds. The many ingenious objections to the Wager dreamed up by philosophers do not apply in such a real decision matrix. In the situation Pascal addresses, (...)
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  2. Surreal Decisions.Eddy Keming Chen & Daniel Rubio - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Although expected utility theory has proven a fruitful and elegant theory in the finite realm, attempts to generalize it to infinite values have resulted in many paradoxes. In this paper, we argue that the use of John Conway's surreal numbers shall provide a firm mathematical foundation for transfinite decision theory. To that end, we prove a surreal representation theorem and show that our surreal decision theory respects dominance reasoning even in the case of infinite values. We then bring our theory (...)
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  3. Pascal's Wager.Paul Bartha & Lawrence Pasternack (eds.) - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    In his famous Wager, Blaise Pascal offers the reader an argument that it is rational to strive to believe in God. Philosophical debates about this classic argument have continued until our own times. This volume provides a comprehensive examination of Pascal's Wager, including its theological framework, its place in the history of philosophy, and its importance to contemporary decision theory. The volume starts with a valuable primer on infinity and decision theory for students and non-specialists. A sequence of chapters then (...)
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  4. Wagering with and Without Pascal.Daniel Collette & Joseph Anderson - 2018 - Res Philosophica 95 (1):95-110.
    Pascal’s wager has received the attention of philosophers for centuries. Most of its criticisms arise from how the wager is often framed. We present Pascal’s wager three ways: in isolation from any further apologetic arguments, as leading toward a regimen intended to produce belief, and finally embedded in a larger apology that includes evidence for Christianity. We find that none of the common objections apply when the wager is presented as part of Pascal’s larger project. Pascal’s wager is a successful (...)
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  5. Michael Rota, Taking Pascal’s Wager: Faith, Evidence, and the Abundant Life. [REVIEW]Michael T. McFall - 2017 - Teaching Philosophy 40 (1):116-119.
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