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  1. Potentiality as the Basis of Reality, A Speculative Approach.Sonderegger Erwin - manuscript
    Is reality the basis of everything or has reality itself an other basis? What makes reality – not the real things – to be active, to exist? The question of what is real seems to be an easy question, because in our daily lives we are and must be naive realists. We ourselves, the things around us, the world, the facts, all that is real. there must be several concepts of reality if we want to say that not only physical (...)
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  2. Reconsidering the Alleged Cases of Knowledge From Falsehood.Kok Yong Lee - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (2):151-162.
    A number of philosophers have recently proposed several alleged cases of “knowledge from falsehood,” i.e., cases of inferential knowledge epistemised by an inference with a false crucial premise. This paper examines such cases and argues against interpreting them as cases of knowledge from falsehood. Specifically, I argue that the inferences in play in such cases are in no position to epistemise their conclusions.
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  3. Knowledge Closure and Knowledge Openness: A Study of Epistemic Closure Principles.Levi Spectre - 2009 - Stockholm: Stockholm University.
    The principle of epistemic closure is the claim that what is known to follow from knowledge is known to be true. This intuitively plausible idea is endorsed by a vast majority of knowledge theorists. There are significant problems, however, that have to be addressed if epistemic closure – closed knowledge – is endorsed. The present essay locates the problem for closed knowledge in the separation it imposes between knowledge and evidence. Although it might appear that all that stands between knowing (...)
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  4. Conditioning Principles: On Bioethics and The Problem of Ableism.Joel Michael Reynolds - forthcoming - In Elizabeth Victor & Laura Guidry Grimes (eds.), Applying Nonideal Theory to Bioethics: Living and Dying in a Nonideal World. Springer.
    This paper has two goals. The first is to argue that the field of bioethics in general and the literature on ideal vs. nonideal theory in particular has underemphasized a primary problem for normative theorizing: the role of conditioning principles. I define these as principles that implicitly or explicitly ground, limit, or otherwise determine the construction and function of other principles, and, as a result, profoundly impact concept formation, perception, judgment, and action, et al. The second is to demonstrate that (...)
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  5. No Longer the Cave of History: Knowing the Universal in Context.Andrew W. Lamb - 2002 - International Philosophical Quarterly 42 (1):41-62.
    This essay argues against David Carr’s relativism by clarifying the in principle requirements appropriate to non-relative truths and showing that de facto differences of conceptual frameworks threaten none of them. Non-relative truths are not threatened by history. This defense of non-relative truth belongs to a larger defense of Husserlian “science” that shows how essences, even those “delivered” by history, have a universal “governance” and can be affirmed in nonrelative truths-as such science requires. If history also allows the other qualities of (...)
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  6. Definition and the Foundations of Knowledge in Illuminationist Philosophy: Section on Expository Propositions (Al-Aqwāl Al-Shāriḥa),.Hossein Ziai - 1993 - In Borhan Ibneh Yousef (ed.), Papers in Honor of ‘Ostād’ Javad Mosleh. Los Angeles: Research & Education Center. pp. 108-130.
  7. At the Threshold of Knowledge.Daniel Rothschild & Levi Spectre - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (2):449-460.
    We explore consequences of the view that to know a proposition your rational credence in the proposition must exceed a certain threshold. In other words, to know something you must have evidence that makes rational a high credence in it. We relate such a threshold view to Dorr et al.’s :277–287, 2014) argument against the principle they call fair coins: “If you know a coin won’t land tails, then you know it won’t be flipped.” They argue for rejecting fair coins (...)
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  8. Bagimsiz Yasam Istegi.Hasan Bulent Paksoy - 2012 - Florence: Carrie/European University Institute.
    Universite’nin gorevi nedir? Su tanim’i yapabiliriz: dusunceleri birlestirip,ilerletmek. Dusunceleri birlestirmek ve ilerletmek neden gereklidir? Bir atilim’a gecmek icin, yer alacak olaylarin onceden ve kapsamli olarakdusunulmesi gerekir. Dusunceler, bir atilimin baslangicidir ve yalniz universite icinde gelismez.Dusunceler bir yonetim'e katilim birimi icinde gelkisebilecegi gibi, arkadastopluluklari icinde de yer alabilir. Ayrica, bir tek kisi'ce de olusturulup birkitap icinde dunya'ya sunulabilir.
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  9. Knowledge-to-Fact Arguments (Bootstrapping, Closure, Paradox and KK).Murali Ramachandran - 2016 - Analysis 76 (2):142-149.
    The leading idea of this article is that one cannot acquire knowledge of any non-epistemic fact by virtue of knowing that one that knows something. The lines of reasoning involved in the surprise exam paradox and in Williamson’s _reductio_ of the KK-principle, which demand that one can, are thereby undermined, and new type of counter-example to epistemic closure emerges.
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  10. Fitch’s Paradox and Ceteris Paribus Modalities.Carlo Proietti & Gabriel Sandu - 2010 - Synthese 173 (1):75-87.
    The paper attempts to give a solution to the Fitch's paradox though the strategy of the reformulation of the paradox in temporal logic, and a notion of knowledge which is a kind of ceteris paribus modality. An analogous solution has been offered in a different context to solve the problem of metaphysical determinism.
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  11. The Anti-Theorist’s Paradox.Matthew R. Silliman & David K. Johnson - 2000 - Social Philosophy Today 15:199-208.
  12. Iteration Principles in Epistemology II: Arguments Against.Daniel Greco - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (11):765-771.
    The prequel to this paper introduced the topic of iteration principles in epistemology and surveyed some arguments in support of them. In this sequel, I'll consider two influential families of objection to iteration principles. The first turns on the idea that they lead to some variety of skepticism, and the second turns on ‘margin for error’ considerations adduced by Timothy Williamson.
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  13. Epistemic Authority, Preemptive Reasons, and Understanding.Christoph Jäger - 2016 - Episteme 13 (2):167-185.
    One of the key tenets of Linda Zagzebski’s book " Epistemic Authority" is the Preemption Thesis. It says that, when an agent learns that an epistemic authority believes that p, the rational response for her is to adopt that belief and to replace all of her previous reasons relevant to whether p by the reason that the authority believes that p. I argue that such a “Hobbesian approach” to epistemic authority yields problematic results. This becomes especially virulent when we apply (...)
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  14. Closure of A Priori Knowability Under A Priori Knowable Material Implication.Jan Heylen - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (2):359-380.
    The topic of this article is the closure of a priori knowability under a priori knowable material implication: if a material conditional is a priori knowable and if the antecedent is a priori knowable, then the consequent is a priori knowable as well. This principle is arguably correct under certain conditions, but there is at least one counterexample when completely unrestricted. To deal with this, Anderson proposes to restrict the closure principle to necessary truths and Horsten suggests to restrict it (...)
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  15. Probability and Danger.Timothy Williamson - 2009 - Amherst Lecture in Philosophy.
    What is the epistemological structure of situations where many small risks amount to a large one? Lottery and preface paradoxes and puzzles about quantum-mechanical blips threaten the idea that competent deduction is a way of extending our knowledge . Seemingly, everyday knowledge involves small risks, and competently deducing the conjunction of many such truths from them yields a conclusion too risky to constitute knowledge. But the dilemma between scepticism and abandoning MPC is false. In extreme cases, objectively improbable truths are (...)
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  16. Issues in Knowledge Representation: Semantics and Knowledge Combination.Chitta Ranjan Baral - 1991 - Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park
    In this thesis we are concerned with two major issues in knowledge representation: semantics of negation in knowledge representation languages, and combining knowledge bases. ;We take two different approaches to characterize the semantics of negation in knowledge representation languages. The first approach is based on an iterated fixpoint computation of the semantics. We present a uniform framework for iterated fixpoint semantics of logic programs. Based on this framework we study three particular instances in detail: Generalized Well-founded Semantics , $WF\sp3$ semantics, (...)
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  17. The Maker’s Knowledge Principle and the Limits of Science.Danilo Marcondes de Souza Filho - 2002 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 76:229-237.
    This paper starts with an analysis of the maker’s knowledge principle as one of the main characteristics of Modern epistemology. We start by showing that maker’s knowledge can be understood in two ways: 1) a negative sense, as a way of establishing limits to human knowledge: we can only know what we create; and 2) a positive sense, as legitimizing human knowledge: we effectively know what we create. We proceed then to examine the roots of the maker’s knowledge principle in (...)
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  18. Fantazma V Kinu: Problem Filmske Reprezentacije Skozi Filmske Manifeste in Filmski Anti-Manifest.Jela Krečič - 2009 - Problemi 4.
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  19. Skeptical Appeal: The Source‐Content Bias.John Turri - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (5):307-324.
    Radical skepticism is the view that we know nothing or at least next to nothing. Nearly no one actually believes that skepticism is true. Yet it has remained a serious topic of discussion for millennia and it looms large in popular culture. What explains its persistent and widespread appeal? How does the skeptic get us to doubt what we ordinarily take ourselves to know? I present evidence from two experiments that classic skeptical arguments gain potency from an interaction between two (...)
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  20. Four Paradoxes of Self-Reference: The Being of the Universal.Gregory S. Moss - 2014 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 28 (2):169-189.
    Herein I investigate how four dogmas underpinning the traditional concepts of universality, the genus, class, and abstract universal, generate four paradoxes of self-reference. The four dogmas are the following: (1) that contradiction entails the total absence of determinacy, (2) the necessary finitude of the concept, (3) the separation of principles of universality and particularity, and (4) the necessity of appealing to foundations. In section III I show how these dogmas underpin the paradoxes of self-reference and how one cannot make progress (...)
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  21. Formal Problems About Knowledge.Roy Sorensen - 2002 - In Paul K. Moser (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 539.
    In ”Formal Problems about Knowledge,” Roy Sorensen examines epistemological issues that have logical aspects. He uses Fitch's proof for unknowables and the surprise test paradox to illustrate the hopes of the modal logicians who developed epistemic logic, and he considers the epistemology of proof with the help of the knower paradox. One solution to this paradox is that knowledge is not closed under deduction. Sorensen reviews the broader history of this maneuver along with the relevant alternatives model of knowledge which (...)
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  22. Knowledge as Construct.Miranda Fricker - 1994 - In Kathleen Lennon & Margaret Whitford (eds.), Knowing the Difference: Feminist Perspectives in Epistemology. Routledge. pp. 95.
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  23. Kroon on Rationality and Epistemic Paradox.Byeong D. Lee - 1998 - Southwest Philosophy Review 14 (2):169-174.
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  24. This is Not a Book.Michael Picard - 2007 - Quid.
  25. Are Back-Tracking FDCs Deliberationally Useful?Jing Tong - 2011 - Southwest Philosophy Review 27 (2):113-121.
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  26. Paradoks znawcy (The Knower Paradox).Zbigniew Tworak - 2011 - Filozofia Nauki 19 (3).
    The Knower Paradox is an element of the class of paradoxes of self-reference. It demonstrates that any theory Ó which (1) extends Robinson arithmetic Q, (2) includes a unary knowledge predicate K, and (3) contains certain elementary epistemic principles involving K is inconsistent. In this paper I present different versions of the Knower Paradox (both in the framework of the first-order arithmetic and in the modal logic). There are several solutions of the paradox. Some of them I discuss in detail, (...)
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  27. Nozick o wiedzy i sceptycyzmie.Renata Ziemińska - 2002 - Filozofia Nauki 1.
    Nozick is the author of the conditional definition of knowledge where two subjunctive conditionals replace internalistic notion of justification. If you know that p, you have true belief that p and also in the close possible worlds you would accept p when p is true and you would not accept p when p is false. Nozick agrees with skeptics that we do not know that we are not brains in the vat. But he claims that we do know all the (...)
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  28. Science, Language and the Human Condition.Jude P. Dougherty - 1989 - Review of Metaphysics 42 (4):843-844.
    An ambitious work, based on a lifetime of reading and research, Science, Language and the Human Condition provides a strong defense of a realist theory of knowledge, opposing various forms of contemporary positivism and subjectivism. Kaplan identifies with the pragmatic tradition of Peirce, James, and Dewey, and acknowledges a particular intellectual debt to Morris Cohen. He views that tradition as fundamentally Aristotelian in orientation, as one that recognizes a plurality of methods of inquiry as well as the open-ended character of (...)
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  29. The Possibility of Knowledge: Nozick and His Critics.Luper-Foy Steven (ed.) - 1987 - Rowman & Littlefield.
    This volume of original essays assesses Nozick's analyses of knowledge and evidence and his approach to skepticism. Several of the contributors claim that Nozick has not succeeded in rebutting the skeptic; some offer fresh accounts of skepticism and its flaws; others criticize Nozick's externalist accounts of knowledge and evidence; still others welcome externalism but attempt to replace Nozick's accounts of knowledge and evidence with more plausible analyses.
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  30. What Is It to Be a Human Knower?Jan Derry - 2007 - Philosophy Now 63:10-11.
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  31. Closure.Sam Nico - 2002 - Philosophy Now 37:45-46.
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  32. F.B. Fitch 1908-1987.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1988 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 61 (3):551 - 553.
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  33. Gregory W. Fitch, 1948-2007.Theodore Guleserian - 2007 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 81 (2):172 -.
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  34. A Reply to Tennant.Christopher Peacocke - 1980 - Analysis 40 (1):8 - 9.
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  35. Reply to Tennant.Colin McGinn - 1980 - Analysis 41 (3):120 - 122.
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  36. Rejoinder to Tennant.Alan Weir - 1985 - Analysis 45 (2):68 - 72.
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  37. On an Epistemic Paradox.Doris Olin - 1987 - Analysis 47 (4):216 - 217.
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  38. A Knower's Evidence.Douglas Odegard - 1978 - American Philosophical Quarterly 15 (2):123 - 128.
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  39. The Logic of Inexact Concepts.J. A. Gougen - 1969 - Synthese 19:325--73.
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  40. The Uncertainty of the Surgical Margin in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer.T. Upile, C. Fisher, W. Jerjes, M. El Maaytah, A. Searle, D. Archer, L. Michaels, P. Rhys-Evans, C. Hopper, D. Howard & A. Wright - unknown
    We discuss our surgical philosophy concerning the subtle interplay between the size of the surgical margin taken and the resultant morbidity from ablative oncological. procedures, which is ever more evident in the treatment of head and neck malignancy. The extent of tissue resection is determined by the "trade off" between cancer control and the perioperative, functional and aesthetic morbidity and mortality of the surgery. We also discuss our dilemmas concerning recent minimally invasive endoscopic microsurgical. techniques for the trans-oral laser removal. (...)
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  41. A Worry About Safety.Richard Greene - 2007 - Southwest Philosophy Review 23 (1):155-161.
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  42. Transmission and Closure.Bob Hale - 2000 - Noûs 34 (s1):172 - 190.
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  43. Sensitivity, Indiscernibility and Knowledge.Keith Lehrer - 2000 - Noûs 34 (s1):33 - 37.
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  44. DeRose and the Comparative Account of Epistemic Closure.Christopher Buford - 2005 - Facta Philosophica 7 (2):255-259.
  45. Lotteries and the Close Shave Principle.John Collins - 2006 - In Stephen Hetherington (ed.), Aspects of Knowing. Elsevier Science. pp. 83.
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  46. On Knowledge of the Unknowable.Timothy Williamson - 1987 - Analysis 47 (3):154-158.
    If it is an unknown truth that p, it is an unknowable truth that it is an unknown truth that p . It follows, by classical logic, that if all truths are knowable then all truths are known. This hardish fact makes life difficult for the verificationist who wishes to assert that all truths are knowable, but to deny that all truths are known. He might try rejecting classical logic . Dorothy Edgington has recently suggested a different way out . (...)
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  47. An Argument Concerning the Unknowable.Leon Horsten - 2009 - Analysis 69 (2):240-242.
    Williamson has forcefully argued that Fitch's argument shows that the domain of the unknowable is non-empty. And he exhorts us to make more inroads into the land of the unknowable. Concluding his discussion of Fitch's argument, he writes: " Once we acknowledge that [the domain of the unknowable] is non-empty, we can explore more effectively its extent. … We are only beginning to understand the deeper limits of our knowledge. " I shall formulate and evaluate a new argument concerning the (...)
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  48. Epistemic Paradox.Tyler Burge - 1984 - Journal of Philosophy 81 (1):5-29.
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  49. Reductionism and Perfectibility of Science.Massimiliano Carrara & Davide Fassio - manuscript
    Nicholas Rescher, in The Limits of Science (1984), argued that: «perfected science is a mirage; complete knowledge a chimera» . He reached the above conclusion from a logical argument known as Fitch’s Paradox of Knowability. The argument, starting from the assumption that every truth is knowable, proves that every truth is also actually known and, given that some true propositions are not actually known, it concludes, by modus tollens, that there are unknowable truths. Prima facie, this argument seems to seriously (...)
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  50. Review of Steven D. Hales' Book: Relativism and the Foundations of Philosophy. [REVIEW]Manhal Hamdo - 2018 - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH CULTURE SOCIETY 2 (1):200-204.
    This review is a critical evaluation of the main points of Steven D. Hales’ significant book: Relativism and the Foundations of Philosophy. To that end, I will first summarize his major line of argument pointing out to the richness and significance of the book. After that, I will argue that Hales’ account of intuition is subject to the challenge shown by some recent works written on the topic, and that it postulates a concept of knowledge that opposes Gettier’s one, without (...)
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