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  1. added 2019-01-01
    Hume's Natural History of Justice.Mark Collier - 2011 - In C. Taylor & S. Buckle (eds.), Hume and the Enlightenment. Pickering & Chatto. pp. 131-142.
    In Book III, Part 2 of the Treatise, Hume presents a natural history of justice. Self-interest clearly plays a central role in his account; our ancestors invented justice conventions, he maintains, for the sake of reciprocal advantage. But this is not what makes his approach so novel and attractive. Hume recognizes that prudential considerations are not sufficient to explain how human beings – with our propensities towards temporal discounting and free-riding – could have established conventions for social exchange and collective (...)
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  2. added 2018-12-06
    The Dark Side of the Force: When Computer Simulations Lead Us Astray and ``Model Think'' Narrows Our Imagination.Eckhart Arnold - manuscript
    This paper is intended as a critical examination of the question of when the use of computer simulations is beneficial to scientific explanations. This objective is pursued in two steps: First, I try to establish clear criteria that simulations must meet in order to be explanatory. Basically, a simulation has explanatory power only if it includes all causally relevant factors of a given empirical configuration and if the simulation delivers stable results within the measurement inaccuracies of the input parameters. If (...)
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  3. added 2018-07-27
    Book Note: Danielson, P *Artificial Morality*.Luc Bovens - 1993 - Political Studies 41:719.
  4. added 2018-07-13
    The Tragedy of the Commons as a Voting Game.Luc Bovens - 2015 - In Martin Peterson (ed.), The Prisoner’s Dilemma. Classic philosophical arguments. Cambridge University Press.
    The Tragedy of the Commons is often associated with an n-person Prisoner’s Dilemma. But it can also have the structure of an n-person Game of Chicken, an Assurance Game, or of a Voting Games (or a Three-in-a-Boat Game). I present three historical stories that document tragedies of the commons, as presented in Aristotle, Mahanarayan and Hume and argue that the descriptions of these historical cases align better with Voting Games than with any other games.
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  5. added 2018-03-06
    Newcomb's Problem.Arif Ahmed (ed.) - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    Newcomb's Problem is a controversial paradox of decision theory. It is easily explained and easily understood, and there is a strong chance that most of us have actually faced it in some form or other. And yet it has proven as thorny and intractable a puzzle as much older and better-known philosophical problems of consciousness, scepticism and fatalism. It brings into very sharp and focused disagreement several long-standing philosophical theories on practical rationality, on the nature of free will, and on (...)
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  6. added 2018-02-17
    Reconsidering the Foole's Rejoinder: Backward Induction in Indefinitely Iterated Prisoner's Dilemmas.Magnus Jiborn & Wlodek Rabinowicz - 2003 - Synthese 136 (2):135-157.
    According to the so-called “Folk Theorem” for repeated games, stable cooperative relations can be sustained in a Prisoner’s Dilemma if the game is repeated an indefinite number of times. This result depends on the possibility of applying strategies that are based on reciprocity, i.e., strategies that reward cooperation with subsequent cooperation and punish defectionwith subsequent defection. If future interactions are sufficiently important, i.e., if the discount rate is relatively small, each agent may be motivated to cooperate by fear of retaliation (...)
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  7. added 2017-10-21
    Team Reasoning: Theory and Evidence.Jurgis Karpus & Natalie Gold - 2017 - In Julian Kiverstein (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the Social Mind. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 400-417.
    The chapter reviews recent theoretical and empirical developments concerning the theory of team reasoning in game theoretic interactions.
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  8. added 2017-10-21
    Team Reasoning and a Measure of Mutual Advantage in Games.Jurgis Karpus & Mantas Radzvilas - 2015 - Economics and Philosophy (1):1-30.
    The game theoretic notion of best-response reasoning is sometimes criticized when its application produces multiple solutions of games, some of which seem less compelling than others. The recent development of the theory of team reasoning addresses this by suggesting that interacting players in games may sometimes reason as members of a team – a group of individuals who act together in the attainment of some common goal. A number of properties have been suggested for team-reasoning decision-makers’ goals to satisfy, but (...)
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  9. added 2017-03-02
    What Niche Did Human Cooperativeness Evolve In?Hannes Rusch - 2013 - Etica E Politica 15 (2):82-100.
    The Prisoner’s Dilemma is widely used to model interaction between unrelated individuals in the study of the evolution of cooperativeness. Many mechanisms have been studied which allow for small founding groups of cooperative individuals to prevail even when all social interaction is characterised as a PD. Here, a brief critical discussion of the role of the PD as the most prominent tool in cooperation research is presented, followed by two new objections to such an exclusive focus on PD-based models. It (...)
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  10. added 2017-02-16
    Aptheker and Myrdal’s Dilemma.Lloyd Brown - 1997 - Nature, Society, and Thought 10 (1-2):111-118.
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  11. added 2017-02-15
    Automata and Inner States for Repeated Games.Karl Sigmund, Maarten Boerlijst & Martin Nowak - 1998 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 5:131-139.
    The repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma is often used as a game-theoretic paradigm to analyse the evolution of reciprocity, of mutual aid, and of trade. Conceivably, it can also help in understanding the emergence of inner motivational states, like contrition or outrage, which are essential for fuelling the ethics of communal life. A highly internalised sense of fairness and the readiness for moralistic aggression, the ability to be provoked and the feeling of guilt are important and apparently ubiquituous aspects of human socialisation. (...)
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  12. added 2017-02-14
    How to Love the Bomb: Trying to Solve the Prisoner's Dilemma with Evolutionary Game Theory.Vasco Castela - 2007 - In Carlos Gershenson, Diederik Aerts & Bruce Edmonds (eds.), Worldviews, Science, and Us: Philosophy and Complexity. World Scientific. pp. 203.
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  13. added 2017-02-14
    Digraph Competitions and Cooperation Games.René van den Brink & Peter Borm - 2002 - Theory and Decision 53 (4):327-342.
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  14. added 2017-02-14
    The Strategy of Cooperation.Edward McClennen - 2001 - In Christopher W. Morris & Arthur Ripstein (eds.), Practical Rationality and Preference: Essays for David Gauthier. Cambridge University Press. pp. 189--208.
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  15. added 2017-02-14
    The Small Hospital Dilemma.Mark C. Barabas - 1999 - Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 1 (4):5-7.
  16. added 2017-02-14
    God or Nature? The Western Dilemma.Manussos Marangudakis - 1999 - Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 31 (116):119-134.
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  17. added 2017-02-14
    Education and the Birth Rate: A Social Dilemma.Richard M. Titmuss - 1940 - The Eugenics Review 32 (2):61.
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  18. added 2017-02-13
    Investigation of Context Effects in Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game.Evgenia Hristova & Maurice Grinberg - 2005 - In B. Kokinov A. Dey (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer. pp. 183--196.
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  19. added 2017-02-13
    The Philosophy in the Dilemma.Chen Xianda - 2002 - Modern Philosophy 1:000.
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  20. added 2017-02-12
    Cooperation and Signaling with Uncertain Social Preferences.John Duffy & Félix Muñoz-García - 2015 - Theory and Decision 78 (1):45-75.
    This paper investigates behavior in finitely repeated simultaneous and sequential-move prisoner’s dilemma games when there is one-sided incomplete information and signaling about players’ concerns for fairness, specifically, their preferences regarding “inequity aversion.” In this environment, we show that only a pooling equilibrium can be sustained, in which a player type who is unconcerned about fairness initially cooperates in order to disguise himself as a player type who is concerned about fairness. This disguising strategy induces the uninformed player to cooperate in (...)
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  21. added 2017-02-12
    Institutions Matter! Why the Herder Problem is Not a Prisoner’s Dilemma.Daniel H. Cole & Peter Z. Grossman - 2010 - Theory and Decision 69 (2):219-231.
    In the game theory literature, Garrett Hardin’s famous allegory of the “tragedy of the commons” has been modeled as a variant of the Prisoner’s Dilemma, labeled the Herder Problem (or, sometimes, the Commons Dilemma). This brief paper argues that important differences in the institutional structures of the standard Prisoner’s Dilemma and Herder Problem render the two games different in kind. Specifically, institutional impediments to communication and cooperation that ensure a dominant strategy of defection in the classic Prisoner’s Dilemma are absent (...)
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  22. added 2017-02-12
    Keynesianism Constrained.Jim Tomlinson - 2009 - Radical Philosophy 155:6-10.
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  23. added 2017-02-12
    A Philanthropic Foundation at Work: Gunnar Myrdal's American Dilemma and the Carnegie Corporation. [REVIEW]Ellen Condliffe Lagemann - 1987 - Minerva 25 (4):441-470.
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  24. added 2017-02-10
    Dynamic Contractual Incentives in the Face of a Samaritans’s Dilemma.Josepa Miquel-Florensa - 2013 - Theory and Decision 74 (1):151-166.
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  25. added 2017-02-10
    A Theory of Forward Induction in Finitely Repeated Games.Nabil Al-Najjar - 1995 - Theory and Decision 38 (2):173-193.
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  26. added 2017-02-10
    Effective Choice in the Single-Shot Prisoner's Dilemma Tournament.Doede Nauta & Jeljer Hoekstra - 1995 - Theory and Decision 39 (1):1-30.
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  27. added 2017-02-10
    A Note on the Prisoner's Dilemma.C. L. Sheng - 1994 - Theory and Decision 36 (3):233-246.
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  28. added 2017-02-10
    The Repeated Public Goods Game: A Solution Using Tit-for-Tat and the Lindahl Point.Mark Irving Lichbach - 1992 - Theory and Decision 32 (2):133-146.
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  29. added 2017-02-10
    The Impossibility of a Paretian Loyalist.Peter Gärdenfors & Philip Pettit - 1989 - Theory and Decision 27 (3):207-216.
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  30. added 2017-02-09
    Scandinavia: The Dilemma of the Middle Way.Margaret Schlauch - 1945 - Science and Society 9 (2):97 - 124.
  31. added 2017-02-09
    The Dilemma of Science.Hugh S. Taylor - 1942 - Thought: Fordham University Quarterly 17 (1):182-183.
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  32. added 2017-02-08
    Collingridge’s Dilemma and Technoscience.Wolfgang Liebert & Jan C. Schmidt - 2010 - Poiesis and Praxis 7 (1-2):55-71.
    Collingridge’s dilemma is one of the most well-established paradigms presenting a challenge to Technology Assessment (TA). This paper aims to reconstruct the dilemma from an analytic perspective and explicates three assumptions underlying the dilemma: the temporal, knowledge and power/actor assumptions. In the light of the recent transformation of the science, technology and innovation system—in the age of technoscience —these underlying assumptions are called into question. The same result is obtained from a normative angle by Collingridge himself; he criticises the dilemma (...)
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  33. added 2017-02-08
    The Umpire's Dilemma.Colin Radford - 1985 - Analysis 45 (2):109 - 111.
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  34. added 2017-02-08
    The Dilemma of Science.Rudolf Allers - 1942 - New Scholasticism 16 (1):97-98.
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  35. added 2017-02-07
    Stable Cooperation in Iterated Prisoners' Dilemmas.Elliott Sober - 1992 - Economics and Philosophy 8 (1):127.
    When does self-interest counsel cooperation? This question pertains both to the labile behaviors produced by rational deliberation and to the more instinctive and fixed behaviors produced by natural selection. In both cases, a standard starting point for the investigation is the one-shot prisoners' dilemma. In this game, each player has the option of producing one or the other of two behaviors. The pay-offs to the row player are as follows.
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  36. added 2017-02-07
    Book Review:The Common Life: Ambiguity, Agreement, and the Structure of Morals. Burton Zwiebach. [REVIEW]Richard Eldridge - 1989 - Ethics 99 (3):641-.
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  37. added 2017-02-07
    Constrained Maximization and Resolute Choice.Edward F. McClennen - 1988 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (2):95.
    In Morals By Agreement, David Gauthier concludes that under certain conditions it is rational for an agent to be disposed to choose in accordance with a fair cooperative scheme rather than to choose the course of action that maximizes his utility. This is only one of a number of important claims advanced in that book. In particular, he also propounds a distinctive view concerning what counts as a fair cooperative arrangement. The thesis concerning the rationality of adopting a cooperative disposition (...)
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  38. added 2017-02-03
    V. Is the Prisoners' Dilemma All of Sociology?Arthur L. Stinchcombe - 1980 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 23 (2):187 – 192.
    If social relations often require the choice of a cooperative solution to a prisoners' dilemma, we must ask how people generally solve the games. Three possible devices are that those who choose non-cooperative strategies get a bad reputation and so learn to be cooperative, that people are taught by parents that non-cooperators have unhappy lives, or that an official can be paid a salary to make the cooperative choice. By analyzing erotic love and marriage, and why people try to do (...)
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  39. added 2017-02-02
    Why Do People Cooperate as Much as They Do?Jim Woodward - 2008 - In Chrysostomos Mantzavinos (ed.), Philosophy of the Social Sciences: Philosophical Theory and Scientific Practice. Cambridge University Press.
    This paper makes use of recent empirical results, mainly from experimental economics, to expore the conditions under which people will cooperate and to assess competing explantions of this cooperation. It is argued that the evidence supports the claim that people differ in type, with some being conditional cooperators and others being motivated by more or less sophisticated forms of self-interest. Stable cooperation requires, among other things, rules and institutions that protect conditional cooperators from myopically self-interested types. Additional empirical features of (...)
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  40. added 2017-02-02
    Nothing New Under the Sun at Guantanamo Bay : Precedent and Prisoners of War.Pauline M. Kaurin - 2005 - In Timothy Shanahan (ed.), Philosophy 9/11: Thinking About the War on Terrorism. Open Court.
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  41. added 2017-02-01
    Das Ontologische Dilemma der Normativen Ethik.Dirk Greimann - 2003 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 34 (1):15-41.
    The Ontological Dilemma of Normative Ethics. This paper pursues two goals. The first is to show that normative ethics is confronted with the following dilemma: to be coherent, this discipline is ontologically committed to acknowledge the existence of objective values, but, to be scientifically respectable, it is committed to repudiate such values. The second goal is to assess the possible solutions to this dilemma. To this end, the following strategies are discussed: Kant’s constructive objectivism, Jürgen Habermas’ “epistemic ersatzism”, Franz von (...)
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  42. added 2017-02-01
    The Tortoise and the Prisoners' Dilemma.P. Shaw - 1996 - Mind 105 (419):475-483.
    Simon Blackburn has claimed that on a theory of revealed preference it is tautological that any eligible player - one whose preferences are consistent - plays hawk, chooses a strategy of non-cooperation with the other prisoner. This claim is examined and rejected. A prisoner in the appropriate sense is defined not by preferences over actions (playing hawk or playing dove) but by preferences over the four possible outcomes which result from the players' actions jointly (both playing hawk, both playing dove, (...)
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  43. added 2017-02-01
    That There is a Dilemma in the Prisoners' Dilemma.Lanning Sowden - 1983 - Synthese 55 (3):347 - 352.
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  44. added 2017-02-01
    Discussions Notes: A Dilemma Defended.Geoffrey Sampson - 1978 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (4):353-355.
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  45. added 2017-01-31
    Morals by Agreement.David Copp & David Gauthier - 1989 - Philosophical Review 98 (3):411.
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  46. added 2017-01-30
    Aristotle’s Dilemma.A. F. Mackay - 2005 - The Journal of Ethics 9 (3-4):533-549.
    In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle appears to use an elegant short argument to attack Plato's doctrine of the good, which argument equally appears to attack Aristotle's own doctrine of the good. I consider these two questions: First: Why does Aristotle reverse the judgment of Socrates/Plato on the issue: Which is better - things that are good in themselves, or things that are both good in themselves and good for their consequences? Second: Why does Aristotle attack Plato's doctrine that the Form (...)
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  47. added 2017-01-30
    Decision-Theoretic Finitely Iterated Prisoner's Dilemmas.J. W. Carroll - 1999 - Analysis 59 (4):249-256.
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  48. added 2017-01-30
    The Neuropharmacologist's Dilemma.George B. Koelle - 1976 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 19 (3):402-403.
  49. added 2017-01-29
    Predicting Human Cooperation in the Prisoner’s Dilemma Using Case-Based Decision Theory.Todd Guilfoos & Andreas Duus Pape - 2016 - Theory and Decision 80 (1):1-32.
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  50. added 2017-01-29
    The Prisoner's Dilemma.Martin Peterson (ed.) - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    The Prisoner's Dilemma is one of the most fiercely debated thought experiments in philosophy and the social sciences, presenting the simple insight that when two or more agents interact, the actions that most benefit each individual may not benefit the group. The fact that when you do what is best for you, and I do what is best for me, we end up in a situation that is worse for both of us makes the Prisoner's Dilemma relevant to a broad (...)
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1 — 50 / 264