About this topic
Key works Seminal papers on pronominal anaphora include Geach 1967, Karttunen 1976, and Evans 1977. Work on pronominal anaphora has also led to many theoretical innovations. See, for example, Kamp 1981, Heim 1982, Groenendijk & Stokhof 1991, Muskens 1996, Jacobson 1999, Asher & Lascarides 2003, and Elbourne 2005. When it comes to non-pronominal anaphora, Roberts 1989 and Stone 1999 are the key works on modal anaphora. See Partee 1973, Partes 1984, and Stone & Hardt 1999 on temporal anaphora. Consult Asher 1993 for abstract object anaphora (incl. propositions, facts, events). Krifka 2013, Murray 2014, and van Elswyk 2019 discuss propositional anaphora. For property or verb phrase anaphora, see Partee & Bach 1984 and Prüst et al 1994. See van Der Sandt 1992 for an anaphoric treatment of presuppositions, Sommers 1983 for an anaphoric treatment of names, Nouwen 2003 on complement anaphora, and Grover et al 1975 for an anaphoric theory of truth. 
Introductions For introductions to pronominal anaphora, see King & Lewis 2016, Neale 2006, and Büring 2011. There is currently no introduction to non-pronominal anaphora. 
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  1. added 2020-02-11
    Terms and Truth: Reference Direct and Anaphoric.Emma Borg - 2004 - Mind 113 (452):737-740.
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  2. added 2020-01-06
    Situations and Individuals. [REVIEW]Z. Zvolenszky - 2008 - Philosophical Review 117 (2):314-316.
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  3. added 2019-11-21
    Semantic Monsters.Brian Rabern - forthcoming - In Heimir Geirsson & Stephen Biggs (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Linguistic Reference.
    This chapter provides a general overview of the issues surrounding so-called semantic monsters. In section 1, I outline the basics of Kaplan’s framework and spell out how and why the topic of “monsters” arises within that framework. In Section 2, I distinguish four notions of a monster that are discussed in the literature, and show why, although they can pull apart in different frameworks or with different assumptions, they all coincide within Kaplan’s framework. In Section 3, I discuss one notion (...)
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  4. added 2019-10-09
    Синкретизм складнопідрядних речень займенниково-співвідносного типу симетричної структури.Vasyl Ozhohan & Andriy Ozhohan - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:209-218.
    У статті проаналізовано синкретичні семантико-синтаксичні відношення у структурі складнопідрядних займенниково-співвідносних речень симетричного типу, з’ясовано причини, що впливають на формування цих синкретичних відношень.
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  5. added 2019-10-05
    "That"-Clauses and Propositional Anaphors.Peter van Elswyk - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    This paper argues that "that"-clauses do not reference propositions because they are not intersubstitutible with other expressions that do reference propositions. In particular, "that"-clauses are shown to not be intersubstitutible with propositional anaphors like "so." The substitution failures are further argued to support a semantics on which "that"-clauses are predicates.
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  6. added 2019-09-30
    Definiteness Projection.Matthew Mandelkern & Daniel Rothschild - 2019 - Natural Language Semantics:1-33.
    We argue that definite noun phrases give rise to uniqueness inferences characterized by a pattern we call definiteness projection. Definiteness projection says that the uniqueness inference of a definite projects out unless there is an indefinite antecedent in a position that filters presuppositions. We argue that definiteness projection poses a serious puzzle for e-type theories of (in)definites; on such theories, indefinites should filter existence presuppositions but not uniqueness presuppositions. We argue that definiteness projection also poses challenges for dynamic approaches, which (...)
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  7. added 2019-09-06
    Pointing things out: in defense of attention and coherence.Una Stojnić, Matthew Stone & Ernie Lepore - 2020 - Linguistics and Philosophy 43 (2):139-148.
    Nowak and Michaelson have done us the service of presenting direct and clear worries about our account of demonstratives. In response, we use the opportunity to engage briefly with their remarks as a useful way to clarify our view.
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  8. added 2019-09-04
    Counterfactual Donkeys Don't Get High.Michael Deigan - 2018 - Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung 22 1:367--384.
    I present data that suggest the universal entailments of counterfactual donkey sentences aren’t as universal as some have claimed. I argue that this favors the strategy of attributing these entailments to a special property of the similarity ordering on worlds provided by some contexts, rather than to a semantically encoded sensitivity to assignment.
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  9. added 2019-06-06
    Indexicality, Binding, Anaphora and a Priori Truth.Herman Cappelen & Ernie Lepore - 2002 - Analysis 62 (4):271-281.
    Indexicals are linguistic expressions whose meaning remain stable while their reference shifts from utterance to utterance. Paradigmatic cases in English are ‘I’, ‘here’, and ‘now’. Recently, a number of authors have argued that various constructions in our language harbor hidden indexicals. We say 'hidden' because these indexicals are unpronounced, even though they are alleged to be real linguistic components. Constructions taken by some authors to be associated, or to ‘co-habit’, with hidden indexicals include: definite descriptions and quantifiers more generally (hidden (...)
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Deixis and Anaphora.François Recanati - 2002 - In Zoltan Gendler Szabo (ed.), Semantics Versus Pragmatics. Clarendon Press. pp. 286--316.
    A defence of the 'pragmatic' theory of anaphora (which stresses the analogy between anaphora and deixis) against an argument put forward by Gareth Evans.
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  11. added 2019-06-06
    Bound Variables and C‐command.Maria Nella Carminati, Lyn Frazier & Keith Rayner - 2002 - Journal of Semantics 19 (1):1-34.
    It has long been assumed in linguistics that bound variable interpretations of pronouns are possible (only) when a quantified expression c‐commands the pronoun. In two studies in which readers' eye movements were recorded, we examined the processing of pronouns bound by universal quantifiers. Experiment 1 compared examples where the quantifier c‐commands the pronoun (‘Every British soldier thought he killed an enemy soldier’) with examples where it doesn't (‘Every British soldier aimed and then he killed an enemy soldier’). Although there were (...)
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    The Use of Anaphora in the Amplification of a General Truth, Illustrated Chiefly From Silver Latin. [REVIEW]J. Wight Duff - 1916 - The Classical Review 30 (8):228-229.
  13. added 2019-04-02
    Truth-Predicates Still Not Like Pronouns: A Reply to Salis.Arvid Båve - 2019 - Philosophia 47 (5):1421-1429.
    I here respond to Pietro Salis’s objections against my original critique of the Prosentential Theory of Truth. In addition, I clarify some points regarding the relationship between anaphoric relationships and “general semantic notions” like “equivalence”, “consequence”, and “sameness of content”, and make some further points about ’s ability gto explain pragmatic and expressive features of “true”.
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  14. added 2019-03-05
    Propositional Anaphors.Peter van Elswyk - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (4):1055-1075.
    Propositions are posited to perform a variety of explanatory roles. One important role is being what is designated by a dedicated linguistic expression like a "that"-clause. In this paper, the case that propositions are needed for such a role is bolstered by defending that there are other expressions dedicated to designating propositions. In particular, it is shown that natural language has anaphors for propositions. Complement "so" and the response markers "yes" and "no" are argued to be such expressions.
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  15. added 2019-01-14
    'Now' with Subordinate Clauses.Sam Carter & Daniel Altshuler - 2017 - In Proceedings of SALT 27. pp. 340-357.
    We investigate a novel use of the English temporal modifier ‘now’, in which it combines with a subordinate clause. We argue for a univocal treatment of the expression, on which the subordinating use is taken as basic and the non-subordinating uses are derived. We start by surveying central features of the latter uses which have been discussed in previous work, before introducing key observations regarding the subordinating use of ‘now’ and its relation to deictic and anaphoric uses. All of these (...)
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  16. added 2018-10-31
    Deixis (Even Without Pointing).Una Stojnic, Matthew Stone & Ernie Lepore - 2013 - Philosophical Perspectives 27 (1):502-525.
  17. added 2018-09-06
    Logic & Natural Language: On Plural Reference and its Semantic and Logical Significance.Hanoch Ben-Yami - 2004 - Routledge.
    Frege's invention of the predicate calculus has been the most influential event in the history of modern logic. The calculus' place in logic is so central that many philosophers think, in fact, of it when they think of logic. This book challenges the position in contemporary logic and philosophy of language of the predicate calculus claiming that it is based on mistaken assumptions. Ben-Yami shows that the predicate calculus is different from natural language in its fundamental semantic characteristics, primarily in (...)
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  18. added 2018-06-05
    Cognitive Status, Information Structure, and Pronominal Reference to Clausally Introduced Entities.Jeanette K. Gundel, Michael Hegarty & Kaja Borthen - 2003 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (3):281-299.
    This paper investigates reference to clausally introduced entities and proposes an explanation for why these are more readily available to immediate subsequent reference with a demonstrative pronoun than with the personal pronoun,it. New evidence is provided supporting proposals that such entities are typically activated, but not brought into focus, upon their introduction into a discourse. The study also provides further insight into the role of information structure, lexical semantics, presuppositional contexts, and syntactic structure in bringing an entity into focus of (...)
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  19. added 2018-02-17
    A Type-Theoretic Approach to Anaphora and Ellipsis Resolution.Shalom Lappin & C. Fox - unknown
    We present an approach to anaphora and ellipsis resolution in which pronouns and elided structures are interpreted by the dynamic identification in discourse of type constraints on their semantic representations. The content of these conditions is recovered in context from an antecedent expression. The constraints define separation types in Property Theory with Curry Typing, an expressive first-order logic with Curry typing that we have proposed as a formal framework for natural language semantics.
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  20. added 2018-02-17
    First-Person Thought and the Use of ‘I’.Komarine Romdenh-Romluc - 2008 - Synthese 163 (2):145-156.
    The traditional account of first-person thought draws conclusions about this type of thinking from claims made about the first-person pronoun. In this paper I raise a worry for the traditional account. Certain uses of 'I' conflict with its conception of the linguistic data. I argue that once the data is analysed correctly, the traditional approach to first-person thought cannot be maintained.
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  21. added 2017-11-21
    Indefinite Pronouns.Martin Haspelmath - 1999 - Linguistics and Philosophy 22 (6):663-678.
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  22. added 2017-09-28
    Person, Context and Perspective.Ken Safir - unknown
    Ken Safir, Rutgers University ABSTRACT: It is argued that the indexicality of first person pronouns is arises from a restriction on the pronouns themselves, as opposed to any operator that binds them. The nature of this restriction is an asyntactic constant function that picks out individuals to the context of utterance (following Kaplan, 1989)). Constant function pronouns do not require an antecedent, neither an operator nor an argument, although this does not prevent them from participating in bound readings if an (...)
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  23. added 2017-09-28
    Pronouns Vs. Definite Descriptions.Kyle Johnson - unknown
    This paper looks at an approach to Principle C in which the disjoint reference effect triggered by definite description arises because there is a preference for using bound pronouns in those cases. Philippe Schlenker has linked this approach to the idea that the NP part of a definite description should be the most minimal in content relative to a certain communicative goal. On a popular view about what the syntax and semantics of a personal pronoun is, that should have the (...)
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  24. added 2017-09-28
    Pronouns and Complex Demonstratives.Eric Swanson - manuscript
    Until recently it was standard to think that all demonstratives are directly referential. This assumption has played important roles in work on perception, reference, mental content, and the nature of propositions. But Jeff King claims that demonstratives with a nominal complement (like ‘that dog’) are quantifiers, largely because there are cases in which the semantic value of such a “complex demonstrative” is not simply an object (2001). Although I agree with King that such cases preclude a directly referential, Kaplanian semantics (...)
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  25. added 2017-09-28
    Layered DRT.Bart Geurts & Emar Maier - manuscript
    The information conveyed by any utterance is a motley ensemble. Utterances carry content about the world as it is according to the speaker, but also about speakers’ attitudes, the way they speak, what has been said before, and so on. There are many kinds of information that are conveyed by way of language, and differences in kind correlate with differences in status. Presupposed information exhibits a distinctive projection behaviour; conversational implicatures are cancellable in a way that asserted information is not; (...)
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  26. added 2017-09-28
    On Person as a Model for Logophoricity.Ken Safir - manuscript
    Ken Safir, Rutgers University Following a line of thought initiated by Kuno (1972), it has been suggested that the coconstrual of first person pronouns is a model for the coconstrual of a logophoric pronoun with its antecedent. This particular proposal has been extended to the forms of logophoricity that have been observed in some African languages (e.g., Ewe, as remarked in passing by Clements, 1975, and Amharic, as proposed by Schlenker, 2000).
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  27. added 2017-09-28
    The Difference Between Indexicals and Demonstratives.Alexandru Radulescu - 2018 - Synthese 195 (7):3173-3196.
    In this paper, I propose a new way to distinguish between indexicals, like “I” and “today”, and demonstratives, like “she” and “this”. The main test case is the second person singular pronoun “you”. The tradition would generally count it as a demonstrative, because the speaker’s intentions play a role in providing it with a semantic value. I present cross-linguistic data and explanations offered of the data in typology and semantics to show that “you” belongs on the indexical side, and argue (...)
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  28. added 2017-09-28
    Discourse and Logical Form: Pronouns, Attention and Coherence.Una Stojnić, Matthew Stone & Ernie Lepore - 2017 - Linguistics and Philosophy 40 (5):519-547.
    Traditionally, pronouns are treated as ambiguous between bound and demonstrative uses. Bound uses are non-referential and function as bound variables, and demonstrative uses are referential and take as a semantic value their referent, an object picked out jointly by linguistic meaning and a further cue—an accompanying demonstration, an appropriate and adequately transparent speaker’s intention, or both. In this paper, we challenge tradition and argue that both demonstrative and bound pronouns are dependent on, and co-vary with, antecedent expressions. Moreover, the semantic (...)
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  29. added 2017-09-28
    Grammatical Role Parallelism Influences Ambiguous Pronoun Resolution in German.Sauermann Antje & Gagarina Natalia - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  30. added 2017-09-28
    Pronoun Interpretation in the Second Language: Effects of Computational Complexity.Roumyana Slabakova, Lydia White & Natália Brambatti Guzzo - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  31. added 2017-09-28
    Pointers.Peter Simons - 2017 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 94 (3):381-390.
    _ Source: _Volume 94, Issue 3, pp 381 - 390 Reference can fail in a way that intentionality cannot. Though the stream of phenomenal experience typically does not fail to target objects outside, it may do. How does the mind go about targeting objects beyond itself? The speculative conjecture of this paper is that it does so by a type of process which can be called _pointing_, and that the acts or act-aspects of pointing can be called _pointers_. The notion (...)
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  32. added 2017-09-28
    Processing the Chinese Reflexive “Ziji”: Effects of Featural Constraints on Anaphor Resolution.Xiao He & Elsi Kaiser - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  33. added 2017-09-28
    When “He” Can Also Be “She”: An ERP Study of Reflexive Pronoun Resolution in Written Mandarin Chinese.Jui-Ju Su, Nicola Molinaro, Margaret Gillon-Dowens, Pei-Shu Tsai, Denise H. Wu & Manuel Carreiras - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  34. added 2017-09-28
    Structural Constraints on Pronoun Binding and Coreference: Evidence From Eye Movements During Reading.Ian Cunnings, Clare Patterson & Claudia Felser - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  35. added 2017-09-28
    Processing Implicit Control: Evidence From Reading Times.Michael McCourt, Jeffrey J. Green, Ellen Lau & Alexander Williams - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    Sentences such as “The ship was sunk to collect the insurance” exhibit an unusual form of anaphora, implicit control, where neither anaphor nor antecedent is audible. The non-finite reason clause has an understood subject, PRO, that is anaphoric; here it may be understood as naming the agent of the event of the host clause. Yet since the host is a short passive, this agent is realized by no audible dependent. The putative antecedent to PRO is therefore implicit, which it normally (...)
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  36. added 2017-09-28
    Introducing a Gender-Neutral Pronoun in a Natural Gender Language: The Influence of Time on Attitudes and Behavior.Marie Gustafsson Sendén, Emma A. Bäck & Anna Lindqvist - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  37. added 2017-09-28
    The Relationship Between Anaphor Features and Antecedent Retrieval: Comparing Mandarin Ziji and Ta-Ziji.Brian Dillon, Wing-Yee Chow & Ming Xiang - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  38. added 2017-09-28
    Dependent Plural Pronouns with Skolemized Choice Functions.Yasutada Sudo - 2014 - Natural Language Semantics 22 (3):265-297.
    The present paper discusses two interesting phenomena concerning phi-features on plural pronouns: plural pronouns that denote atomic individuals, and plural pronouns with more than one binder. A novel account of these two phenomena is proposed, according to which all occurrences of phi-features are both semantically and morphologically relevant. For such a ‘uniformly semantic account’ of phi-features, dependent plural pronouns constitute a theoretical challenge, while partial binding is more or less straightforwardly accounted for. In order to make sense of the semantic (...)
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  39. added 2017-09-28
    Immediate Sensitivity to Structural Constraints in Pronoun Resolution.Wing-Yee Chow, Shevaun Lewis & Colin Phillips - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  40. added 2017-09-28
    Reflexive Anaphor Resolution in Spoken Language Comprehension: Structural Constraints and Beyond.Kaili Clackson & Vera Heyer - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  41. added 2017-09-28
    Order Effects in Dynamic Semantics.Peter Beim Graben - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):67-73.
    In their target article, Wang and Busemeyer (2013) discuss question order effects in terms of incompatible projectors on a Hilbert space. In a similar vein, Blutner recently presented an orthoalgebraic query language essentially relying on dynamic update semantics. Here, I shall comment on some interesting analogies between the different variants of dynamic semantics and generalized quantum theory to illustrate other kinds of order effects in human cognition, such as belief revision, the resolution of anaphors, and default reasoning that result from (...)
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  42. added 2017-09-28
    Identity, Causality, and Pronoun Ambiguity.Eyal Sagi & Lance J. Rips - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (4):663-680.
    This article looks at the way people determine the antecedent of a pronoun in sentence pairs, such as: Albert invited Ron to dinner. He spent hours cleaning the house. The experiment reported here is motivated by the idea that such judgments depend on reasoning about identity . Because the identity of an individual over time depends on the causal-historical path connecting the stages of the individual, the correct antecedent will also depend on causal connections. The experiment varied how likely it (...)
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  43. added 2017-09-28
    A Fan Effect in Anaphor Processing: Effects of Multiple Distractors.Kevin S. Autry & William H. Levine - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  44. added 2017-09-28
    Conversely: Extrapropositional and Prosentential.John Corcoran & Sriram Nambiar - 2014 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 20 (3):404-5.
    This self-contained lecture examines uses and misuses of the adverb conversely with special attention to logic and logic-related fields. Sometimes adding conversely after a conjunction such as and signals redundantly that a converse of what preceded will follow. -/- (1) Tarski read Church and, conversely, Church read Tarski. -/- In such cases, conversely serves as an extrapropositional constituent of the sentence in which it occurs: deleting conversely doesn’t change the proposition expressed. Nevertheless it does introduce new implicatures: a speaker would (...)
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  45. added 2017-09-28
    How WM Load Influences Linguistic Processing in Adults: A Computational Model of Pronoun Interpretation in Discourse.Jacolien Rij, Hedderik Rijn & Petra Hendriks - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):564-580.
    This paper presents a study of the effect of working memory load on the interpretation of pronouns in different discourse contexts: stories with and without a topic shift. We discuss a computational model (in ACT-R, Anderson, 2007) to explain how referring expressions are acquired and used. On the basis of simulations of this model, it is predicted that WM constraints only affect adults' pronoun resolution in stories with a topic shift, but not in stories without a topic shift. This latter (...)
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  46. added 2017-09-28
    Meaning Shift and the Purity of 'I'.Edison Barrios - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 164 (1):263-288.
    In this paper I defend the “Standard View” of the semantics of ‘I’—according to which ‘I’ is a pure, automatic indexical—from a challenge posed by “deferred reference” cases, in which occurrences of ‘I’ are (allegedly) not speaker-referential, and thus non-automatic. In reply, I offer an alternative account of the cases in question, which I call the “Description Analysis” (DA). According to DA, seemingly deferred-referential occurrences of the first person pronoun are interpreted as constituents of a definite description, whose operator scopes (...)
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  47. added 2017-09-28
    Ellipsis of Personal Pronouns and Unmarked Verb Forms in Acadian French / De L’Ellipse Du Pronom Personnel Aux Formes Verbales Non Marquées Dans Les Parlers Acadiens.Patrice Brasseur - 2013 - Human and Social Studies 2 (1):51-72.
    The little francophone community of Port-au-Port Peninsula in Newfoundland is particularly representative of non-standard French spoken in North America. This paper tries to elaborate a grammatical analysis in order to justify the transcriptions of verb forms in the Dictionnaire des régionalismes de Terre-Neuve. In the sentence “I passait les maisons, [bladʒe] ac le monde”, for instance, [bladʒe] could be interpreted as “blaguait” or “blaguer.” In standard French, the same sentence could be translated as “il allait de porte en porte parler (...)
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  48. added 2017-09-28
    Personal Pronoun Revisionism - Asking the Right Question.Harold Noonan - 2012 - Analysis 72 (2):316-318.
    Personal pronoun revisionism (so-called by Olson, E. 2007. What are We? A Study in Personal Ontology. Oxford: Oxford University Press) is a response to the problem of the thinking animal on behalf of the neo-Lockean theorist. Many worry about this response. The worry rests on asking the wrong question, namely: how can two thinkers that are so alike differ in this way in their cognitive capacities? This is the wrong question because they don't. The right question is: how can they (...)
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  49. added 2017-09-28
    World Variable Binding and Beta-Binding.David Schueler - 2011 - Journal of Semantics 28 (2):241-266.
    This paper investigates the analysis of the de re/de dicto distinction and related facts. I start with the assumption, supported by Cresswell 1990, that the evaluation of the truth of a proposition relative to a particular possible world/situation is mediated via the presence in the syntax of a silent pronoun with type-s denotation. In this system, the de re/de dicto distinction arises from a difference in which an operator binds a given situation pronoun. Percus 2000 shows that such a system (...)
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  50. added 2017-09-28
    Referential Processing in Monologue and Dialogue with and Without Access to Real World Referents.S. C. Garrod - 2011 - In Edward Gibson & Neal J. Pearlmutter (eds.), The Processing and Acquisition of Reference. MIT Press. pp. 273--294.
    This chapter examines the role of the situation model in referential processing and how it can link what appear to be incompatible results from studies of monologue and dialogue as well as studies of reading and visual-world eye tracking. It shows that data from experiments on pronoun resolution in reading indicate a two-step model, in which candidate antecedents for an anaphor are first identified on the basis of gender matching and number matching, then evaluated with respect to the overall situation (...)
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1 — 50 / 299