About this topic
Summary It seems that it's possible for Mary to utter the sentence ‘Whales are fish’ and thereby say that whales are fish. John might believe what Mary said, or not. If John and Mary both believe it then there is something that they both believe. That thing is false, however. That Mary can use that sentence to say that might be partly explained by the fact that ‘Whales are fish’ means that whales are fish. (The fact that Mary can use that sentence to convey that John doesn’t know much about Whales by adopting a certain tone of voice might also be partly explained by that meaning fact.) The preceding claims are not self-evident, but they are attractive. Taken at face value they suggest that there is a class of objects which can be believed, said, take truth values and serve as meanings. The standard name for such things is ‘propositions’. There are several debates at the intersection of philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, and metaphysics about the nature of these entities and the roles they should play in our philosophical theories.
Key works There have been several important books on the nature of propositions in recent years: Stalnaker 1984; Schiffer 2003; King 2007Soames 2010; Moltmann 2013King et al 2014; Hanks 2015; Merricks 2015; Soames 2015. There is also a handbook containing survey articles: Tillman & Murray 2022.
Introductions Hanks 2009Stevens 2008; King 2017
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  1. Avicenna, "the healing, Logic: Isagoge": a new edition, English translation and commentary of the Kitāb al-madḫal of Avicenna's Kitāb al-šifāʾ. Avicenna & Silvia Di Vincenzo - 2021 - Boston: De Gruyter. Edited by Silvia Di Vincenzo.
    The Kitāb al-Madḫal ("Book of the Isagoge") is crucial for anyone who aims to fully understand Avicenna's (d. 1037) theory of universal predicables at the crossroads between logic and metaphysics. Also, it is the only work of the Šifā' to have been entirely available in Latin by the twelfth century. This book offers a new edition of the Arabic text, accompanied by an English translation and by the first commenentary on the whole work.
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  2. Truth, topicality, and transparency: one-component versus two-component semantics.Peter Hawke, Levin Hornischer & Franz Berto - 2024 - Linguistics and Philosophy 47:481-503.
    When do two sentences say the same thing, that is, express the same content? We defend two-component (2C) semantics: the view that propositional contents comprise (at least) two irreducibly distinct constituents: (1) truth-conditions and (2) subject-matter. We contrast 2C with one-component (1C) semantics, focusing on the view that subject-matter is reducible to truth-conditions. We identify exponents of this view and argue in favor of 2C. An appendix proposes a general formal template for propositional 2C semantics.
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  3. Calculus of Qualia 7: Equations vs. Qualations, Assertions with non-referential terms, Proofs, Logic.P. Merriam & M. A. Z. Habeeb - manuscript
    General Introduction: In [1] a Calculus of Qualia (CQ) was proposed. The key idea is that, for example, blackness is radically different than █. The former term, “blackness” refers to or is about a quale, whereas the latter term, “█” instantiates a quale in the reader’s mind and is non-referential; it does not even refer to itself. The meaning and behavior of these terms is radically different. All of philosophy, from Plato through Descartes through Chalmers, including hieroglyphics and emojis, used (...)
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  4. Propositionen sprachpragmatisch betrachtet.Glüsing Leon - 2023 - In Hoffmann Martin & Martin Tobias (eds.), Ebenen des Verstehens Wolfgang Künne im Gespräch. Paderborn: Brill mentis. pp. 223–234.
    The article critically examines Wolfgang Künne's theory of propositions through a speech-pragmatic lens, drawing on John R. Searle's concept of constitutive rules. Three approaches to understanding propositions are presented, arguing that propositions are not just abstract entities but are significantly shaped by the language and social structures within which they operate. The preferred approach posits that propositions are linguistic constructs, emphasizing the interdependence between language and the nature of propositions.
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  5. Abstract Objects.David Liggins - 2024 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Philosophers often debate the existence of such things as numbers and propositions, and say that if these objects exist, they are abstract. But what does it mean to call something 'abstract'? And do we have good reason to believe in the existence of abstract objects? This Element addresses those questions, putting newcomers to these debates in a position to understand what they concern and what are the most influential considerations at work in this area of metaphysics. It also provides advice (...)
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  6. Some Ways the Ways the World Could Have Been Can't Be.Christopher James Masterman - 2024 - Journal of Philosophical Logic (4):1-29.
    Let serious propositional contingentism (SPC) be the package of views which consists in (i) the thesis that propositions expressed by sentences featuring terms depend, for their existence, on the existence of the referents of those terms, (ii) serious actualism—the view that it is impossible for an object to exemplify a property and not exist—and (iii) contingentism—the view that it is at least possible that some thing might not have been something. SPC is popular and compelling. But what should we say (...)
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  7. Kant, Propositions, and Non-Fundamental Metaphysics.Damian Melamedoff-Vosters - 2022 - In Chris Tillman & Adam Murray (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Propositions. Routledge. pp. 144-158.
    In this chapter, my aim is to present an account of Immanuel Kant’s transcendental idealism that centers his view of propositions as mental acts. As I intend to show, Kant’s strategy in the Critique of Pure Reason is only intelligible under the assumption that the fundamental bearers of truth are mental entities.
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  8. Von der Bildung der Begriffsinhalte.Karl Dürr - 1916 - Zürich,: Rascher.
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  9. About Haecceity: An Essay in Ontology.Matthew Davidson - 2024 - London: Routledge.
    This book offers an in-depth and updated examination of the nature of haecceity—that primitive entity which explains why something is distinct from other things. -/- The book begins by exploring different conceptions of haecceity throughout history. The discussion of various figures across history is important for getting clear on the nature of haecceity and its role in individuation. The next part of the book examines different views about the nature of haecceity. The author defends a view on which haecceities have (...)
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  10. Relational Belief.Nathan Salmon - 1995 - In Paolo Leonardi & Marco Santambrogio (eds.), On Quine: New Essays. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. pp. 206-228.
  11. Identiska och syntetiska satser.Paul Cavallin - 1894 - Lund,: Distribuent: Gleerupska universitets-bokhandeln.
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  12. An experimental study of the mental processes involved in judgment...Borislav P. Stevanović - 1927 - Cambridge [Eng.]: The University press.
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  13. Untersuchungen zur Theorie des unendlichen Urteils.Jakob Gordin - 1929 - Berlin,: Akademie Verlag.
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  14. Urteil und beurteilung.Walter Blumenfeld - 1931 - Leipzig,: Akademische verlagsgesellschaft m. b. h..
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  15. Über die funktion der copula.Albert Grote - 1935 - Leipzig,: F. Meiner.
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  16. Der Urteilssinn.Jürgen Rausch - 1943 - Berlin,: Junker und Dünnhaupt.
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  17. Du jugement comme acte signifiant.Dan Bădărău - 1944 - Lausanne,: F. Roth & cie.
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  18. Suzhdenie i ego vidy.P. V. Tavanet︠s︡ - 1953 - Moskva: Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR.
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  19. L'éducation du jugement.Marcel Boll - 1954 - Paris,: Presses universitaires de France.
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  20. Voprosy teorii suzhdenii︠a︡.P. V. Tavanet︠s︡ - 1955 - Moskva: Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR.
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  21. Voprosy klassifikat︠s︡ii suzhdeniĭ.Aleksandr Vasilʹevich Drozdov - 1956 - [Leningrad]:
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  22. Suzhdenie.P. S. Popov - 1957 - [Moskva]: Izd-vo Moskovskogo universiteta.
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  23. Elementy sądu a istnienie.Leon Gumański - 1961 - Toruń,:
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  24. Sinn und Möglichkeiten wissenschaftlicher Prognosse.Erhard Denninger - 1965 - [Mainz,: Universität]. Edited by Roellecke, Gerd, [From Old Catalog] & Otto Saame.
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  25. Poni︠a︡tie.E. K. Voĭshvillo - 1967 - [Moskva,]: Izd-vo Moskovskogo universiteta.
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  26. Voprosy teorii suzhdenii︠a︡.David Mikhaĭlovich Keburii︠a︡ - 1968 - Tbilisi,: "Met︠s︡niereba,".
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  27. Conoscenza e giudizio.Edo Mario Gianni - 1969 - Montefiore Conca,: Editrice A. B. C. di G. Cipriani.
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  28. Az ítélet dialektikus logikai elmélete.László Erdei - 1971 - Budapest,: Akadémiai Kiadó.
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  29. Grundzüge der Aussagenlogik.Lothar Czayka - 1971 - Berlin,: Verl. Dokumentation.
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  30. Ot formalʹnoĭ logiki k dialektike: voprosy teorii suzhdenii︠a︡.Georgiĭ Vladimirovich Antonov - 1971 - Moskva: Vysshai︠a︡ shkola.
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  31. L'art de la conjecture.Bertrand de Jouvenel - 1972 - Paris: Hachette.
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  32. Orit︠s︡atelʹnye vyskazyvanii︠a︡.Iosif Nusimovich Brodskiĭ - 1973
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  33. Hyŏnsanghakchŏk pʻandan non yŏnʼgu.Kir-U. Yi - 1974
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  34. Ejercicios de lógica: lógica proposicional.Colacilli de Muro & C. J. - 1974 - Buenos Aires: Paidós. Edited by Afra Alegría Hermosa & Ana Rita Jachimovicz.
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  35. Predvidenie kak chelovecheskaia sposobnost'.Alla Gennad'evna Nikitina - 1975 - Moskva: Mysl.
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  36. Toward a General Theory of Human Judgment.Justus Buchler - 1951 - New York,: Columbia University Press.
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  37. Nature and Judgment.Justus Buchler - 1955 - New York,: Columbia University Press.
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  38. Logik der Prognose: semant. Grundlegung technolog. u. sozialwissenschaftl. Vorhersagen.Hans Georg Knapp - 1978 - München: Alber.
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  39. Glauben, Wissen und Wahrscheinlichkeit: Systeme der epistemischen Logik.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1980 - New York: Springer.
    Eine Einfiihrung in die epistemische Logik wurde schon vor unge fahr zwei Jahrzehnten durch Jaakko Hintikka geschrieben, und auf sein "Knowledge and Belief" nimmt das vorliegende Buch nicht nur durch den Titel "Glauben, Wissen und Wahrscheinlichkeit" Bezug. Es diirfte deshalb wohl angebracht sein, wenn der Autor eines Buches, das so deutlich die Nachfolgeschaft eines anderen beansprucht, sich dafiir rechtfertigt und erklart, worin sich sein Werk von dem des Vorgangers unterscheidet. Ein wichtiger Punkt, in dem die zweite iiber die erste Einleitung (...)
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  40. Das Urteil: die dialektisch-logische Theorie des Urteils.László Erdei - 1981 - Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
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  41. Das Urteil und die Sinne: transzendentalphilosophische und ästhesiologische Untersuchungen im Anschluss an Richard Hönigswald und Helmuth Plessner.Manuel Schneider - 1989 - Köln: Janus.
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  42. From we-mode to role-mode.Michael Schmitz - 2023 - In Miguel Garcia-Godinez & Rachael Mellin (eds.), Tuomela on Sociality. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 177-200.
    Raimo Tuomela’s most important contribution to the philosophy of collective intentionality was his development of the notion of the we-mode. In my chapter I extend the notion of we-mode to that of role-mode, the mode in which individual and collective subjects feel, think and act as occupants of roles within groups and institutional structures. I focus on how being in role-mode is manifest in the minds of subjects and on the following points. First, I argue that both we-mode and role-mode (...)
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  43. Bard datoghutʻyunneri mijev tramabanakan haraberutʻyunnerě ev drantsʻ dzevakan nerkayatsʻumě.Hrant Kʻochʻaryan - 2011 - Erevan: HH GAA "Gitutʻyun" hratarakchʻutʻyun.
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  44. Coincident Objects and The Grounding Problem.Ataollah Hashemi - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Investigations at University of Tabriz 16 (41):164-173.
    Pluralists believe in the occurrence of numerically distinct spatiotemporal coincident objects. They argue that there are coincident objects that share all physical and spatiotemporal properties and relations; nevertheless, they differ in terms of modal and some other profiles. Appealing to the grounding problem according to which nothing can ground the modal differences between coincident objects, monists reject the occurrence of coincident objects. In the first part of this paper, I attempt to show that the dispute between monists and pluralists cannot (...)
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  45. Clarifying and improving the cognitive theory.Scott Soames - 2014 - In Jeffrey C. King, Scott Soames & Jeff Speaks (eds.), New Thinking About Propositions. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
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  46. Part 4. Further thoughts. Responses to Speaks and Soames.Jeffrey C. King - 2014 - In Jeffrey C. King, Scott Soames & Jeff Speaks (eds.), New Thinking About Propositions. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
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  47. Propositions vs. properties and facts.Scott Soames - 2014 - In Jeffrey C. King, Scott Soames & Jeff Speaks (eds.), New Thinking About Propositions. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
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  48. Part 3. Critical essays. Criticisms of Soames and Speaks.Jeffrey C. King - 2014 - In Jeffrey C. King, Scott Soames & Jeff Speaks (eds.), New Thinking About Propositions. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
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  49. Cognitive propositions.Scott Soames - 2014 - In Jeffrey C. King, Scott Soames & Jeff Speaks (eds.), New Thinking About Propositions. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
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  50. Propositions are properties of everything or nothing.Jeff Speaks - 2014 - In Jeffrey C. King, Scott Soames & Jeff Speaks (eds.), New Thinking About Propositions. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    I defend the view that propositions are a kind of property which is true iff it is instantiated. I discuss how we should think about propositional attitudes on this sort of view, and explain why I favor this sort of view over the more familiar Chisholm/Lewis view that attitudes are self-ascriptions of properties. I conclude by raising, and briefly discussing, two problems for the kind of view of propositions I favor.
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