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  1. La psychopathie et son évaluation.Denis Delannoy, Xavier Saloppé, Vicenzutto Audrey, Vanessa Majois, Claire Ducro & T. H. Pham - forthcoming - EMC - Psychiatrie.
    L’évaluation de la psychopathie reste incontournable tant dans le domaine de l’expertise, de l’orientation, du traitement, que de l’évaluation et la gestion du risque. Le profil psychopathique et le niveau de risque de récidive associé constituent des indicateurs pertinents pour les professionnels de terrain. Cet article se propose de compléter le premier datant de 2011 en apportant des connaissances supplémentaires relatives aux modèles d’évaluation de la psychopathie ainsi qu’un éclairage optimiste sur l’efficacité des traitements auprès d’adultes délinquants. Il décrit, d’une (...)
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  2. Complex Relations Between Psychopathy and Fitness May Indicate Adaptive Trade-Offs.Janko Međedović - forthcoming - Evolutionary Psychological Science.
    In order to assess the potential of psychopathy to increase evolutionary fitness, we examined the relations between psychopathy and fitness indicators (number of children and grandchildren, problems in physical health both in parents and offspring) in a sample of post-reproductive individuals (N = 187; Mage = 66.52). Specifically, we explored the possibility that psychopathy traits are involved in evolutionary trade-offs: both positive and negative relations with different fitness components. Psychopathy was measured via three traits—interpersonal, affective, and lifestyle characteristics, which are (...)
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  3. Electrophysiological Correlates of Empathic Processing in Individuals with Psychopathic Meanness Traits.J. D. M. Van Dongen, Inti A. Brazil, F. M. van der Veen & I. H. A. Franken - forthcoming - Neuropsychology.
  4. Successful and Selective Exploitation in Psychopathy: Convincing Others and Gaining Trust.Kristopher J. Brazil, Chantelle J. Dias & Adelle E. Forth - 2021 - Personality and Individual Differences 170:1-10.
    In this study, we consider concurrently a disorder view and functional design view of psychopathy using different methods of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and a target and rater paradigm involving filmed interactions. Targets were young men (N = 46) assessed on psychopathic traits and FA who took part in a video recorded deceptive emotion story where they were incentivized to convince others and gain their trust. Raters were young men and women (N = 1060) who rated the target's videos for genuineness (...)
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  5. Is the Psychopathic Brain an Artifact of Coding Bias? A Systematic Review.Jarkko Jalava, Stephanie Griffiths, Rasmus Rosenberg Larsen & B. Emma Alcott - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Questionable research practices are a well-recognized problem in psychology. Coding bias, or the tendency of review studies to disproportionately cite positive findings from original research, has received comparatively little attention. Coding bias is more likely to occur when original research, such as neuroimaging, includes large numbers of effects, and is most concerning in applied contexts. We evaluated coding bias in reviews of structural magnetic resonance imaging studies of PCL-R psychopathy. We used PRISMA guidelines to locate all relevant original sMRI studies (...)
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  6. Psychopathy and the Induction of Desire: Formulating and Testing an Evolutionary Hypothesis.Kristopher J. Brazil & Adelle E. Forth - 2020 - Evolutionary Psychological Science 6:64–81.
    The problems psychopathic individuals impose on society and in their interpersonal relationships can be held in stark contrast to reports of their appeal and sexual success in some of those relationships. In the current paper, we seek to contextualize this enigma by focusing on the interpersonal dynamics of psychopathic individuals in romantic encounters. We first formulate a plausible evolutionary function, the sexual exploitation hypothesis, that proposes psychopathy exhibits “special design” features for subverting female mate choice, facilitating the induction of favorable (...)
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  7. Aus der Not eine Tugend machen? Ethische, juristische und praktische Implikationen funktionaler Psychopathen in Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft.Jan Dehne-Niemann, Till E. Dehne-Niemann & Volker Lingnau - 2020 - In S. Et al Burger (ed.), Führungsverantwortung und Führungsversagen. Augsburg/München: Rainer Hampp Verlag. pp. 45-68.
    Das Themengebiet der Psychopathie hat in den letzten Jahrzehnten vor allem durch Filme, die sich mit (vermeintlich) psychopathischen Charakteren beschäfti- gen, ein breites gesellschaftliches Interesse erfahren (vgl. Swart 2016). Holly- woods Blockbuster zeigen hier Beispiele hochintelligenter (z. B. Hanibal Lector in „Das Schweigen der Lämmer“) oder sexuell devianter (z. B. Patrick Bateman in „American Psycho“) Serienkiller, welche aus klinischer Sicht tatsächlich hoch psy- chopathische Tendenzen aufweisen. Demgegenüber werden psychisch andersartig beeinträchtigte Filmcharaktere, wie z. B. Norman Bates („Psycho“) oder Travis Bickel (...)
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  8. Psychopathy as Moral Blindness: A Qualifying Exploration of the Blindness-Analogy in Psychopathy Theory and Research.Rasmus Rosenberg Larsen - 2020 - Philosophical Explorations 23 (3):214-233.
    The term psychopathy refers to a personality disorder associated with callous personality traits and antisocial behaviors. Throughout its research history, psychopathy has frequently been described as a peculiar form of moral blindness, engendering a narrative about a patient stereotype incapable of taking a genuine moral perspective, similar to a blind person who is deprived of proper visual perceptions. However, recent empirical research has shown that clinically diagnosed psychopaths are morally more fit than initially thought, and the blindness-analogy now comes across (...)
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  9. Are Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) Psychopaths Dangerous, Untreatable, and Without Conscience? A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence.Rasmus Rosenberg Larsen, Jarkko Jalava & Stephanie Griffiths - 2020 - Psychology, Public Policy and Law 26 (3):297–311.
    The Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL; Hare, Neumann, & Mokros 2018) scales are among the most widely used forensic assessment tools. Their perceived utility rests partly on their ability to assess stable personality traits indicative of a lack of conscience, which then facilitates behavioral predictions useful in forensic decisions. In this systematic review, we evaluate the empirical evidence behind 3 fundamental justifications for using the PCL scales in forensics, namely, that they are empirically predictive of (1) criminal behavior, (2) treatment outcomes, (...)
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  10. Psychopathy Treatment and the Stigma of Yesterday's Research.Rasmus Rosenberg Larsen - 2020 - In Sandra L. Borden & J. D. Allhoff (eds.), Ethics and Error in Medicine. New York: Routledge.
    The psychiatric diagnosis of psychopathic personality—or psychopathy—signifies a patient stereotype with a callous lack of empathy and strong antisocial tendencies. Throughout the research record and psychiatric practices, diagnosed psychopaths have been predominantly seen as immune to psychiatric intervention and treatment, making the diagnosis a potentially strong discriminator for treatment amenability. In this contribution, the evidence in support of this proposition is critically analyzed. It is demonstrated that the untreatability perspective rests largely on erroneous, unscientific conclusions. Instead, recent research suggests that (...)
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  11. Commentary: The Moral Bioenhancement of Psychopaths.Elisabetta Sirgiovanni - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 10:1-3.
    Baccarini and Malatesti (2017) defend the idea that we must use coercively biomedical means to enhance the morality of a specific group of individuals: psychopaths, diagnosed through the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) standards (Hare, 2003). Their argument is theoretical, thus it goes independently from the actual effectiveness of existent treatments, and it is based on a logical reasoning. Moral bioenhancement (MB) means include psychotropic drugs, brain stimulations, neurosurgeries, genetic editing, etc. -/- In short, the authors apply Gerald Gaus' account of open (...)
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  12. Some Ethical Considerations About the Use of Biomarkers for the Classification of Adult Antisocial Individuals.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & Inti A. Brazil - 2019 - International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 18 (3):228-242.
    It has been argued that a biomarker-informed classification system for antisocial individuals has the potential to overcome many obstacles in current conceptualizations of forensic and psychiatric constructs and promises better targeted treatments. However, some have expressed ethical worries about the social impact of the use of biological information for classification. Many have discussed the ethical and legal issues related to possibilities of using biomarkers for predicting antisocial behaviour. We argue that prediction should not raise the most pressing ethical worries. Instead, (...)
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  13. Psychopathy Treatment and the Stigma of Yesterday's Research.Rasmus Rosenberg Larsen - 2019 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 29 (3):243-272.
    The psychiatric diagnosis of psychopathic personality—or psychopathy—signifies a patient stereotype with a callous lack of empathy and strong antisocial tendencies. Throughout the research record and psychiatric practices, diagnosed psychopaths have been predominantly seen as immune to psychiatric intervention and treatment, making the diagnosis a potentially strong discriminator for treatment amenability. In this contribution, the evidence in support of this proposition is critically analyzed. It is demonstrated that the untreatability perspective rests largely on erroneous, unscientific conclusions. Instead, recent research suggests that (...)
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  14. The Neuromoral Theory of Antisocial, Violent, and Psychopathic Behavior.Adrian Raine - 2019 - Psychiatry Research 277:64–69.
    The neuromoral theory of antisocial behaviors argues that impairment to the neural circuitry underlying morality provides a common foundation for antisocial, violent, and psychopathic behavior in children, adolescents, and adults. This article reviews new findings in two research fields since this theory was first proposed: brain mechanisms underlying moral decision-making, and brain systems subserving antisocial behaviors. The neuromoral theory is updated to take into account new empirical findings. Key areas implicated in both moral decision-making and the spectrum of antisocial behaviors (...)
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  15. Psychiatry's Problem with Reductionism.Rebecca Roache - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (3):219-229.
    Psychiatry uncomfortably spans biological, psychological, and social perspectives on mental illness. As a branch of medicine, psychiatry is under pressure to conform to a biomedical model, according to which diseases are characterized primarily in biological terms. But psychiatry also draws on the psychotherapeutic tradition, which explains mental distress in terms of life experience and social influences.These approaches ought to complement each other, but historically this has not happened. With no theory creating global, systematic links between the two approaches, psychiatry is (...)
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  16. Classification and Treatment of Antisocial Individuals: From Behavior to Biocognition.Inti A. Brazil, J. D. M. van Dongen, J. H. R. Maes, R. B. Mars & Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers - 2018 - Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 91:259-277.
    Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous construct that can be divided into subtypes, such as antisocial personality and psychopathy. The adverse consequences of antisocial behavior produce great burden for the perpetrators, victims, family members, and for society at-large. The pervasiveness of antisocial behavior highlights the importance of precisely characterizing subtypes of antisocial individuals and identifying specific factors that are etiologically related to such behaviors to inform the development of targeted treatments. The goals of the current review are to briefly summarize research (...)
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  17. Psychopathic Personality Disorder: Capturing an Elusive Concept.David J. Cooke - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):15-32.
    The diagnosis of psychopathic personality disorder has salience for forensic clinical practice. It influences decisions regarding risk, treatability and sentencing, indeed, in certain jurisdictions it serves as an aggravating factor that increases the likelihood of a capital sentence. The concatenation of symptom that is associated with modern conceptions of the disorder can be discerned in early writings, including the book of Psalms. Despite its forensic clinical importance and historical pedigree the concept remains elusive and controverted. In this paper I describe (...)
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  18. Are Psychopaths Legally Insane?Anneli Jefferson & Katrina Sifferd - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):79-96.
    The question of whether psychopaths are criminally and morally responsible has generated significant controversy in the literature. In this paper, we discuss what relevance a psychopathy diagnosis has for criminal responsibility. It has been argued that figuring out whether psychopathy is a mental illness is of fundamental importance, because it is a precondition for psychopaths’ eligibility to be excused via the legal insanity defense. But even if psychopathy counts as a mental illness, this alone is not sufficient to show the (...)
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  19. Psychopathy: Philosophical and Empirical Challenges.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & John McMillan - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):5-14.
    Editorial introduction to the special issue of the European Journal of Analytic Philosophy.
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  20. Can Psychopathic Traits Be Adaptive? Sex Differences in Relations Between Psychopathy and Emotional Distress.Janko Međedović & Katarina Sokić - 2018 - Psychological Topics 27 (3):481-497.
    One of the most prominent models of psychopathy operationalizes this construct as consisting of four factors: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial traits. These traits show different relationship patterns with other constructs, and these relations may differ in men and women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relations between psychopathic traits and indicators of emotional distress (depression, anxiety and stress), differ between men and women. Data was collected on 650 students (60% women) at the University of Zagreb. (...)
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  21. Comparing the Response Modulation Hypothesis and the Integrated Emotions System Theory: The Role of Top-Down Attention in Psychopathy.Jaap Munneke, Sylco S. Hoppenbrouwers, Bethany Little, Karen Kooiman, Erik Van der Burg & Jan Theeuwes - 2018 - Personality and Individual Differences 122:134-139.
    Objective: Two major etiological theories on psychopathy propose different mechanisms as to how emotional facial expressions are processed by individuals with elevated psychopathic traits. The Response Modulation Hypothesis (RMH) proposes that psychopathic individuals show emotional deficits as a consequence of attentional deployment, suggesting that emotional deficits are situation-specific. The Integrated Emotions System theory (IES) suggests that psychopathic individuals have a fundamental amygdala dysfunction which precludes adequate responsiveness to the distress of others. Methods: Participants performed a visual search task in which (...)
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  22. Review of the „Handbook of Antisocial personality disorder“. [REVIEW]Andrej Poleev - 2018 - Enzymes 16.
    The Antisocial personality disorder and several other psychiatric constructs are questioned and deconstructed in this review, that uses psychoanalytic approach to explain the nature of psychopathy and to give recommendations in this respect. -/- In vorliegender Rezension werden psychiatrische Konstrukte psychoanalytischer Bewertung unterzogen und dekonstruiert. Während die Entität „Antisoziale Persönlichkeitsstörung“ aufgrund ihrer Unwissenschaftlichkeit verworfen wird, besteht mentales Konstrukt „Psychopathie“ der Realitätsprüfung. In weiterem Verlauf der Rezension wird Versuch unternommen, das Phänomen der Psychopathie aufzuklären, um sie begrifflich sowie gesundheitlich einzugrenzen.
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  23. A Bayesian Account of Psychopathy: A Model of Lacks Remorse and Self-Aggrandizing.Aaron Prosser, Karl Friston, Nathan Bakker & Thomas Parr - 2018 - Computational Psychiatry 2:92-140.
    This article proposes a formal model that integrates cognitive and psychodynamic psychotherapeutic models of psychopathy to show how two major psychopathic traits called lacks remorse and self-aggrandizing can be understood as a form of abnormal Bayesian inference about the self. This model draws on the predictive coding (i.e., active inference) framework, a neurobiologically plausible explanatory framework for message passing in the brain that is formalized in terms of hierarchical Bayesian inference. In summary, this model proposes that these two cardinal psychopathic (...)
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  24. Shame, Embarrassment, and the Subjectivity Requirement.Erick J. Ramirez - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):97-114.
    Reactive theories of responsibility see moral accountability as grounded on the capacity for feeling reactive-attitudes. I respond to a recent argument gaining ground in this tradition that excludes psychopaths from accountability. The argument relies on what Paul Russell has called the 'subjectivity requirement'. On this view, the capacity to feel and direct reactive-attitudes at oneself is a necessary condition for responsibility. I argue that even if moral attitudes like guilt are impossible for psychopaths to deploy, that psychopaths, especially the "successful" (...)
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  25. The Moral Bioenhancement of Psychopaths.Elvio Baccarini & Luca Malatesti - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (10):697-701.
    We argue that the mandatory moral bioenhancement of psychopaths is justified as a prescription of social morality. Moral bioenhancement is legitimate when it is justified on the basis of the reasons of the recipients. Psychopaths expect and prefer that the agents with whom they interact do not have certain psychopathic traits. Particularly, they have reasons to require the moral bioenhancement of psychopaths with whom they must cooperate. By adopting a public reason and a Kantian argument, we conclude that we can (...)
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  26. Emotion-Based Learning Systems and the Development of Morality.R. J. R. Blair - 2017 - Cognition 167:38-45.
    In this paper it is proposed that important components of moral development and moral judgment rely on two forms of emotional learning: stimulus-reinforcement and response-outcome learning. Data in support of this position will be primarily drawn from work with individuals with the developmental condition of psychopathy as well as fMRI studies with healthy individuals. Individuals with psychopathy show impairment on moral judgment tasks and a pronounced increased risk for instrumental antisocial behavior. It will be argued that these impairments are developmental (...)
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  27. Deux mesures de psychopathie chez les patients médicolégaux.Denis Delannoy, Xavier Saloppé, Luca A. Tiberi, Christelle Delescluse & Thierry H. Pham - 2017 - Annales Médico-Psychologiques, Revue Psychiatrique 175 (3):297-299.
    In the forensic field, psychopathy is a disorder that raises many questions. Indeed, the diagnostic evaluation by the PCL-R offers no opportunity to assess the variability of the disorder on the entire life. However, the dimensional scales used to assess this fluctuation, at least in the medium term. This study helps to validate the CAPP-IRS using the PCL-R with forensic patients.
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  28. On Blaming and Punishing Psychopaths.Marion Godman & Anneli Jefferson - 2017 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 11 (1):127-142.
    Current legal practice holds that a diagnosis of psychopathy does not remove criminal responsibility. In contrast, many philosophers and legal experts are increasingly persuaded by evidence from experimental psychology and neuroscience indicating moral and cognitive deficits in psychopaths and have argued that they should be excused from moral responsibility. However, having opposite views concerning psychopaths’ moral responsibility, on the one hand, and criminal responsibility, on the other, seems unfortunate given the assumption that the law should, at least to some extent, (...)
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  29. A Comprehensive Neuroimaging Review of PCL-R Defined Psychopathy.Stephanie Y. Griffiths & Jarkko V. Jalava - 2017 - Aggression and Violent Behavior:DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.002.
    Neurobiological theories of psychopathy typically include abnormalities in paralimbic circuits, and a neurobiological profile of paralimbic dysfunction in increasingly invoked in applied legal settings. The current study systematically evaluated whether sMRI and fMRI findings in PCL-R defined psychopaths suggest paralimbic dysfunction. Our review indicates diffuse and variable neural correlates of psychopathy, with numerous issues complicating the interpretation of these heterogeneous data. Our review also extends previous discussions concerning how this heterogeneity may be related to sample characteristics, methodological variations, and statistical (...)
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  30. Psychopathic Individuals Exhibit but Do Not Avoid Regret During Counterfactual Decision Making.Arielle Baskin-Sommersa, Allison M. Stuppy-Sullivana Allison & Joshua W. Buckholtz - 2016 - Proceedins of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (50):14438-14443.
    Psychopathy is associated with persistent antisocial behavior and a striking lack of regret for the consequences of that behavior. Although explanatory models for psychopathy have largely focused on deficits in affective responsiveness, recent work indicates that aberrant value-based decision making may also play a role. On that basis, some have suggested that psychopathic individuals may be unable to effectively use prospective simulations to update action value estimates during cost–benefit decision making. However, the specific mechanisms linking valuation, affective deficits, and maladaptive (...)
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  31. Problem klasifikacije u filozofiji psihijatrije : slučaj psihopatije (Eng. The Problem of Classification in the Philosophy of Psychiatry: The Case of Psychopathy).Zdenka Brzović, Jelena Hodak, Luca Malatesti, Vesna Šendula-Jengić & Predrag Šustar - 2016 - Prolegomena 15 (1):21-41.
    The aim of this paper is to analyze, from a philosophical perspective, the scientific robustness of the construct of psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist Revised that was developed by Robert Hare (1991; 2003). The scientific robustness and validity of classifications are topics of many debates in philosophy of science and philosophy of psychiatry more specifically. The main problem consists in establishing whether scientific classifications reflect natural kinds where the concept of a natural kind refers to the existence of (...)
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  32. Curing Psychopathy: Just Activate the Amygdala?Andrew Dawson, Rebecca A. Segrave & Adrian Carter - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (3):164-166.
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  33. Distinct Neuronal Patterns of Positive and Negative Moral Processing in Psychopathy.Samantha J. Fede, Jana Schaich Borg, Prashanth K. Nyalakanti, Carla L. Hare, Lora M. Cope, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Mike Koenigs, Vince D. Calhoun & Kent A. Kiehl - 2016 - Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience 16 (6):1074–1085.
    Psychopathy is a disorder characterized by severe and frequent moral violations in multiple domains of life. Numerous studies have shown psychopathy-related limbic brain abnormalities during moral processing; however, these studies only examined negatively valenced moral stimuli. Here, we aimed to replicate prior psychopathy research on negative moral judgments and to extend this work by examining psychopathy-related abnormalities in the processing of controversial moral stimuli and positive moral processing. Incarcerated adult males (N = 245) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol (...)
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  34. Parsing Fear.S. S. Hoppenbrouwers, B. H. Bulten & I. A. Brazil - 2016 - Psychological Bulletin:Online edition.
    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by interpersonal manipulation and callousness, and reckless and impulsive antisocial behavior. It is often seen as a disorder in which profound emotional disturbances lead to antisocial behavior. A lack of fear in particular has been proposed as an etiologically salient factor. In this review, we employ a conceptual model in which fear is parsed into separate subcomponents. Important historical conceptualizations of psychopathy, the neuroscientific and empirical evidence for fear deficits in psychopathy are compared against (...)
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  35. Neurosurgery for Psychopaths? An Ethical Analysis.Dietmar Hübner & Lucie White - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (3):140-149.
    Recent developments in neuroscience have inspired proposals to perform deep brain stimulation on psychopathic detainees. We contend that these proposals cannot meet important ethical requirements that hold for both medical research and therapy. After providing a rough overview of key aspects of psychopathy and the prospects of tackling this condition via deep brain stimulation, we proceed to an ethical assessment of such measures, referring closely to the distinctive features of psychopathic personality, particularly the absence of subjective suffering and a lack (...)
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  36. Take the Money and Run: Psychopathic Behavior in the Trust Game.Manuel I. Ibáñez, Gerardo Sabater-Grande, Iván Barreda-Tarrazona, Laura Mezquita, Sandra López-Ovejero, Helena Villa, Pandelis Perakakis, Generós Ortet, Aurora García-Gallego & Nikolaos Georgantzís - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  37. A Dual-Process Account of Moral Judgment: What Psychopaths Can Teach Us About Morality.Deirdre Kelly - 2016 - Dissertation, Carleton University
    Researchers who argue that moral judgment is based on emotions (`emotion-backers') and those who believe that it is based on reasoning and deliberation (`reasoning-backers') have both struggled to account for the notorious moral deviance of incarcerated psychopaths. Emotion-backers, such as Jonathan Haidt, focus on psychopaths' lack of a affect,or defciencies in particular emotions, such as sympathy. Reasoning-backers, such as Lawrence Kohlberg, focus instead on psychopaths' de cient reasoning. Both accounts offer separate descriptions of what goes wrong in the disorder, but (...)
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  38. Impulsive-Antisocial Dimension of Psychopathy Linked to Enlargement and Abnormal Functional Connectivity of the Striatum.Cole Korponay, Maia Pujara, Philip Deming, Clarissa Philippi, Jean Decety, David S. Kosson, Kent A. Kiehl & Michael Koenigs - 2016 - Biological Psychiatry.
    Background -/- Psychopathy is a mental health disorder characterized by callous and impulsive antisocial behavior, and it is associated with a high incidence of violent crime, substance abuse, and recidivism. Recent studies suggest that the striatum may be a key component of the neurobiological basis for the disorder, although structural findings have been mixed, and functional connectivity of the striatum in psychopathy has yet to be fully examined. Methods -/- We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of striatum volume and functional (...)
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  39. Reduced Transfer of Affective Value to Instrumental Behavior in Violent Offenders.V. L. Ly, A. K. L. Von Borries, I. A. Brazil, B. H. Bulten, R. Cools & K. Roelofs - 2016 - Journal of Abnormal Psychology 125:657-663.
    nstrumental or goal-directed aggression is a core feature in violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies. To understand this type of behavior, previous work in the field of aggression has focused on affective processing, with mixed results. We propose that instrumental aggression is best understood in terms of the consequences of affective processing for instrumental behavior rather than affective processing per se. Therefore, we assessed the degree of affective biasing of instrumental action in a group of violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies and (...)
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  40. Reversal Learning Deficits in Criminal Offenders: Effects of Psychopathy, Substance Use, and Childhood Maltreatment History.Dargis Monika, C. Wolf Richard & Koenigs Michael - 2016 - Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment.
    Deficits in reinforcement learning are presumed to underlie the impulsive and incorrigible behavior exhibited by psychopathic criminals. However, previous studies documenting reversal learning impairments in psychopathic individuals have not investigated this relationship across a continuous range of psychopathy severity, nor have they examined how reversal learning impairments relate to different psychopathic traits, such as the interpersonal-affective and lifestyle-antisocial dimensions. Furthermore, previous studies have not considered the role that childhood maltreatment and substance use may have in this specific cognitive deficit. Using (...)
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  41. Philosophy and Psychiatry: Problems, Intersections and New Perspectives.Daniel D. Moseley & Gary Gala - 2016 - Routledge.
    This groundbreaking volume of original essays presents fresh avenues of inquiry at the intersection of philosophy and psychiatry. Contributors draw from a variety of fields, including evolutionary psychiatry, phenomenology, biopsychosocial models, psychoanalysis, neuroscience, neuroethics, behavioral economics, and virtue theory. Philosophy and Psychiatry’s unique structure consists of two parts: in the first, philosophers write five lead essays with replies from psychiatrists. In the second part, this arrangement is reversed. The result is an interdisciplinary exchange that allows for direct discourse, and a (...)
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  42. Smith and Lilienfeld’s Meta-Analysis of the Response Modulation Hypothesis: Important Theoretical and Quantitative Clarifications.Joseph P. Newman & Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers - 2016 - Psychological Bulletin 142 (12):1384-1393.
    In the first meta-analytic review of the response modulation hypothesis (RMH), an attention-based model for understanding the etiology of psychopathy, Smith and Lilienfeld (2015) report that the average effect size for response modulation deficits in psychopathic individuals fell in the small to medium range (r = .20; p. < .001, d = .41). Moreover, support for the RMH extended to both psychopathy dimensions, across diverse assessments and settings, and spanned child, adult, female, and male samples. The analysis also revealed good (...)
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  43. When Is Deep Brain Stimulation a Medical Benefit, and What Is Required for Consent?Sven Nyholm & Stephen M. Campbell - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (3):150-152.
    Hübner and White argue that we should not administer DBS to psychopathic prisoners. While we are sympathetic to their conclusion, we argue that the authors’ two central arguments for this conclusion are problematic. Their first argument appeals to an overly restrictive conception of individual medical benefit: namely, that an individual medical benefit must alleviate subjective suffering. We highlight cases that clearly constitute individual medical benefits although there is no relief of subjective suffering. The second argument depends on an overly restrictive (...)
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  44. Neurosurgery for Psychopaths? The Problems of Empathy and Neurodiversity.Erick Ramirez - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (3):166-168.
    I argue that deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a bad approach for incarcerated psychopaths for two reasons. First, given what we know about psychopathy, empathy, and DBS, it is unlikely to function as an effective treatment for the moral problems that characterize psychopathy. Second, considerations of neurodiversity speak against seeing psychopathy as a mental illness in the first place.
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  45. Psychopaths Show Enhanced Amygdala Activation During Fear Conditioning.Douglas H. Schultz, Nicholas L. Balderston, Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers, Christine L. Larson & Fred J. Helmstetter - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into “primary” and “secondary” psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional “fearlessness,” while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. (...)
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  46. Altering the Cognitive-Affective Dysfunctions of Psychopathic and Externalizing Offender Subtypes With Cognitive Remediation. Baskin-Sommers - 2015 - Clinical Psychological Science 3 (1):45-57.
    Cognitive remediation is a treatment approach with the potential to translate basic science into more specific, mechanism-based interventions by targeting particular cognitive skills. The present study translated understanding of two well-defined cognitive-affective dysfunctions into novel deficit-matched interventions and evaluated whether cognitive remediation would demonstrate specific and generalizable change. Two antisocial subtypes, individuals with psychopathy and externalizing traits, are characterized by cognitive-affective problems that predispose them to engage in significant substance abuse and criminal behavior, culminating in incarceration. Whereas individuals with psychopathy (...)
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  47. The Mask of Sanity Revisited: Psychopathic Traits and Affective Mimicry.Angela Book, Tabitha Methot, Nathalie Gauthier, Ashley Hosker-Field, Adelle Forth, Vernon Quinsey & Danielle Molnar - 2015 - Evolutionary Psychological Science 1:91–102.
    Three studies examined Jones’(Perspectives onPsychological Science, 9, 445-451,2014) suggestion that psy-chopathic individuals use mimicry to avoid detection. In study1, student, community, and offender participants posed fearfulfacial expressions while looking at a prototypical fear face.Expressions were coded for facial movements associated withfear and were rated on genuineness by a separate sample ofundergraduates. Across samples, psychopathic traits were as-sociated with increased use of typical action units for fearfulfacial expressions and with genuineness ratings. In study 2,undergraduates completed the Psychopathic PersonalityInventory and told a (...)
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  48. Why Most Sugar Pills Are Not Placebos.Bennett Holman - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):1330-1343.
    The standard philosophical definition of placebos offered by Grünbaum is incompatible with Cartwright’s conception of randomized clinical trials. I offer a modified account of placebos that respects this role and clarifies why many current medical trials fail to warrant the conclusions they are typically seen as yielding. I then consider recent changes to guidelines for reporting medical trials and show that pessimism over parsing out the cause of “unblinding” is premature. Specifically, using a trial of antidepressants, I show how more (...)
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  49. Psychopathic Personality Traits and Iowa Gambling Task Performance in Incarcerated Offenders.Melissa A. Hughesa, Mairead C. Dolan, Jennifer S. Trueblood & Julie C. Stout - 2015 - Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 22 (1):134-144.
    There is a paucity of research on how psychopathy relates to decision-making. In this study, we assessed the relationship between affective decision-making and psychopathic personality. A sample of prisoners (n D 49) was characterized in terms of psychopathic traits using the Psychopathic Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). Decision-making was assessed using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Higher levels of psychopathy related to more advantageous choices (p D .003). Also counter-intuitively, higher levels of antisocial traits (facet 4) predicted advantageous choices during the (...)
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  50. Brain Self-Regulation in Criminal Psychopaths.Lilian Konicar, Ralf Veit, Hedwig Eisenbarth, Beatrix Barth, Paolo Tonin, Ute Strehl & Niels Birbaumer - 2015 - Nature: Scientific Reports 5:1-7.
    Psychopathic individuals are characterized by impaired affective processing, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, poor planning skills and heightened aggressiveness with poor self-regulation. Based on brain self-regulation studies using neurofeedback of Slow Cortical Potentials (SCPs) in disorders associated with a dysregulation of cortical activity thresholds and evidence of deficient cortical functioning in psychopathy, a neurobiological approach seems to be promising in the treatment of psychopathy. The results of our intensive brain regulation intervention demonstrate, that psychopathic offenders are able to gain control of their brain (...)
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