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  1. added 2020-01-09
    Commentary: The Moral Bioenhancement of Psychopaths.Elisabetta Sirgiovanni - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 10:1-3.
    Baccarini and Malatesti (2017) defend the idea that we must use coercively biomedical means to enhance the morality of a specific group of individuals: psychopaths, diagnosed through the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) standards (Hare, 2003). Their argument is theoretical, thus it goes independently from the actual effectiveness of existent treatments, and it is based on a logical reasoning. Moral bioenhancement (MB) means include psychotropic drugs, brain stimulations, neurosurgeries, genetic editing, etc. -/- In short, the authors apply Gerald Gaus' account of open (...)
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  2. added 2019-12-11
    Why Most Sugar Pills Are Not Placebos.Bennett Holman - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):1330-1343.
    The standard philosophical definition of placebos offered by Grünbaum is incompatible with Cartwright’s conception of randomized clinical trials. I offer a modified account of placebos that respects this role and clarifies why many current medical trials fail to warrant the conclusions they are typically seen as yielding. I then consider recent changes to guidelines for reporting medical trials and show that pessimism over parsing out the cause of “unblinding” is premature. Specifically, using a trial of antidepressants, I show how more (...)
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  3. added 2019-11-10
    Psychiatric Treatment and the Problem of Equality: Whose Justice, Which Rationality?Floris Tomasini - 2009 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 16 (1):101-103.
  4. added 2019-11-08
    Treatment Adherence in the Absence of Insight: A Puzzle and a Proposed Solution.Marga Reimer - 2010 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 17 (1):65-75.
    Patients with psychosis often have poor insight into their illness. Poor insight into illness is, at least among patients with psychosis, a good predictor of treatment non-adherence. This is no mystery, for as Xavier Amador asks, "Who would want to take medicine for an illness they did not believe they had?" What is curious is that some patients with psychosis do adhere to treatment despite a lack of insight. Why do these patients adhere to treatment, given that they do not (...)
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  5. added 2019-11-08
    Husserlian Phenomenology and the Treatment of Depression: Commentary and Critique.Marilyn Nissim-Sabat - 2010 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 17 (1):53-56.
  6. added 2019-11-08
    Reflections on Insight: Dilemmas, Paradoxes, and Puzzles.Marga Reimer - 2010 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 17 (1):85-89.
  7. added 2019-11-05
    The Death of Specificity in Psychiatry: Cheers or Tears?Charles E. Dean - 2012 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 55 (3):443-460.
    With the development of antipsychotics and antidepressants in the 1950s, psychiatry began a concerted effort to promote itself as a subspecialty of medicine aimed at treating specific illnesses with illness-specific drugs. This was not an easy task, given the history of the field and the generally low regard in which psychiatrists were held. Indeed, the term psychiatrist was relatively new; the term alienist had usually been applied to those brave enough to work in the huge asylums that had begun to (...)
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  8. added 2019-10-26
    Psychopathy Treatment and the Stigma of Yesterday's Research.Rasmus Rosenberg Larsen - 2019 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 29 (3):243-272.
    Psychopathy is one of the most studied and recognized psychiatric diagnoses in mental health research. The clinical prototype of a psychopathic patient includes traits of grave antisocial conduct, pathological lying, and a callous lack of empathy. Relatedly, psychopaths are believed to be overrepresented in the criminal populace. Whereas psychopaths are estimated to make up about 1% of the general population, it is projected that some 30% of all incarcerated individuals might be psychopaths. As a result of these estimates, the psychopathy (...)
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  9. added 2019-10-23
    Psychopathy Treatment and the Stigma of Yesterday's Research.Rasmus Rosenberg Larsen - 2020 - In Sandra L. Borden & J. D. Allhoff (eds.), Ethics and Error in Medicine. New York: Routledge.
  10. added 2019-10-17
    Commentary on" The Time Frame of Preferences, Dispositions, and the Validity of Advance Directives for the Mentally Ill".Dan W. Brock - 1998 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 5 (3):251-253.
  11. added 2019-09-22
    A Bayesian Account of Psychopathy: A Model of Lacks Remorse and Self-Aggrandizing.Aaron Prosser, Karl Friston, Nathan Bakker & Thomas Parr - 2018 - Computational Psychiatry 2:92-140.
    This article proposes a formal model that integrates cognitive and psychodynamic psychotherapeutic models of psychopathy to show how two major psychopathic traits called lacks remorse and self-aggrandizing can be understood as a form of abnormal Bayesian inference about the self. This model draws on the predictive coding (i.e., active inference) framework, a neurobiologically plausible explanatory framework for message passing in the brain that is formalized in terms of hierarchical Bayesian inference. In summary, this model proposes that these two cardinal psychopathic (...)
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  12. added 2019-09-15
    Psychiatry's Problem with Reductionism.Rebecca Roache - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (3):219-229.
    Psychiatry uncomfortably spans biological, psychological, and social perspectives on mental illness. As a branch of medicine, psychiatry is under pressure to conform to a biomedical model, according to which diseases are characterized primarily in biological terms. But psychiatry also draws on the psychotherapeutic tradition, which explains mental distress in terms of life experience and social influences.These approaches ought to complement each other, but historically this has not happened. With no theory creating global, systematic links between the two approaches, psychiatry is (...)
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    Clinical Ethics: NICE Guidelines, Clinical Practice and Antisocial Personality Disorder: The Ethical Implications of Ontological Uncertainty.M. D. Pickersgill - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (11):668-671.
    The British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence has recently released new guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the psychiatric category antisocial personality disorder. Evident in these recommendations is a broader ambiguity regarding the ontology of ASPD. Although, perhaps, a mundane feature of much of medicine, in this case, ontological uncertainty has significant ethical implications as a product of the profound consequences for an individual categorised with this disorder. This paper argues that in refraining from emphasising uncertainty, (...)
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  14. added 2019-04-19
    BDNF Mediates Improvements in Executive Function Following a 1-Year Exercise Intervention.Regina L. Leckie, Lauren E. Oberlin, Michelle W. Voss, Ruchika S. Prakash, Amanda Szabo-Reed, Laura Chaddock-Heyman, Siobhan M. Phillips, Neha P. Gothe, Emily Mailey, Victoria J. Vieira-Potter, Stephen A. Martin, Brandt D. Pence, Mingkuan Lin, Raja Parasuraman, Pamela M. Greenwood, Karl J. Fryxell, Jeffrey A. Woods, Edward McAuley, Arthur F. Kramer & Kirk I. Erickson - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
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  15. added 2019-04-19
    Using Forum Theatre in Organised Youth Soccer to Positively Influence Antisocial and Prosocial Behaviour: A Pilot Study.Esther A. Rutten, Gert J. J. Biesta, Maja Deković, Geert Jan J. M. Stams, Carlo Schuengel & Paul Verweel - 2010 - Journal of Moral Education 39 (1):65-78.
    The aim of this pilot study was to examine the possible effects of a forum theatre intervention on moral team atmosphere, moral reasoning, fair play attitude and on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behaviour in male adolescent soccer players from 10 to 18 years of age . From pre-test to post-test, small but positive changes were found in moral atmosphere, but not in moral reasoning or fair play attitude. Changes were also found in on-field antisocial behaviour, which showed a significant (...)
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  16. added 2019-04-19
    Treating High Risk Mentally Disordered Offenders; the Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder Initiative.Val Hawes - 2009 - In Annie Bartlett & Gillian McGauley (eds.), Forensic Mental Health: Concepts, Systems, and Practice. Oxford University Press. pp. 215.
  17. added 2019-04-19
    Implications for Clinical Behavior Modification.Edward J. Murray - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):70-71.
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  18. added 2019-04-07
    Review of the „Handbook of Antisocial personality disorder“. [REVIEW]Andrej Poleev - 2018 - Enzymes 16.
    The Antisocial personality disorder and several other psychiatric constructs are questioned and deconstructed in this review, that uses psychoanalytic approach to explain the nature of psychopathy and to give recommendations in this respect.
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  19. added 2019-01-23
    Curing Psychopathy: Just Activate the Amygdala?Andrew Dawson, Rebecca A. Segrave & Adrian Carter - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (3):164-166.
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  20. added 2019-01-23
    It Isn't as Simple as It Seems: Understanding and Treating Psychopathy.Valerie Gray Hardcastle - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 4 (2):12-13.
  21. added 2019-01-23
    The Prevention of Psychopathy: What We Owe to Young People.Dorothee Horstkötter & Guido de Wert - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 4 (2):19-20.
  22. added 2019-01-04
    Complex Relations Between Psychopathy and Fitness May Indicate Adaptive Trade-Offs.Janko Međedović - forthcoming - Evolutionary Psychological Science.
    In order to assess the potential of psychopathy to increase evolutionary fitness, we examined the relations between psychopathy and fitness indicators (number of children and grandchildren, problems in physical health both in parents and offspring) in a sample of post-reproductive individuals (N = 187; Mage = 66.52). Specifically, we explored the possibility that psychopathy traits are involved in evolutionary trade-offs: both positive and negative relations with different fitness components. Psychopathy was measured via three traits—interpersonal, affective, and lifestyle characteristics, which are (...)
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  23. added 2019-01-04
    Can Psychopathic Traits Be Adaptive? Sex Differences in Relations Between Psychopathy and Emotional Distress.Janko Međedović & Katarina Sokić - 2018 - Psychological Topics 27 (3):481-497.
    One of the most prominent models of psychopathy operationalizes this construct as consisting of four factors: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial traits. These traits show different relationship patterns with other constructs, and these relations may differ in men and women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relations between psychopathic traits and indicators of emotional distress (depression, anxiety and stress), differ between men and women. Data was collected on 650 students (60% women) at the University of Zagreb. (...)
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  24. added 2018-11-07
    Psychopathy: Philosophical and Empirical Challenges.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & John McMillan - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):5-14.
    Editorial introduction to the special issue of the European Journal of Analytic Philosophy.
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  25. added 2018-11-07
    Psychopathic Personality Disorder: Capturing an Elusive Concept.David J. Cooke - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):15-32.
    The diagnosis of psychopathic personality disorder has salience for forensic clinical practice. It influences decisions regarding risk, treatability and sentencing, indeed, in certain jurisdictions it serves as an aggravating factor that increases the likelihood of a capital sentence. The concatenation of symptom that is associated with modern conceptions of the disorder can be discerned in early writings, including the book of Psalms. Despite its forensic clinical importance and historical pedigree the concept remains elusive and controverted. In this paper I describe (...)
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  26. added 2018-11-07
    Shame, Embarrassment, and the Subjectivity Requirement.Erick J. Ramirez - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):97-114.
    Reactive theories of responsibility see moral accountability as grounded on the capacity for feeling reactive-attitudes. I respond to a recent argument gaining ground in this tradition that excludes psychopaths from accountability. The argument relies on what Paul Russell has called the 'subjectivity requirement'. On this view, the capacity to feel and direct reactive-attitudes at oneself is a necessary condition for responsibility. I argue that even if moral attitudes like guilt are impossible for psychopaths to deploy, that psychopaths, especially the "successful" (...)
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  27. added 2018-11-07
    Are Psychopaths Legally Insane?Anneli Jefferson & Katrina Sifferd - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):79-96.
    The question of whether psychopaths are criminally and morally responsible has generated significant controversy in the literature. In this paper, we discuss what relevance a psychopathy diagnosis has for criminal responsibility. It has been argued that figuring out whether psychopathy is a mental illness is of fundamental importance, because it is a precondition for psychopaths’ eligibility to be excused via the legal insanity defense. But even if psychopathy counts as a mental illness, this alone is not sufficient to show the (...)
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  28. added 2018-09-28
    Philosophy and Psychiatry: Problems, Intersections and New Perspectives.Daniel D. Moseley & Gary Gala - 2016 - Routledge.
    This groundbreaking volume of original essays presents fresh avenues of inquiry at the intersection of philosophy and psychiatry. Contributors draw from a variety of fields, including evolutionary psychiatry, phenomenology, biopsychosocial models, psychoanalysis, neuroscience, neuroethics, behavioral economics, and virtue theory. Philosophy and Psychiatry’s unique structure consists of two parts: in the first, philosophers write five lead essays with replies from psychiatrists. In the second part, this arrangement is reversed. The result is an interdisciplinary exchange that allows for direct discourse, and a (...)
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  29. added 2018-08-27
    Emotion-Based Learning Systems and the Development of Morality.R. J. R. Blair - 2017 - Cognition 167:38-45.
    In this paper it is proposed that important components of moral development and moral judgment rely on two forms of emotional learning: stimulus-reinforcement and response-outcome learning. Data in support of this position will be primarily drawn from work with individuals with the developmental condition of psychopathy as well as fMRI studies with healthy individuals. Individuals with psychopathy show impairment on moral judgment tasks and a pronounced increased risk for instrumental antisocial behavior. It will be argued that these impairments are developmental (...)
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  30. added 2018-07-20
    A Dual-Process Account of Moral Judgment: What Psychopaths Can Teach Us About Morality.Deirdre Kelly - 2016 - Dissertation, Carleton University
    Researchers who argue that moral judgment is based on emotions (`emotion-backers') and those who believe that it is based on reasoning and deliberation (`reasoning-backers') have both struggled to account for the notorious moral deviance of incarcerated psychopaths. Emotion-backers, such as Jonathan Haidt, focus on psychopaths' lack of a affect,or defciencies in particular emotions, such as sympathy. Reasoning-backers, such as Lawrence Kohlberg, focus instead on psychopaths' de cient reasoning. Both accounts offer separate descriptions of what goes wrong in the disorder, but (...)
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  31. added 2018-07-16
    Electrophysiological Correlates of Empathic Processing in Individuals with Psychopathic Meanness Traits.J. D. M. Van Dongen, Inti A. Brazil, F. M. van der Veen & I. H. A. Franken - forthcoming - Neuropsychology.
  32. added 2018-06-16
    Objective Assessment of Covert Antisocial Behavior: Predictive Validity and Ethical Considerations.Stephen P. Hinshaw - 2005 - Ethics and Behavior 15 (3):259 – 269.
    Although less observable than the overt actions of fighting and assault, covert antisocial behaviors such as stealing and property destruction comprise an important subclass of externalizing behavior patterns, displaying considerable predictive power toward delinquency in adolescence. I discuss a laboratory paradigm for objective observation of such behaviors in children that has shown impressive concurrent and predictive validity among samples of boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Addressed herein are crucial questions regarding the ethics of tempting children to steal (...)
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  33. added 2018-06-14
    Some Ethical Considerations About the Use of Biomarkers for the Classification of Adult Antisocial Individuals.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & Inti Brazil - 2019 - International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 18 (3):228-242.
    It has been argued that a biomarker-informed classification system for antisocial individuals has the potential to overcome many obstacles in current conceptualizations of forensic and psychiatric constructs and promises better targeted treatments. However, some have expressed ethical worries about the social impact of the use of biological information for classification. Many have discussed the ethical and legal issues related to possibilities of using biomarkers for predicting antisocial behaviour. We argue that prediction should not raise the most pressing ethical worries. Instead, (...)
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  34. added 2018-03-08
    The Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (2nd Ed.).Robert D. Hare - 2003 - Multi-Health Systems.
  35. added 2018-02-08
    Deux mesures de psychopathie chez les patients médicolégaux.Denis Delannoy, Xavier Saloppé, Luca A. Tiberi, Christelle Delescluse & Thierry H. Pham - 2017 - Annales Médico-Psychologiques, Revue Psychiatrique 175 (3):297-299.
    In the forensic field, psychopathy is a disorder that raises many questions. Indeed, the diagnostic evaluation by the PCL-R offers no opportunity to assess the variability of the disorder on the entire life. However, the dimensional scales used to assess this fluctuation, at least in the medium term. This study helps to validate the CAPP-IRS using the PCL-R with forensic patients.
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  36. added 2018-01-24
    Comparing the Response Modulation Hypothesis and the Integrated Emotions System Theory: The Role of Top-Down Attention in Psychopathy.Jaap Munneke, Sylco S. Hoppenbrouwers, Bethany Little, Karen Kooiman, Erik Van der Burg & Jan Theeuwes - 2018 - Personality and Individual Differences 122:134-139.
    Objective: Two major etiological theories on psychopathy propose different mechanisms as to how emotional facial expressions are processed by individuals with elevated psychopathic traits. The Response Modulation Hypothesis (RMH) proposes that psychopathic individuals show emotional deficits as a consequence of attentional deployment, suggesting that emotional deficits are situation-specific. The Integrated Emotions System theory (IES) suggests that psychopathic individuals have a fundamental amygdala dysfunction which precludes adequate responsiveness to the distress of others. Methods: Participants performed a visual search task in which (...)
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  37. added 2018-01-24
    Take the Money and Run: Psychopathic Behavior in the Trust Game.Manuel I. Ibáñez, Gerardo Sabater-Grande, Iván Barreda-Tarrazona, Laura Mezquita, Sandra López-Ovejero, Helena Villa, Pandelis Perakakis, Generós Ortet, Aurora García-Gallego & Nikolaos Georgantzís - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  38. added 2018-01-23
    La psychopathie et son évaluation.Denis Delannoy, Xavier Saloppé, Vicenzutto Audrey, Vanessa Majois, Claire Ducro & T. H. Pham - forthcoming - EMC - Psychiatrie.
    L’évaluation de la psychopathie reste incontournable tant dans le domaine de l’expertise, de l’orientation, du traitement, que de l’évaluation et la gestion du risque. Le profil psychopathique et le niveau de risque de récidive associé constituent des indicateurs pertinents pour les professionnels de terrain. Cet article se propose de compléter le premier datant de 2011 en apportant des connaissances supplémentaires relatives aux modèles d’évaluation de la psychopathie ainsi qu’un éclairage optimiste sur l’efficacité des traitements auprès d’adultes délinquants. Il décrit, d’une (...)
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  39. added 2017-12-04
    Emotional Processing and Heart Rate in Incarcerated Male Adolescents with Callous Unemotional Traits: The Role of Anxiety.Bruggemann Jason, Goulter Natalie, Hall Jason, Lenroot Rhoshel & Kimonis Eva - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
    Callous unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., a lack of empathy/remorse and poverty of emotion) that co-occur with childhood antisocial behaviour are believed to be the developmental precursor to psychopathy in adulthood. An increasing volume of evidence supports two distinct variants of CU traits/psychopathy, known as primary and secondary. Primary variants are thought to show core deficits in emotional reactivity (e.g., attenuated autonomic activity), whereas secondary variants present with high levels of anxiety and this may be reflected in increased emotional sensitivity to (...)
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  40. added 2017-12-04
    'One Can Always Say No.' Enriching the Bioethical Debate on Antisocial Behaviour, Neurobiology and Prevention: Views of Juvenile Delinquents.Dorothee Horstkötter, Ron Berghmans, Frans Feron & Guido De Wert - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (5):225-234.
    Genomic and neuro-scientific research into the causes and course of antisocial behaviour triggers bioethical debate. Often, these new developments are met with reservation, and possible drawbacks and negative side-effects are pointed out. This article reflects on these scientific developments and the bioethical debate by means of an exploration of the perspectives of one important stakeholder group: juveniles convicted of a serious crime who stay in a juvenile justice institution. The views of juveniles are particularly interesting, as possible applications of current (...)
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  41. added 2017-10-23
    Emotional Attentional Capture in Children with Conduct Problems: The Role of Callous-Unemotional Traits.Sara Hodsoll, Nilli Lavie & Essi Viding - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
    Objective: Appropriate reactivity to emotional facial expressions, even if these are seen whilst we are engaged in another activity, is critical for successful social interaction. Children with conduct problems (CP) and high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits are characterized by blunted reactivity to other people's emotions, while children with CP and low levels of CU traits can over-react to perceived emotional threat. No study to date has compared children with CP and high vs. low levels of CU traits to typically (...)
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  42. added 2017-09-11
    Psychopaths Show Enhanced Amygdala Activation During Fear Conditioning.Douglas H. Schultz, Nicholas L. Balderston, Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers, Christine L. Larson & Fred J. Helmstetter - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into “primary” and “secondary” psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional “fearlessness,” while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. (...)
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  43. added 2017-07-26
    A Comprehensive Neuroimaging Review of PCL-R Defined Psychopathy.Stephanie Y. Griffiths & Jarkko V. Jalava - 2017 - Aggression and Violent Behavior:DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.002.
    Neurobiological theories of psychopathy typically include abnormalities in paralimbic circuits, and a neurobiological profile of paralimbic dysfunction in increasingly invoked in applied legal settings. The current study systematically evaluated whether sMRI and fMRI findings in PCL-R defined psychopaths suggest paralimbic dysfunction. Our review indicates diffuse and variable neural correlates of psychopathy, with numerous issues complicating the interpretation of these heterogeneous data. Our review also extends previous discussions concerning how this heterogeneity may be related to sample characteristics, methodological variations, and statistical (...)
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  44. added 2017-06-28
    Classification and Treatment of Antisocial Individuals: From Behavior to Biocognition.Inti A. Brazil, J. D. M. van Dongen, J. H. R. Maes, R. B. Mars & Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers - 2018 - Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 91:259-277.
    Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous construct that can be divided into subtypes, such as antisocial personality and psychopathy. The adverse consequences of antisocial behavior produce great burden for the perpetrators, victims, family members, and for society at-large. The pervasiveness of antisocial behavior highlights the importance of precisely characterizing subtypes of antisocial individuals and identifying specific factors that are etiologically related to such behaviors to inform the development of targeted treatments. The goals of the current review are to briefly summarize research (...)
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  45. added 2017-06-28
    The Neural Signatures of Distinct Psychopathic Traits.Justin M. Carré, Luke W. Hyde, Craig S. Neumann, Essi Viding & Ahmad R. Hariri - 2013 - Social Neuroscience 8 (2):122-135.
    Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the (...)
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  46. added 2017-04-03
    The Moral Bioenhancement of Psychopaths.Elvio Baccarini & Luca Malatesti - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (10):697-701.
    We argue that the mandatory moral bioenhancement of psychopaths is justified as a prescription of social morality. Moral bioenhancement is legitimate when it is justified on the basis of the reasons of the recipients. Psychopaths expect and prefer that the agents with whom they interact do not have certain psychopathic traits. Particularly, they have reasons to require the moral bioenhancement of psychopaths with whom they must cooperate. By adopting a public reason and a Kantian argument, we conclude that we can (...)
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  47. added 2017-03-16
    Altering the Cognitive-Affective Dysfunctions of Psychopathic and Externalizing Offender Subtypes With Cognitive Remediation. Baskin-Sommers - 2015 - Clinical Psychological Science 3 (1):45-57.
    Cognitive remediation is a treatment approach with the potential to translate basic science into more specific, mechanism-based interventions by targeting particular cognitive skills. The present study translated understanding of two well-defined cognitive-affective dysfunctions into novel deficit-matched interventions and evaluated whether cognitive remediation would demonstrate specific and generalizable change. Two antisocial subtypes, individuals with psychopathy and externalizing traits, are characterized by cognitive-affective problems that predispose them to engage in significant substance abuse and criminal behavior, culminating in incarceration. Whereas individuals with psychopathy (...)
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  48. added 2017-01-09
    Distinct Neuronal Patterns of Positive and Negative Moral Processing in Psychopathy.Samantha J. Fede, Jana Schaich Borg, Prashanth K. Nyalakanti, Carla L. Hare, Lora M. Cope, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Mike Koenigs, Vince D. Calhoun & Kent A. Kiehl - 2016 - Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience 16 (6):1074–1085.
    Psychopathy is a disorder characterized by severe and frequent moral violations in multiple domains of life. Numerous studies have shown psychopathy-related limbic brain abnormalities during moral processing; however, these studies only examined negatively valenced moral stimuli. Here, we aimed to replicate prior psychopathy research on negative moral judgments and to extend this work by examining psychopathy-related abnormalities in the processing of controversial moral stimuli and positive moral processing. Incarcerated adult males (N = 245) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol (...)
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  49. added 2017-01-08
    Reversal Learning Deficits in Criminal Offenders: Effects of Psychopathy, Substance Use, and Childhood Maltreatment History.Dargis Monika, C. Wolf Richard & Koenigs Michael - 2016 - Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment.
    Deficits in reinforcement learning are presumed to underlie the impulsive and incorrigible behavior exhibited by psychopathic criminals. However, previous studies documenting reversal learning impairments in psychopathic individuals have not investigated this relationship across a continuous range of psychopathy severity, nor have they examined how reversal learning impairments relate to different psychopathic traits, such as the interpersonal-affective and lifestyle-antisocial dimensions. Furthermore, previous studies have not considered the role that childhood maltreatment and substance use may have in this specific cognitive deficit. Using (...)
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  50. added 2017-01-08
    Smith and Lilienfeld’s Meta-Analysis of the Response Modulation Hypothesis: Important Theoretical and Quantitative Clarifications.Joseph P. Newman & Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers - 2016 - Psychological Bulletin 142 (12):1384-1393.
    In the first meta-analytic review of the response modulation hypothesis (RMH), an attention-based model for understanding the etiology of psychopathy, Smith and Lilienfeld (2015) report that the average effect size for response modulation deficits in psychopathic individuals fell in the small to medium range (r = .20; p. < .001, d = .41). Moreover, support for the RMH extended to both psychopathy dimensions, across diverse assessments and settings, and spanned child, adult, female, and male samples. The analysis also revealed good (...)
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