About this topic
Summary Pyrrhonism is the most prominent and influential form of skepticism in the history of Western philosophy. It was an important philosophical movement in the Hellenistic and Imperial periods, had a tremendous impact on modern philosophy, and some of its arguments continue to be a central topic of discussion in the contemporary scene. This form of skepticism does not deny the possibility of knowledge or justified belief tout court or in a specific area, but recommends across-the-board suspension of judgment. This subcategory covers works that examine the philosophical aspects of ancient Pyrrhonism and/or discuss Pyrrhonian skepticism in relation to current epistemological discussions.
Key works Fogelin 1994 offers an “updated” version of Sextus Empiricus's Pyrrhonism so as to make it applicable to contemporary debates about justification. Sinnott-Armstrong 2004 is a Festschrift for Robert Fogelin. While some of the essays either compare his neo-Pyrrhonism with its ancient ancestor or refer to this interpretation of certain modern and contemporary philosophers, others critically examine his neo-Pyrrhonism as expounded in Fogelin 1994Sinnott-Armstrong 2006 defends a moderate moral skepticism, characterized as Pyrrhonian, that is based on the notion of "contrast class."
Introductions Machuca Diego 2011 Machuca 2011
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1 — 50 / 281
  1. added 2018-12-16
    Quatro Desafios Céticos ao Saber.Luis R. G. Oliveira - forthcoming - In Antonio José Pêcego (ed.), Direito e Filosofia: Em Busca do Saber. Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil:
    O ceticismo é por vezes descartado como uma doutrina absurda e merecedora do seu lugar distante na antiguidade. Nada poderia ser menos correto. O ceticismo continua extremamente relevante para o pensamento filosófico e científico de hoje, servindo como um lembrete de que a sabedoria não é barata nem segura. Nesse texto, o meu objetivo principal é reproduzir o raciocínio das discussões clássicas sobre o ceticismo, mas de uma maneira coloquial e contemporânea. Após seguir as linhas de pensamento de Sexto Empírico, (...)
  2. added 2018-11-20
    Hjumovo shvatanje odnosa između skepticizma i filozofije.Aleksandra Davidović - 2018 - Theoria: Beograd 61 (3):93-118.
    U ovom radu istražujem kako su se Hjumova gledišta o odnosu između skepticizma i filozofije razvijala i kako su sazrevala tokom njegovog filozofskog rada. Hjumovo prvo delo, Rasprava o ljudskoj prirodi, ostavlja otvoreno pitanje zašto bi se iko bavio filozofijom u svetlu otkrića da su skeptički argumenti neoborivi. Cilj mi je da pokažem da, iako se Hjumov stav o skepticizmu i njegova skeptička pozicija nisu suštinski menjali tokom godina, Istraživanje o ljudskom razumu i Dijalozi o prirodnoj religiji, kao i nekoliko (...)
  3. added 2018-10-12
    Life Without Belief: A Madhyamaka Defense of the Livability of Pyrrhonism.Robin Brons - 2018 - Philosophy East and West 68 (2):329-351.
    Despite the striking similarities between Pyrrhonian skepticism and Madhyamaka Buddhism, few lessons have been drawn from the parallels between the two traditions. Here, it is argued that Madhyamaka Buddhism verifies the livability of Pyrrhonian skepticism. After establishing that Pyrrhonism and Madhyamaka can be understood as undertaking the same project, it is shown that Madhyamaka philosophy is able to refute objections to the viability of Pyrrhonism. Finally, it is demonstrated that Madhyamaka is still a lived practice in Tibetan Buddhism, and it (...)
  4. added 2018-09-06
    Descartes and the Suspension of Judgment–Considerations of Cartesian Skepticism and Epoché.Jan Forsman - 2018 - In Konstantinos Boudouris (ed.), Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy. Greek Philosophical Society. pp. 15-20.
    In this paper I will argue how Descartes in the First and Second Meditation of the Meditations uses a very clear suspension of judgments or assent that in many ways resembles the epoché of the ancient skepticism, especially that of pyrrhonistic variant. First I show how the pyrrhonistic epoché works and what purpose it was used. After that I show how this Cartesian epoché both resembles and differs from the ancient epoché. My main argument is that Descartes, when using the (...)
  5. added 2018-08-13
    Pyrrhonian Argumentation: Therapy, Dialectic, and Inquiry.Diego E. Machuca - 2018 - Apeiron.
    The Pyrrhonist’s argumentative practice is characterized by at least four features. First, he makes a therapeutic use of arguments: he employs arguments that differ in their persuasiveness in order to cure his dogmatic patients of the distinct degrees of conceit and rashness that afflict them. Secondly, his arguments are for the most part dialectical: when offering an argument to oppose it to another argument advanced by a given dogmatist, he accepts in propria persona neither the truth of its premises and (...)
  6. added 2018-07-15
    Epistemology in Latin America.Diego E. Machuca - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    After presenting the current situation of epistemological research in Latin America and part of its history, this entry will address five topics: skepticism (especially in its Pyrrhonian stripe), core epistemology, formal epistemology, Wittgenstein’s thought in connection with epistemology and skepticism, and epistemology of law. It should be noted from the outset that the entry does not purport to provide a comprehensive account of epistemology in Latin America, but rather to paint a general picture of it by focusing on the main (...)
  7. added 2018-06-27
    Virtue-Theoretic Responses to Skepticism.Guy Axtell - 2008 - In John Greco (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter focuses on the responses that proponents of virtue epistemology (VE) make to radical skepticism and particularly to two related forms of it, Pyrrhonian skepticism and the “underdetermination-based” argument, both of which have been receiving widening attention in recent debate. Section 1 of the chapter briefly articulates these two skeptical arguments and their interrelationship, while section 2 explains the close connection between a virtue-theoretic and a neo-Moorean response to them. In sections 3 and 4 I advance arguments for improving (...)
  8. added 2018-06-05
    Book Review: The Possibility of Philosophical Understanding: Reflections on the Thought of Barry Stroud, Edited by Jason Bridges, Niko Kolodny, and Wai-Hung Wong. [REVIEW]Mikael Janvid - 2014 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 4 (2):145-151.
  9. added 2018-06-03
    22 Skepticism and the Possibility of Knowledge Barry Stroud.Barry Stroud - 1998 - In Alcoff Linda (ed.), Epistemology: The Big Questions. Blackwell. pp. 360.
  10. added 2018-06-03
    Skepticism and the Possibility of Knowledge.Barry Stroud - 1984 - Journal of Philosophy 81 (10):545.
  11. added 2018-03-08
    Why the Epistemic Relativist Cannot Use the Sceptic’s Strategy. A Comment on Sankey.Markus Seidel - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):134-139.
    In two recent papers in Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Howard Sankey has argued that there is an intimate relationship between Pyrrhonian skepticism and recent approaches to epistemic relativism.Though the general argument and idea of Sankey’s papers is very much appreciated, it is argued that the epistemic relativist’s recourse to the skeptical strategy outlined by the Pyrrhonian is not a good one. This diagnosis gives rise to an objection against the epistemic relativist who argues on the basis of (...)
  12. added 2018-03-08
    Scylla and Charybdis of the Epistemic Relativist: Why the Epistemic Relativist Still Cannot Use the Sceptic’s Strategy.Markus Seidel - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):145-149.
    In a reply to Howard Sankey I have maintained that the epistemic relativist cannot use the strategy of the sceptic since the relativist is at pains not to draw the sceptical solution. Sankey has objected to my argument by distinguishing between weak and strong justification: according to Sankey, the relativist using the sceptic’s strategy aims to provide an argument against the latter form of justification but still maintains that we can have the former.In this counter-response I argue that if this (...)
  13. added 2018-03-02
    Skepticism: The Central Issues.Charles Landesman - 2002 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This book presents and analyzes the most important arguments in the history of Western philosophy's skeptical tradition. It demonstrates that, although powerful, these arguments are quite limited and fail to prove their core assertion that knowledge is beyond our reach. Argues that skepticism is mistaken and that knowledge is possible Dissects the problems of realism and the philosophical doubts about the accuracy of the senses Explores the ancient argument against a criterion of knowledge, Descartes' skeptical arguments, and skeptical arguments applied (...)
  14. added 2018-03-02
    Scepticism.Arne Naess - 1969 - Routledge.
    Originally published in 1968. Scepticism is generally regarded as a position which, if correct, would be disastrous for our everyday and scientific beliefs. According to this view, a sceptical argument is one that leads to the intuitively false conclusion that we cannot know anything. But there is another, much neglected and more radical form of scepticism, Pyrrhonism, which neither denies nor accepts the possibility of knowledge and is to be regarded not as a philosophical position so much as the expression (...)
  15. added 2018-03-02
    Scepticism.Arne Naess - 1969 - Routledge.
    Originally published in 1968. Scepticism is generally regarded as a position which, if correct, would be disastrous for our everyday and scientific beliefs. According to this view, a sceptical argument is one that leads to the intuitively false conclusion that we cannot know anything. But there is another, much neglected and more radical form of scepticism, Pyrrhonism, which neither denies nor accepts the possibility of knowledge and is to be regarded not as a philosophical position so much as the expression (...)
  16. added 2018-02-27
    Moral Skepticism, Fictionalism, and Insulation.Diego E. Machuca - 2018 - In Diego E. Machuca (ed.), Moral Skepticism: New Essays. New York: Routledge. pp. 213-234.
    It has been claimed that a key difference between ancient and contemporary skepticism is that, unlike the ancient skeptics, contemporary skeptics consider ordinary beliefs to be insulated from skeptical doubt. In the case of metaethics, this issue is related to the following question: what attitude towards ordinary moral thought and discourse should one adopt if one is a moral skeptic? Whereas moral abolitionists claim that one should do away with ordinary moral thought and discourse altogether, moral fictionalists maintain that, given (...)
  17. added 2018-02-17
    30. There is No Good Reason to Be an Academic Skeptic.Peter D. Klein - 2003 - In Steven Luper (ed.), Essential Knowledge: Readings in Epistemology. Longman. pp. 299.
  18. added 2018-02-17
    The Problem of the Criterion.Robert Amico - 1997 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research: A Quarterly Journal 57 (1):226-229.
    This book offers the first historical treatment and analytic analysis of the problem of the criterion. It provides analyses of the ancient and modern characterizations of the problem and a resolution of each. My purpose is to show that there are at least two versions of the problem, one posed by a Pyrrhonian sceptic and one by a dogmatic sceptic. I show that both versions have a dissolution. Then, by examining the presuppositions of the dogmatic sceptic, I demonstrate that the (...)
  19. added 2017-11-07
    Skepticism: Historical and Contemporary Inquiries.G. Anthony Bruno & A. C. Rutherford (eds.) - 2018 - Routledge.
    Skepticism is one of the most enduring and profound of philosophical problems. With its roots in Plato and the Sceptics to Descartes, Hume, Kant and Wittgenstein, skepticism presents a challenge that every philosopher must reckon with. In this outstanding collection philosophers engage with skepticism in five clear sections: the philosophical history of skepticism in Greek, Cartesian and Kantian thought; the nature and limits of certainty; the possibility of knowledge and related problems such as perception and the debates between objective knowledge (...)
  20. added 2017-11-07
    The Problem of the Criterion, Skepticism, and the Cartesian Circle.Timo Kajamies - 2006 - SATS 7 (2).
  21. added 2017-11-07
    Scepticism and Epistemic Kinds.John Greco - 2000 - Philosophical Issues 10 (1):366-376.
  22. added 2017-11-07
    Taking Skepticism Seriously.Robert J. Fogelin - 1984 - Journal of Philosophy 81 (10):552.
  23. added 2017-11-07
    Greek Skepticism: A Study in Epistemology. [REVIEW]Michael Frede - 1973 - Journal of Philosophy 70 (21):805-810.
  24. added 2017-11-04
    Review: Précis of Pyrrhonian Reflections on Knowledge and Justification. [REVIEW]Robert J. Fogelin - 1997 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (2):395 - 400.
  25. added 2017-05-31
    Kontekstualistinen vastaus Agrippan argumentille.Jani Hakkarainen - 2009 - In Ahti Pietarinen, Sami Pihlström & Pilvi Toppinen (eds.), Usko. Tampere: Juvenes Print. pp. 93-98.
    Title in English: : A Contextualist Answer to Agrippa's Argument.
  26. added 2017-05-31
    Humen pyrrhonismin kielto.Jani Hakkarainen - 2004 - In Heta Gylling, S. Albert Kivinen & Risto Vilkko (eds.), Kielto. Helsinki: Helsinki University Press. pp. 29-35.
  27. added 2017-05-31
    Scepticism as Epochê.Jani Hakkarainen - 2004 - In Kaisa Luoma, Erna Oesch & Risto Vilkko (eds.), Philosophical Studies in honorem Leila Haaparanta. Tampere: Tampereen yliopistopaino. pp. 233-242.
  28. added 2017-05-29
    Pick Your Poison: Beg the Question or Embrace Circularity.Kevin Mccain & William Rowley - 2013 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 3 (4).
    According to Roderick Chisholm, there are three ways of responding to the Problem of the Criterion and they all leave something to be desired. Michael DePaul, Paul Moser, and Earl Conee have each proposed variations of a fourth way of responding to this problem that rely on reflective equilibrium. We argue that these four options for responding to the Problem of the Criterion leave one with a tough choice: accept one of the three that Chisholm describes or DePaul’s reflective equilibrium (...)
  29. added 2017-05-29
    Roderick M. Chisolm, "The Problem of the Criterion". [REVIEW]Anthony J. Lisska - 1974 - The Thomist 38 (4):988.
  30. added 2017-05-29
    The Problem of the Criterion.D. J. - 1973 - Review of Metaphysics 27 (2):377-377.
  31. added 2017-05-02
    Externalism, Skepticism, and Belief.Michael Shaw Perry - 2014 - Logos and Episteme 5 (3):275-301.
    In this paper I analyze epistemological externalism and its adequacy as a response to skepticism. Externalism is defined by denial of accessibility: a subject canknow if a particular condition beyond truth and belief is satisfied, even if the subject has no reflective access to the satisfaction of the condition. It hence has quick responses to skepticism. Three sorts of skepticism are differentiated and discussed: high standards skepticism, Cartesian-style skepticism, and Pyrrhonism. If we decouple high standards and Cartesian-style skepticism, a simple (...)
  32. added 2017-05-01
    Pyrrhonian Scepticism and Hegel’s Theory of Judgement: A Treatise on the Possibility of Scientific Inquiry. [REVIEW]Roger Eichorn - 2013 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 3 (4).
  33. added 2017-05-01
    Posing the Problem of the Criterion.Andrew D. Cling - 1994 - Philosophical Studies 75 (3):261 - 292.
    Although it has been largely neglected in contemporary philosophy , the problem of the criterion raises questions which must be addressed by any complete account of knowledge . But the problem of the criterion suffers not onl.
  34. added 2017-05-01
    David R. Hiley, Philosophy in Question: Essays on a Pyrrhonian Theme Reviewed By.Richard A. Watson - 1988 - Philosophy in Review 8 (8):306-308.
  35. added 2017-03-03
    No More This Than That: Skeptical Impression or Pyrrhonian Dogma?Necip Fikri Alican - 2017 - ΣΧΟΛΗ: Ancient Philosophy and The Classical Tradition 11 (1):7–60.
    This is a defense of Pyrrhonian skepticism against the charge that the suspension of judgment based on equipollence is vitiated by the assent given to the equipollence in question. The apparent conflict has a conceptual side as well as a practical side, examined here as separate challenges with a section devoted to each. The conceptual challenge is that the skeptical transition from an equipollence of arguments to a suspension of judgment is undermined either by a logical contradiction or by an (...)
  36. added 2017-02-13
    Disagreement-Based Skepticism.Diego E. Machuca - 2017 - Syndicate Philosophy 1 (1).
  37. added 2017-02-06
    Pyrrhonian Reflections on Knowledge and Justification.Robert Pasnau - 1996 - Review of Metaphysics 49 (3):653-654.
  38. added 2017-02-03
    On the Coherence of Pyrrhonian Skepticism.Bredo C. Johnsen - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (4):521.
  39. added 2017-02-03
    The Problem of the Criterion.Robert Amico - 1993 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Selected by CHOICE as an Outstanding Academic Book for 1995.
  40. added 2017-02-01
    Suspension of Judgement : Agrippa and Epoche.Yeuk-Yu Yung & 翁若愚 - 2002 - Dissertation, University of Hong Kong
  41. added 2017-01-30
    The Pyrrhonian Problematic.Ioannis Trisokkas - 2012 - In Pyrrhonian Scepticism and Hegel's Theory of Judgement. Brill. pp. 11-42.
  42. added 2017-01-29
    The Demands of Reason: An Essay on Pyrrhonian Scepticism, by Casey Perin.V. Tsouna - 2015 - Mind 124 (494):668-675.
  43. added 2017-01-29
    Chapter Eight. Defenses Against Pyrrhonian Skepticism.Michael N. Forster - 2010 - In Kant and Skepticism. Princeton University Press. pp. 44-52.
  44. added 2017-01-27
    On Pyrrhonian Reflections on Knowledge and Justification by Robert J. Fogelin.C. Hookway - 1997 - European Journal of Philosophy 5:93-96.
  45. added 2017-01-14
    Pyrrhonian Reflections on Knowledge and Justification: Studies in the Foundation of a Theological Tradition.Robert J. Fogelin - 1994 - Oxford University Press USA.
    This work, written from a neo-Pyrrhonian perspective, is an examination of contemporary theories of knowledge and justification. It takes ideas primarily found in Sextus Empiricus's Outlines of Pyrrhonism, restates them in a modern idiom, and then asks whether any contemporary theory of knowledge meets the challenges they raise. The first part, entitled "Gettier and the Problem of Knowledge," attempts to rescue our ordinary concept of knowledge from those philosophers who have assigned burdens to it that it cannot bear. Properly understood, (...)
  46. added 2016-12-12
    The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism.Richard Bett (ed.) - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    This volume offers a comprehensive survey of the main periods, schools, and individual proponents of scepticism in the ancient Greek and Roman world. The contributors examine the major developments chronologically and historically, ranging from the early antecedents of scepticism to the Pyrrhonist tradition. They address the central philosophical and interpretive problems surrounding the sceptics' ideas on subjects including belief, action, and ethics. Finally, they explore the effects which these forms of scepticism had beyond the ancient period, and the ways in (...)
  47. added 2016-12-12
    The Toils of Scepticism.Jonathan Barnes - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    In the works of Sextus Empiricus, scepticism is presented in its most elaborate and challenging form. This book investigates - both from an exegetical and from a philosophical point of view - the chief argumentative forms which ancient scepticism developed. Thus the particular focus is on the Agrippan aspect of Sextus' Pyrrhonism. Barnes gives a lucid explanation and analysis of these arguments, both individually and as constituent parts of a sceptical system. For, taken together, these forms amount to a formidable (...)
  48. added 2016-12-08
    Sextus, Montaigne, Hume.Brian Ribeiro - 2009 - Modern Schoolman 86 (1):7-34.
    Despite their divergences, I argue that Sextus, Montaigne, and Hume are committed to several substantive points of commonality and that these commonalities justify us in speaking of them as belonging to a unitary Pyrrhonist tradition. In this tradition, Pyrrhonizing doubt serves to chart the boundary of that-which-resists-doubt, thereby simultaneously charting the shape of that complex of nature and custom which constitutes the bedrock of human life — the life that remains after doubt has done its worst.
  49. added 2016-12-08
    Replies to Copp, Timmons, and Railton. [REVIEW]Walter Sinnott-Armstrong - 2008 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (3):820-836.
  50. added 2016-12-08
    Greco on Reliabilism and Epistemic Luck.Duncan Pritchard - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 130 (1):35-45.
    I outline Greco’s response to the Pyrrhonian challenge to epistemic externalist theories of knowledge and offer two points of criticism. I also argue, however, that there is an account of epistemic luck available which can cast some light on the dispute that Greco is concerned with, and which could, in principle at least, be regarded as being in the spirit of the proposal that Greco sets out.
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