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Pyrrhonists

Edited by Diego E. Machuca (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas)
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Summary

Pyrrhonism was one of the two main skeptical traditions in ancient philosophy. It originated in the Hellenistic era and continued into the Imperial age. The history of ancient Pyrrhonism is commonly divided into the early Pyrrhonism of Pyrrho of Elis (360–270 BC) and his leading disciple Timon of Phlius (320–230 BC), and the later Pyrrhonism (sometimes called “neo-Pyrrhonism” particularly in French scholarship) of Aenesidemus of Cnossos (first century BC) and Sextus Empiricus (late second century AD).

Key works Hankinson 1995 and Thorsrud & Gerrard 2009 offer a useful overview of ancient Pyrrhonism in English. Bett 2000 is the best book-length study of Pyrrho and his possible forerunners.
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  1. Suzanne Abram (1996). Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Scepticism Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 16 (2):143-145.
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  2. Suzanne Abram (1996). Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Scepticism. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 16:143-145.
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  3. Keimpe Algra & Katerina Ierodiakonou (eds.) (2015). Sextus Empiricus and Ancient Physics. Cambridge University Press.
    The two books of Sextus Empiricus' Against the Physicists have not received much attention in their own right, as sustained and methodical specimens of sceptical philosophy. This volume redresses the balance by offering a series of in-depth studies on them, focusing in particular on their overall argumentative structure and on the various ways in which their formal features relate to their contents, showing how Sextus' procedures vary from one section to the other, and throwing new light on the way he (...)
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  4. James Allen (2003). Sextus Empiricus: Against the Grammarians (Book). Journal of Hellenic Studies 123:258.
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  5. James Allen (1998). Études Sur les Philosophies Hellénistiques. Review of Metaphysics 52 (1):132-134.
  6. James Allen (1990). The Skepticism of Sextus Empiricus. In Wolfgang Haase (ed.), Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik. Philosophie. De Gruyter. pp. 2582-2607.
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  7. James Allen, Sextus Empiricus, J. Annas, J. Barnes & B. Mates (1998). Outlines of Pyrrhonism.The Skeptic Way: Sextus Empiricus's Outlines of Pyrrhonism. Philosophical Review 107 (1):151.
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  8. J. Annas (1999). Review of Bett (1997). [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 108:137-9.
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  9. J. Annas (1996). R.J. Hankinson: The Sceptics, (The Arguments of the Philosophers). London, New York: Routledge, 1995. The Classical Review 46 (1):75-76.
  10. Julia Annas (1996). The Sceptics. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 46 (1):75-76.
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  11. Julia Annas (1993). The Morality of Happiness. Oxford University Press.
    Ancient ethical theories, based on the notions of virtue and happiness, have struck many as an attractive alternative to modern theories. But we cannot find out whether this is true until we understand ancient ethics--and to do this we need to examine the basic structure of ancient ethical theory, not just the details of one or two theories. In this book, Annas brings together the results of a wide-ranging study of ancient ethical philosophy and presents it in a way that (...)
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  12. Julia Annas & Jonathan Barnes (eds.) (2000). Sextus Empiricus: Outlines of Scepticism. Cambridge University Press.
    Outlines of Scepticism, by the Greek philosopher Sextus Empiricus, is a work of major importance for the history of Greek philosophy. It is the fullest extant account of ancient scepticism, and it is also one of our most copious sources of information about the other Hellenistic philosophies. Its first part contains an elaborate exposition of the Pyrrhonian variety of scepticism; its second and third parts are critical and destructive, arguing against 'dogmatism' in logic, epistemology, science and ethics - an approach (...)
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  13. Maria Lorenza Aristocles & Chiesara Bertola (2001). Aristocles of Messene: Testimonia and Fragments. Oxford University Press.
    An often overlooked figure today, Aristocles of Messene remains an important source for understanding the philosophical thought of early Pyrrhonism. In this book Dr. Chiesara shows Aristocles to be an accurate historian and trustworthy reporter of the major trends of first century philosophical thought including Platonism, Stoicism, Pyrrhonism, Protagorism, and Epicurism, and to offer precious additions to the history of ancient philosophy, in particular to the reconstruction not only of early but also of late, namely Aenesidemean, Pyrrhonism.
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  14. Alan Bailey (2002). Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonean Scepticism. Oxford University Press.
    Alan Bailey offers a clear and vigorous exposition and defence of the philosophy of Sextus Empiricus, one of the most influential of ancient thinkers, the father of philosophical scepticism. The subsequent sceptical tradition in philosophy has not done justice to Sextus: his views stand up today as remarkably insightful, offering a fruitful way to approach issues of knowledge, understanding, belief, and rationality. Bailey's refreshing presentation of Sextus to a modern philosophical readership rescues scepticism from the sceptics.
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  15. Dirk C. Baltzly (1998). Who Are the Mysterious Dogmatists of Adversus Mathematicus Ix 352? Ancient Philosophy 18 (1):145-170.
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  16. Jonathan Barnes (2003). Review: Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonean Scepticism. [REVIEW] Mind 112 (447):496-499.
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  17. Jonathan Barnes (2001). Pyrrho—His Antecedents and His Legacy. Richard Bett. Mind 110 (440):1043-1046.
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  18. Jonathan Barnes (1996). Papers In Hellenistic Philosophy. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 105 (1):108-109.
  19. Jonathan Barnes (1993). A Big, Big D? The Classical Review 43 (02):304-306.
  20. Jonathan Barnes (1993). A Big, Big D? Theodor Ebert: Dialektiker und frühe Stoiker bei Sextus Empiricus: Untersuchungen zur Entstehung der Aussagenlogik. (Hypomnemata, 95.) Pp. 347. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1991. DM 85. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 43 (02):304-306.
  21. Jonathan Barnes (1991). Leo Groarke: Greek Scepticism: Anti-Realist Trends in Ancient Thought. (McGill-Queen's Studies in the History of Ideas.) Pp. Xv + 176. Montreal & Kingston, London and Buffalo: McGill–Queen's University Press, 1990. £33.20. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 41 (02):500-501.
  22. Jonathan Barnes (1990). The Toils of Scepticism. Cambridge University Press.
    In the works of Sextus Empiricus, scepticism is presented in its most elaborate and challenging form. This book investigates - both from an exegetical and from a philosophical point of view - the chief argumentative forms which ancient scepticism developed. Thus the particular focus is on the Agrippan aspect of Sextus' Pyrrhonism. Barnes gives a lucid explanation and analysis of these arguments, both individually and as constituent parts of a sceptical system. For, taken together, these forms amount to a formidable (...)
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  23. Jonathan Barnes (1990). Pyrrhonism, Belief and Causation. Observations on the Scepticism of Sextus Empiricus. In Wolfgang Haase (ed.), Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik. Philosophie. De Gruyter. pp. 2608-2695.
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  24. Jonathan Barnes (1988). Scepticism and the Arts. Apeiron 21 (2):53 - 77.
  25. Jonathan Barnes & France) Hellenistic Philosophy and Science Paris (1982). Science and Speculation Studies in Hellenistic Theory and Practice /Edited by Jonathan Barnes ... [Et Al.]. --. --. Cambridge University Press Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1982.
  26. Rachel Barney (1992). Appearances and Impressions. Phronesis 37 (3):283-313.
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  27. Rachel Barney (1992). Appearances and Impressions. Phronesis 37 (3):283-313.
    Pyrrhonian sceptics claim, notoriously, to assent to the appearances without making claims about how things are. To see whether this is coherent we need to consider the philosophical history of ‘appearance’(phainesthai)-talk, and the closely related concept of an impression (phantasia). This history suggests that the sceptics resemble Plato in lacking the ‘non-epistemic’ or ‘non-doxastic’ conception of appearance developed by Aristotle and the Stoics. What is distinctive about the Pyrrhonian sceptic is simply that the degree of doxastic commitment involved in his (...)
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  28. Donald L. M. Baxter, Assent in Sextus and Hume.
  29. Christopher I. Beckwith (2011). Pyrrho's Logic: A Re-Examination of Aristocles' Record of Timon's Account. Elenchos: Rivista di Studi Sul Pensiero Antico 32 (2):287-327.
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  30. John C. Berberelly (1974). The Greek Sceptics and Sextus Empiricus. Dissertation, Columbia University
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  31. R. Bett (2003). Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonean Scepticism. Philosophical Review 112 (1):100-102.
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  32. Richard Bett (2013). Ancient Scepticism. In Roger Crisp (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter, which analyses the ethical theories of Greek sceptic Sextus Empiricus, begins by considering other sceptical figures who preceded Sextus, both for their intrinsic interest and to set the context for Sextus's work. These include Pyrrho, Arcesilaus of Pitane, Carneades of Cyrene, and Philo of Larissa. The chapter then examines surviving works of Sextus Empiricus, the best known being Outlines of Pyrrhonism.
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  33. Richard Bett (2013). A Sceptic Looks at Art (but Not Very Closely): Sextus Empiricus on Music. International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 3 (3):155-181.
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  34. Richard Bett (2012). Sextus Empiricus: Against the Physicists. Cambridge University Press.
    Sextus Empiricus' Against the Physicists examines numerous topics central to ancient Greek inquiries into the nature of the physical world, covering subjects such as god, cause and effect, whole and part, bodies, place, motion, time, number, coming into being and perishing and is the most extensive surviving treatment of these topics by an ancient Greek sceptic. Sextus scrutinizes the theories of non-sceptical thinkers and generates suspension of judgement through the assembly of equally powerful opposing arguments. Richard Bett's edition provides crucial (...)
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  35. Richard Bett (2010). Scepticism and Ethics. In Richard Arnot Home Bett (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 181.
  36. Richard Bett (2008). Timon of Phlius. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  37. Richard Bett (ed.) (2005). Sextus Empiricus: Against the Logicians. Cambridge University Press.
    Sextus Empiricus' Against the Logicians is by far the most detailed surviving examination by any ancient Greek sceptic of the areas of epistemology and logic. It critically examines the pretensions of non-sceptical philosophers to have discovered methods for determining the truth, either through direct observation or by inference from the observed to the unobserved. It is therefore a fine example of the Pyrrhonist sceptical method at work. It also provides a mine of information about the ideas of other Greek thinkers, (...)
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  38. Richard Bett (2000). What Does Pyrrhonism Have to Do with Pyrrho? Acta Philosophica Fennica 66:11-34.
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  39. Richard Bett (2000). Pyrrho, His Antecedents, and His Legacy. Oxford University Press UK.
    Richard Bett presents a ground-breaking study of Pyrrho of Elis, who lived in the late fourth and early third centuries BC and is the supposed originator of Greek scepticism. In the absence of surviving works by Pyrrho, scholars have tended to treat his thought as essentially the same as the long subsequent sceptical tradition which styled itself 'Pyrrhonism'. Bett argues, on the contrary, that Pyrrho's philosophy was significantly different from this later tradition, and offers the first detailed account of that (...)
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  40. Richard Bett (ed.) (1996). Sextus Empiricus: Against the Ethicists. Clarendon Press.
    This volume contains a translation into clear modern English of an unjustly neglected work by Sextus Empiricus, together with introduction and extensive commentary. Sextus is our main source for the doctrines and arguments of ancient Scepticism; in Against the Ethicists he sets out a distinctive Sceptic position in ethics.
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  41. Richard Bett (1995). Passions and Perceptions: Studies in Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind. [REVIEW] Ancient Philosophy 15 (1):283-286.
  42. Richard Bett (1994). Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind. Ancient Philosophy 14 (1):192-200.
  43. Richard Bett (1994). What Did Pyrrho Think About "The Nature of the Divine and the Good"? Phronesis 39 (3):303 - 337.
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  44. Richard Bett (1994). What Did Pyrrho Think About “The Nature of the Divine and the Good”? Phronesis 39 (3):303-337.
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  45. Richard Bett (1994). Sextus's Against the Ethicists: Scepticism, Relativism or Both? Apeiron 27 (2):123 - 161.
  46. Richard Bett (1993). Greek Scepticism. Ancient Philosophy 13 (1):243-252.
  47. E. R. Bevan (1931). The Greek Sceptics. By Mary Mills Patrick, Ph.D., LL.D., Litt.D. Pp. Xxi + 339. New York: Columbia University Press, 1929. Cloth, $4.50, or 22s. 6d. (London: Milford). [REVIEW] The Classical Review 45 (01):45-46.
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  48. Thomas A. Blackson (2001). Pyrrhonian Inquiry. Ancient Philosophy 21 (2):510-513.
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  49. D. L. Blank (ed.) (1998). Sextus Empiricus: Against the Grammarians. Clarendon Press.
    David Blank presents a new translation into clear modern English of a key treatise by one of the greatest of ancient philosophers, together with the first ever commentary on this work. Sextus Empiricus' Against the Grammarians is a polemical attack on ancient Greek ideas about grammar, and provides one of the best examples of sustained Sceptical reasoning.
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  50. Susanne Bobzien (2015). Time: M 10.169-247 - Notes On Sceptical Method and Doxographical Transmission in Sextus Empiricus' Chapters on Time. In Keimpe Algra & Katerina Ierodiakonou (eds.), Sextus Empiricus and ancient physics. Cambridge University Press.
    ABSTRACT: For the most part, this paper is not a philosophical paper in any strict sense. Rather, it focuses on the numerous exegetical puzzles in Sextus Empiricus’ two main passages on time (M X.l69-247 and PH III.l36-50), which, once sorted, help to explain how Sextus works and what the views are which he examines. Thus the paper provides an improved base from which to put more specifically philosophical questions to the text. The paper has two main sections, which can, by (...)
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