About this topic
Summary In the strictest sense, Qing Neo-Confucianism describes any Confucian thought appearing in the Qing dynasty (1644-1912). In practice, it usually refers more narrowly to Qing philosophers working within the indigenous Chinese tradition, before major Chinese thinkers engaged significantly with Western philosophy (significant engagement began in the late 19th Century). The Qing Neo-Confucian period witnessed at least two major developments: (1) powerful new critiques of the orthodox Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming dynasties, and (2) tremendous advances in philology and other "evidential" disciplines like geography and astronomy.
Introductions There is little philosophical work that addresses Qing dynasty thought as a whole, although some books that offer deep philosophical interpretations of two or more important philosophers from the period. These include Ivanhoe 2000Makeham 2010 and Angle 2002. A reliable historical introduction is Benjamin Elman's From Philosophy to Philology, 2nd edition (University of California Press, 2001).
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Yan Yuan
  1. Yan Xizhai Zhe Xue Si Xiang Shu.Dengyuan Chen - 1989
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  2. Preservation of Learning = Ts Un Hsüeh Pien : With an Introduction on His Life and Thought.Yuan Yan & Mansfield Freeman - 1972 - Monumenta Serica at the University of California.
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  3. Confucian Moral Self Cultivation, 2nd Ed.Philip J. Ivanhoe - 2000 - Hackett.
    A concise and accessible introduction to the moral philosophy of Kongzi (Confucius), Mengzi (Mencius), Xunzi, Zhu Xi, Wang Yangming, Yan Yuan and Dai Zhen.
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  4. Yan Yuan, Li Gong Ping Zhuan.Yilu Zhu - 2006 - Nanjing da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  5. Yan Li Xue Pai Wen Ku.Shanbang Chen & Ziping Deng (eds.) - 2009 - Hebei Jiao Yu Chu Ban She.
    v. 1 - 2. Yan Yuan wen ji -- v. 3 - 4. Li Gong wen ji -- v. 5. Yan shi xue ji. Yan Xizhai zhe xue si xiang shu -- v. 6. Yan Xizhai he Du Wei zhe xue si xiang ji jiao yu si xiang de bi jiao yan jiu. Yan Li xue pai -- v. 7. Yan Yuan ping zhuan. Yan Yuan yu Li Gong -- v. 8. Li Gong ping zhuan. Li Gong si xiang yan (...)
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  6. Yan Li Xue de Xing Cheng Yu Chuan Bo Yan Jiu.Chunyang Wang - 2009 - Qi Lu Shu She.
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  7. Selbstkultivierung Und Weltgestaltung: Die Praxiologische Philosophie des Yan Yuan (1635-1704).Thomas Tabery - 2009 - Harrassowitz.
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  8. Jie Shi de Zhuan Xiang Yu Ru Xue Chong Jian: Yan Li Xue Pai Dui Si Shu de Jie Du.Qinglian Gao - 2011 - Guangdong Ren Min Chu Ban She.
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  9. The Epistemology of Yan Yuan.Chao Zongzheng - 1980 - Contemporary Chinese Thought 11 (4):3-21.
    The progressive thinker of the late Ming, early Qing dynasties, the famous materialist philosopher Yan Yuan , made an important contribution to the history of Chinese philosophy with his practical studies of public affairs in which he fiercely attacked Song and Ming neo-Confucianism and promoted "real writing, real action, real substance, and real functions.".
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  10. Preservation of Learning (Trans. Mansfield Freeman).Yuan Yan - 1972 - Monumenta Serica at the University of California.
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Dai Zhen
  1. Shared Ends: Kant and Dai Zhen on the Ethical Value of Mutually Fulfilling Relationships.Justin Tiwald - 2020 - Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 33:105-137.
    This paper offers an account of an important type of human relationship: relationships based on shared ends. These are an indispensable part of most ethically worthy or valuable lives, and our successes or failures at participating in these relationships constitute a great number of our moral successes or failures overall. While many philosophers agree about their importance, few provide us with well-developed accounts of the nature and value of good shared-end relationships. This paper begins to develop a positive account of (...)
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  2. Two Notions of Empathy and Oneness.Justin Tiwald - 2018 - In Philip J. Ivanhoe, Owen Flanagan, Victoria S. Harrison, Hagop Sarkissian & Eric Schwitzgebel (eds.), The Oneness Hypothesis: Beyond the Boundary of Self. New York, USA: Columbia University Press. pp. 371-387.
    This essay is about the relations between two different types of empathy and two different conceptions of oneness. Roughly, the first type of empathy is what is sometimes called “other-focused” or “imagine-other” empathy, in which one reconstructs the thoughts and feelings that someone else has or would have. The second type, “self- focused” or “imagine-self” empathy, is the sort of emotional attitude someone adopts when she imagines how she would think or feel were she in the other person’s place. Some (...)
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  3. Xunzi Among the Chinese Neo-Confucians.Justin Tiwald - 2016 - In Eric Hutton (ed.), Dao Companion to the Philosophy of Xunzi. Springer. pp. 435-473.
    This chapter explains how Xunzi's text and views helped shape the thought of the Neo-Confucian philosophers, noting and explicating some areas of influence long overlooked in modern scholarship. It begins with a general overview of Xunzi’s changing position in the tradition (“Xunzi’s Status in Neo-Confucian Thought”), in which I discuss Xunzi’s status in three general periods of Neo-Confucian era: the early period, in which Neo-Confucian views of Xunzi were varied and somewhat ambiguous, the “mature” period, in which a broad consensus (...)
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  4. Dai Zhen on Nature and Pattern.Kwong‐Loi Shun - 2014 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 41 (1-2):5-17.
    The article discusses Dai Zhen's views on pattern. For Dai, pattern has to do with ensuring that the means by which one attains one's emotional propensities and satisfies one's desires will not prevent others from doing the same. The heart/mind has the capacity to know pattern on such basis and such knowledge will guide action. Ethical failure is due to a deficiency in knowledge, and self-cultivation involves developing one's capacity to know so that one can grasp the pattern in any (...)
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  5. Dai Zhens Konzeption des> Li Li<-Theorie der Cheng-Zhu-Schule.Wolfgang Ommerborn - 2000 - Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte 42:9-54.
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  6. A Social Theoretical Interpretation of Dai Zhen's Critique of Neo-Confucianism.Matthew M. Chew - 2012 - Asian Culture and History 4 (2):p22.
    This study analyzes and evaluates the social thought of Dai Zhen. It interprets Dai’s thought in terms of a critique of ideology that problematizes Song dynasty Neo-Confucian moral vocabulary. Dai thinks that social critique is the ultimate goal of scholarship and he was explicit about this belief. This study will show that he analyzes the negative social consequences of Song Neo-Confucian moral discourse in sociologically sophisticated ways, and that he has developed this understanding through a series of works that began (...)
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  7. Reinventing the Way: Dai Zhen's Evidential Commentary on the Meanings of Terms in Mencius (1777).John Ewell - 1990 - Dissertation, University of California Berkeley
    This dissertation presents a complete annotated translation of Dai Zhen's Evidential Commentary on the Meanings of Terms in Mencius, and includes three introductory chapters which discuss the origin and significance of the text. ;The Introduction raises the issue of what it means to regard such a text as a work of "philosophy," given that this term, as Feng Youlan points out, denotes a category of Western origin. Chapter I considers various interpretations of Dai Zhen's work that have been proposed in (...)
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  8. Evidential Commentary on the Meanings of Terms in the Mengzi.Dai Zhen - 1990 - Yale University Press.
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  9. Confucian Moral Self Cultivation, 2nd Ed.Philip J. Ivanhoe - 2000 - Hackett.
    A concise and accessible introduction to the moral philosophy of Kongzi (Confucius), Mengzi (Mencius), Xunzi, Zhu Xi, Wang Yangming, Yan Yuan and Dai Zhen.
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  10. Zhu Xi Yu Dai Zhen Mengzi Xue Zhi Bi Jiao Yan Jiu: Yi Xi Fang Quan Shi Xue Suo Zhan Kai de Fan Si.Yachun Luo - 2012 - Xiu Wei Zi Xun Ke Ji Gu Fen You Xian Gong Si.
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  11. Zhongguo Xian Dai Jia Zhi Guan de Chu Sheng Li Cheng: Cong Li Zhi Dao Dai Zhen.Genyou Wu - 2004 - Wuhan da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  12. Qian Qing Xue Zhe di Yi Ren Dai Zhen.Huaizhi Hu - 2010 - Zhongguo Wen Shi Chu Ban She.
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  13. Dai Zhen on Human Nature and Moral Cultivation.Justin Tiwald - 2010 - In John Makeham (ed.), The Dao Companion to Neo-Confucian Philosophy. Springer. pp. 399--422.
    An overview of Dai's ethics, highlighting some overlooked or misunderstood theses on moral deliberation and motivation.
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  14. Is Sympathy Naive? Dai Zhen on the Use of Shu to Track Well-Being.Justin Tiwald - 2010 - In Kam-por Yu, Julia Tao & Philip J. Ivanhoe (eds.), Taking Confucian Ethics Seriously: Contemporary Theories and Applications. SUNY.
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  15. Confucian Philosophy: Innovations and Transformations.Zhongying Cheng & Justin Tiwald (eds.) - 2011 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    New work on Confucian philosophy, published as a supplement to the Journal of Chinese Philosophy.
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  16. Dai Zhen's Defense of Self‐Interest.Justin Tiwald - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (s1):29-45.
    This paper is devoted to explicating Dai Zhen’s defense of self-interested desires, over and against a tradition that sets strict limits to their range and function in moral agency. I begin by setting the terms of the debate between Dai and his opponents, noting that the dispute turns largely on the moral status of directly self-interested desires, or desires for one’s own good as such. I then consider three of Dai’s arguments against views that miscategorize or undervalue directly self-interested desires. (...)
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  17. Sympathy and Perspective‐Taking in Confucian Ethics.Justin Tiwald - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (10):663-674.
    This article spells out a forgotten debate in Confucian ethics that concerns the finer points of empathy, sympathy, and perspective-taking (sometimes called ‘role-taking’). The debate’s central question is whether sympathy is more virtuous when it is automatic and other-focused – that is, when we engage in perspective-taking without conscious effort and sympathize without significant reference to our selves or our own feelings.
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  18. From the "Alternative School of Principles" to the Lay Buddhism: On the Conceptual Features of Modern Consciousness-Only School From the Perspective of the Evolution of Thought During the Ming and Qing Dynasties.Zhiqiang Zhang & Deyuan Huang - 2009 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):64 - 87.
    The best representatives of the self-reflection of xinxue 心学 (the School of Mind) and its development during the Ming and Qing Dynasties are the three masters from the late Ming Dynasty. The overall tendency is to shake off the internal constraints of the School of Mind by studying the Confucian classics and history. During the Qing Dynasty, Dai Zhen had attempted to set up a theoretical system based on Confucian classics and history, offering a theoretical foundation for a new academic (...)
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  19. A Preliminary Discussion of Dai Zhen’s Philosophy of Language.Genyou Wu - 2010 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (4):523-542.
    Dai Zhen’s philosophy of language took the opportunity of a transition in Chinese philosophy to develop a form of humanist positivism, which was different from both the Song and Ming dynasties’ School of Principles and the early Qing dynasty’s philosophical forms. His philosophy of language had four primary manifestations: (1) It differentiated between names pointing at entities and real events and names describing summum bonum and perfection ; (2) In discussing the metaphysical issue of the Dao, it was the first (...)
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  20. How Tai Chen Differs From the Neo-Confucianists on Li.Jig-Chuen Lee - 1991 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 18 (4):395-409.
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  21. Dai Zhen and the Japanese School of Ancient Learning.John Allen Tucker - 1991 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 18 (4):411-440.
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  22. Dai Zhen: The Unity of the Moral Nature.John Ewell - 1991 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 18 (4):387-394.
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  23. Dai Zhen on Sympathetic Concern.Justin Tiwald - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (1):76-89.
    I argue that Dai Zhen’s account of sympathetic concern is distinguished from other accounts of sympathy (and empathy) by several features, the most important of which are the following: First, he sees the awareness of our similarities to others as a necessary condition for sympathy but not a constituent of it. Second, the relevant similarities are those that are grounded in our common status as living creatures, and not in our common powers of autonomy or other traits that are often (...)
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  24. Tai Chên's Inquiry Into Goodness.Chung-Ying Cheng - 1971 - Honolulu, East-West Center Press.
    Humanities Open Book Program, a joint initiative of the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
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  25. Dai Zhen.Justin Tiwald - 2006 - In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Encyclopedia entry on the Confucian philosopher Dai Zhen 戴震 (1724-1777).
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  26. From the “Alternative School of Principles” to the Lay Buddhism: On the Conceptual Features of Modern Consciousness-Only School From the Perspective of the Evolution of Thought During the Ming and Qing Dynasties. [REVIEW]Zhiqiang Zhang - 2009 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):64-87.
    The best representatives of the self-reflection of xinxue 心学 (the School of Mind) and its development during the Ming and Qing Dynasties are the three masters from the late Ming Dynasty. The overall tendency is to shake off the internal constraints of the School of Mind by studying the Confucian classics and history. During the Qing Dynasty, Dai Zhen had attempted to set up a theoretical system based on Confucian classics and history, offering a theoretical foundation for a new academic (...)
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Qing Neo-Confucianism, Misc
  1. The Enlightenment of Anti‐Neo‐Confucian Thought During the Ming‐Qing Dynasties.Xiao Jie-Fu - 1989 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 16 (2):209-235.
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  2. Review of Cheng-Zhu Confucianism in the Early Qing: Li Guangdi and Qing Learning by On-Cho Ng. [REVIEW]John H. Berthrong - 2002 - Philosophy East and West 52 (2):256-257.
  3. Dao Companion to Neo-Confucian Philosophy.John Makeham (ed.) - 2010 - Springer.
    This Companion is the first volume to provide a comprehensive introduction, in accessible English, to the Neo-Confucian philosophical thought of representative ...
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  4. Liu, Xiaogan 劉笑敢 Et. Al., Eds., Chinese Philosophy and Culture: Confucian Studies of Ming-Qing Period 中國哲學與文化: 明清儒學研究: Guilin 桂林: Guangxi Shifan Daxue Chubanshe 廣西師範大學出版社, 2010, 296 Pages.Shaojin Chai - 2011 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (1):117-121.
    Liu, Xiaogan 劉笑敢 et. al., eds., Chinese Philosophy and Culture : Confucian Studies of Ming-Qing Period 中國哲學與文化: 明清儒學研究 Content Type Journal Article Pages 117-121 DOI 10.1007/s11712-010-9203-0 Authors Shaojin Chai, Department of Political Science, University of Notre Dame, 217 O’Shaughnessay Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA Journal Dao Online ISSN 1569-7274 Print ISSN 1540-3009 Journal Volume Volume 10 Journal Issue Volume 10, Number 1.
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  5. The Concept of Mind in the Scholarship of Huang Tsung-Hsi (1610–1695).Lynn A. Struve - 1982 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 9 (1):107-129.
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  6. A Study in Comparative Utopias - K'ang Yu-Wei and Plato.Lauren F. Pfister - 1989 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 16 (1):59-117.
  7. Plurality and Confucian Orthodoxy: The Views of a Neglected Qing School of Thought.Hans Kuehner - 1999 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 26 (1):49-88.
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  8. Chen Que Versus Huang Zongxi: Confucianism Faces Modern Times in the Seventeenth Century.Lynn A. Struve - 1991 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 18 (1):5-23.
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  9. An Early Qing Critique of the Philosophy of Mind-Heart (Xin): The Confucian Quest for Doctrinal Purity and the Doxic Role of Chan Buddhism.On-Cho Ng - 1999 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 26 (1):89-120.
  10. Time, History, and Dao: Zhang Xuecheng, and Martin Heidegger.Edward Q. Wang - 2002 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 1 (2):251-276.
  11. Wang Tao.Hsiao-hsü Cheng - unknown - [Dairen, Printed by the Manchuria Daily News.
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  12. Lessons From the Past: Zhang Xuecheng and the Ethical Dimensions of History.Philip J. Ivanhoe - 2009 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (2):189-203.
    This article explores some of the ways in which historical writings can play a substantial role in the development of ethical sensibilities and makes the more general point that since human beings are unique in understanding themselves as historical beings and value how they and others appear in historical perspective, an understanding and sense of history must play a role in an adequate account of ethics. The main focus of the article is a description and analysis of the views of (...)
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  13. Philosophical Development in Late Ming and Early Qing.Chung-yi Cheng - 2008 - In Bo Mou (ed.), Routledge History of Chinese Philosophy. Routledge.
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  14. Philosophy, Philology, and Politics in Eighteenth-Century China: Li Fu and the Lu-Wang School Under the Chʻing.Chin-hsing Huang - 1995 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book explains the general intellectual climate of the early Ch'ing period, and the political and cultural characteristics of the Ch'ing regime at the time. Professor Huang brings to life the book's central characters, Li Fu and the three great emperors - K'ang-hsi, Yung-cheng, and Chien-lung - whom he served. Although the author's main concern is to explain the contributions of Li Fu to the Lu-Wang school of Confucianism, he also gives a clearly written account of the Lu-Wang and Ch'eng-Chu (...)
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