Quantum Mechanics

Edited by Michael Cuffaro (Ludwig Maximilians Universität, München)
Assistant editor: Radin Dardashti (Ludwig Maximilians Universität, München, University of Wuppertal)
About this topic
Summary Issues in the philosophy of quantum mechanics include first and foremost, its interpretation. Probably the most well-known of these is the 'orthodox' Copenhagen interpretation associated with Neils Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli, John von Neumann, and others. Beginning roughly at the midway point of the previous century, philosophers' attention began to be drawn towards alternative interpretations of the theory, including Bohmian mechanics, the relative state formulation of quantum mechanics and its variants (i.e., DeWit's "many worlds" variant, Albert and Loewer's "many minds" variant, etc.), and the dynamical collapse family of theories. One particular interpretational issue that has attracted very much attention since the seminal work of John Bell, is the issue of the extent to which quantum mechanical systems do or do not admit of a local realistic description. Bell's investigation of the properties of entangled quantum systems, inspired by the famous thought experiment of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, seems to lead one to the conclusion that the only realistic "hidden variables" interpretation compatible with the quantum mechanical formalism is a nonlocal one. In recent years, some of the attention has focused on applications of quantum mechanics and their potential for illuminating quantum foundations. These include the sciences of quantum information and quantum computation. Additional areas of research include philosophical investigation into the extensions of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics (such as quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory more generally), as well as more formal logico-mathematical investigations into the structure of quantum states, state spaces, and their dynamics.
Key works Bohr 1928 and Heisenberg 1930 expound upon what has since become known as the 'Copenhagen interpretation' of quantum mechanics. The famous 'EPR' thought experiment of Einstein et al 1935 aims to show that quantum mechanics is an incomplete theory which should be supplemented by additional ('hidden') parameters. Bohr 1935 replies. More on Bohr's views can be found in Faye 1991, Folse 1985. Inspired by the EPR thought experiment, Bell 2004 [1964] proves what has since become known as "Bell's theorem." This, and a related result due to Kochen & Specker 1967 serve to revive the discussion of hidden variables and alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics. Jarrett 1984 analyses the key "factorisability" assumption Bell uses to derive his theorem into two distinct sub-assumptions, which Jarrett refers to as "locality" and "completeness". Two important volumes dedicated to the topics of entanglement and nonlocality are Cushing & McMullin 1989 and Maudlin 2002. Among the more discussed alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics are: Bohmian mechanics (Bohm 1952, and see also Cushing et al 1996), and Everett's relative state formulation (Everett Iii 1973). The latter gives rise to many variants, including the many worlds, many minds, and decoherence-based approaches (see Saunders et al 2010). Other notable interpretations and alternative theories include dynamical collapse theories (Ghirardi et al 1986), as well as the Copenhagen-inspired QBist view (Fuchs 2003, Fuchs 2010). An attempt to axiomatize quantum mechanics in terms of information theoretic constraints, and a discussion of the relevance of this for the interpretation of quantum mechanics is given in Clifton et al 2002. Discussion of this and other issues in quantum information theory can be found in: Timpson 2004. Key works in the philosophy of quantum field theory include: Redhead 1995, Redhead 1994, Ruetsche 2011, Teller 1995.
Introductions Hughes 1989 is an excellent introduction to the formalism and interpretation of quantum mechanics. Albert 1992 is another, which focuses particularly on the problem of measurement in quantum mechanics.
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  1. Quantum algorithms for simulation of quantum chemistry problems by quantum computers: an appraisal.Smriti Sharma - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-14.
    The ideas of quantum simulation and advances in quantum algorithms to solve quantum chemistry problems have been discussed. Theoretical proposals and experimental investigations both have been studied to gauge the extent to which quantum computation has been applied to solve quantum chemical problems till date. The distinctive features and limitations of the application of quantum simulation on chemical systems and current approaches to define and improve upon standard quantum algorithms have been studied in detail. The possibility and consequences of designing (...)
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  2. (May 2022 to 2014) The UNBELIEVABLE Similarities Between the Ideas of Some People (2011-2016) and My Ideas (2002-2008) in Physics (Quantum Mechanics, Cosmology), Cognitive Neuroscience, Philosophy of Mind, and Philosophy.Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    UNBELIEVABLE, many (hundreds) “great” or small thinkers did the same thing in 2006-2007 and later: they published the same ideas, UNBELIEVABLE similar to my ideas from 2002-2005! They believe they would be considered co-authors of the same new framework of thinking.
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  3. Wojciech Sady: The Structure of the Relativity and Quantum Revolution in Physics.Andrzej Łukasik, Marcin Gileta & Sebastian Kozera - forthcoming - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-7.
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  4. Quantum Technologies and Society: Towards a Different Spin.Christopher Coenen, Alexei Grinbaum, Armin Grunwald, Colin Milburn & Pieter Vermaas - 2022 - NanoEthics 16 (1):1-6.
    Due primarily to technological advances over the last decade, quantum research has become a key priority area for science and technology policy all over the world. With this manifesto, we wish to prevent quantum technology from running into fiascos of implementation at the interface of science and society. To this end, we identify key stumbling blocks and propose recommendations.
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  5. Studien zum wissenschaftlichen Determinismus vor der Entstehung der Quantenmechanik. Von der klassischen Mechanik zur Philosophie Edgar Zilsels (“Studies in the history of scientific determinism before quantum mechanics. From classical mechanics to the philosophy of Edgar Zilsel”).Donata Romizi - 2013 - Dissertation, University of Vienna
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  6. Fare i conti con il caso. La probabilità e l’emergere dell’indeterminismo nella fisica moderna.Donata Romizi - 2009 - Bologna, Italien: Gedit.
    In this volume I offer a compact history of the concepts of probability and statistics as well as a review of the most relevant interpretations of these notions. In the second part of the volume I explore the meaning of probability, statistics and their interpretations with respect to the developement of physical theories - from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. -/- (ISBN: 978-8889891322).
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  7. The One Magic Wave: Quantum Monism Meets Wavefunction Realism.Claudio Calosi - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
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  8. Quantum B‐Modules.Xia Zhang & Wolfgang Rump - 2022 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 68 (2):159-170.
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  9. Po1ntless: The Reality Behind Quantum Theory.R. W. Boyer - 2020 - Routledge India.
    This book examines how major interpretations of quantum theory are progressing toward a more unified understanding and experience of nature. It offers subtle insights to address core issues of wave-particle duality, the measurement problem, the mind/body problem, determinism/indeterminism/free will, and the nature of consciousness. It draws from physics, consciousness studies, and 'ancient Vedic science' to outline a new holistic interpretation of quantum theory. Accessible and thought-provoking, it will be profoundly integrating for scholars and researchers in science and technology, in philosophy, (...)
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  10. The General Principles of Quantum Theory.George Temple - 2014 - Routledge.
    Published in 1934, this monograph was one of the first introductory accounts of the principles which form the physical basis of the Quantum Theory, considered as a branch of mathematics. The exposition is restricted to a discussion of general principles and does not attempt detailed application to the wide domain of atomic physics, although a number of special problems are considered in elucidation of the principles. The necessary fundamental mathematical methods – the theory of linear operators and of matrics – (...)
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  11. The physicist inside the ambiguous room: an argument against the need of consciousness in the quantum mechanical measurement process.Carlo Roselli - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-12.
    The aim of this paper is to invalidate the hypothesis that human consciousness is necessary in the quantum measurement process. In order to achieve this target, I propose a considerable modification of the Schrödinger’s cat and the Dead-Alive Physicist thought experiments, called “PIAR”, short for “Physicist Inside the Ambiguous Room”. A specific strategy has enabled me to plan the experiment in such a way as to logically justify the inconsistency of the above hypothesis and to oblige its supporters to rely (...)
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  12. Wholly Quantum.Armaghan Yari - 2020 - Dissertation, University of York
    Most theories of quantum mechanics do not offer clear yes/no empirical answers to all questions that seem at face value. The Many-Worlds Interpretation, originated by Hugh Everett in the late 1950s, is unique for its unambiguous envisioning of reality: our universe is one of the numerous parallel universes that frantically branch off from each other nanoseconds by nanoseconds. In many of these worlds, there exist exact replicas of you and me, all evolving independently. My thesis exhibition, entitled Wholly Quantum, articulates (...)
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  13. Control of the Phase of the Quantum Wave Function May Salvage Interactionist Dualism.Tal Hendel - manuscript
    Interactionist dualism is often rejected based on the claim that the physical world is causally closed. Another claim against interactionist dualism is that, were it to hold, it would violate energy/momentum conservation or the second law of thermodynamics. Here I show that the phase of the quantum wave function may provide a loophole in the causal closure of the world through which the mind can affect behavior without violating any physical law.
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  14. Entanglement, Complexity, and Causal Asymmetry in Quantum Theories.Porter Williams - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-38.
    It is often claimed that one cannot locate a notion of causation in fundamental physical theories. The reason most commonly given is that the dynamics of those theories do not support any distinction between the past and the future, and this vitiates any attempt to locate a notion of causal asymmetry—and thus of causation—in fundamental physical theories. I argue that this is incorrect: the ubiquitous generation of entanglement between quantum systems grounds a relevant asymmetry in the dynamical evolution of quantum (...)
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  15. Conceptualizing Paradigms: On Reading Kuhn’s History of the Quantum.Jan Potters - forthcoming - Annals of Science:1-20.
    In this article, I discuss the criticisms raised against Thomas Kuhn’s Black-Body Theory. These criticisms concern two issues: how to understand Planck’s position with regards to the quantization of energy in 1901, and how to understand the book’s relation to The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Both criticisms, I argue, concern the notion of a paradigm: the first concerns how Boltzmann acted as an exemplar for Planck, and the second whether the book provides a paradigm change. I will then argue that (...)
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  16. The Dynamics of Perspective in Quantum Physics.Alexsandro Pereira & Jordi Solbes - 2022 - Science & Education 31 (2):427-450.
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  17. A Substructural Gentzen Calculus for Orthomodular Quantum Logic.Davide Fazio, Antonio Ledda, Francesco Paoli & Gavin St John - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-22.
    We introduce a sequent system which is Gentzen algebraisable with orthomodular lattices as equivalent algebraic semantics, and therefore can be viewed as a calculus for orthomodular quantum logic. Its sequents are pairs of non-associative structures, formed via a structural connective whose algebraic interpretation is the Sasaki product on the left-hand side and its De Morgan dual on the right-hand side. It is a substructural calculus, because some of the standard structural sequent rules are restricted—by lifting all such restrictions, one recovers (...)
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  18. Wittgenstein, Nāgārjuna and Relational Quantum Mechanics.Michael A. Peters - forthcoming - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-10.
  19. Two Concepts of Noncontextuality in Quantum Mechanics.Gábor Hofer-Szabó - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 93:21-29.
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  20. Towards Noncommutative Quantum Reality.Otto C. W. Kong - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 92:186-195.
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  21. Entanglement and Indistinguishability in a Quantum Ontology of Properties.Sebastian Fortin & Olimpia Lombardi - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 91:234-243.
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  22. The Birth of Quantum Mechanics From the Spirit of Radiation Theory.Alexander S. Blum & Martin Jähnert - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 91:125-147.
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  23. Centering the Everett Interpretation.Isaac Wilhelm - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
    I propose an account of probability in the Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics. According to the account, probabilities are objective chances of centered propositions. As I show, the account solves a number of problems concerning the role of probability in the Everett interpretation. It also challenges an implicit assumption, concerning the aim and scope of fundamental physical theories, that is made throughout the philosophy of physics literature.
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  24. Review of Jeffrey A. Barrett’s The Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Mechanics - Jeffrey A. Barrett, The Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2020), 272 Pp., $88.00. [REVIEW]Benjamin H. Feintzeig - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):202-205.
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  25. The Equiareal Archimedean Synchronization Method of the Quantum Symplectic Phase Space: II. Circle-Valued Moment Map, Integrality, and Symplectic Abelian Shadows.Elias Zafiris - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-32.
    The quantum transition probability assignment is an equiareal transformation from the annulus of symplectic spinorial amplitudes to the disk of complex state vectors, which makes it equivalent to the equiareal projection of Archimedes. The latter corresponds to a symplectic synchronization method, which applies to the quantum phase space in view of Weyl’s quantization approach involving an Abelian group of unitary ray rotations. We show that Archimedes’ method of synchronization, in terms of a measure-preserving transformation to an equiareal disk, imposes the (...)
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  26. Macroscopic Reality from Quantum Complexity.Don Weingarten - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-103.
    Beginning with the Everett–DeWitt many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, there have been a series of proposals for how the state vector of a quantum system might split at any instant into orthogonal branches, each of which exhibits approximately classical behavior. Here we propose a decomposition of a state vector into branches by finding the minimum of a measure of the mean squared quantum complexity of the branches in the branch decomposition. In a non-relativistic formulation of this proposal, branching occurs repeatedly (...)
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  27. 8. Whitehead’s Highly Speculative Lectures on Quantum Theory.Ronny Desmet - 2020 - In Brian G. Henning & Joseph Petek (eds.), Whitehead at Harvard, 1924–1925. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 154-181.
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  28. 6. Quanta and Corpuscles: The Infl Uence of Quantum Mechanical Ideas on Whitehead’s Transitional Philosophy in Light of The Harvard Lectures.Gary L. Herstein - 2020 - In Brian G. Henning & Joseph Petek (eds.), Whitehead at Harvard, 1924–1925. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 117-131.
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  29. Dirac’s Book The Principles of Quantum Mechanics as an Alternative Way of Organizing a Theory.Antonino Drago - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-24.
    Authoritative appraisals have qualified this book as an “axiomatic” theory. However, given that its essential content is no more than an analogy, its theoretical organization cannot be axiomatic. Indeed, in the first edition Dirac declares that he had avoided an axiomatic presentation. Moreover, I show that the text aims to solve a basic problem. A previous paper analyzed all past theories of physics, chemistry and mathematics, presented by the respective authors non-axiomatically. Four characteristic features of a new model of organizing (...)
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  30. Trying an Alternative Ansatz to Quantum Physics.Arend Niehaus - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-19.
    We report to which extent elementary particles and the nucleons can be described by an Ansatz that is alternative to the established standard model, and can still yield predicted results that reproduce the observed ones, without using the formalism of quantum mechanics. The different Ansatz is motivated by the attempt to explain known properties of elementary particles as a consequence of an inner structure, in contrast to the approach of the standard model, where the properties are ascribed to point-like particles. (...)
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  31. Philosophical Perspectives on Quantum Chemistry.Olimpia Lombardi, Juan Camilo Martínez & Sebastian Fortin (eds.) - forthcoming - Springer Cham.
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  32. The Metaphysics of Quantum Theory.Tim Maudlin - 2016 - Belgrade Philosophical Annual 29:5-13.
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  33. A Quantum Bridge Between Science and Spirituality: Toward a New Geometry of Consciousness.Subhash Sharma - 2021 - In Ananta Kumar Giri (ed.), Pragmatism, Spirituality and Society: New Pathways of Consciousness, Freedom and Solidarity. Springer Singapore. pp. 103-114.
    Broadly, there are two approaches to consciousness, viz. the scientific and the rishi. In the scientific approach, consciousness is an emergent phenomenon of matter. This can be referred to as the matter route to consciousness. In the rishi route, consciousness is an infused phenomenon wherein matter is infused with spirit. īśāvāsyamidaṃsarvaṃ, yatkiñcajagatyāṃjaga, Ishopanishad declares. It implies all matter is infused with consciousness. This can be referred to as the spirit route to consciousness. Now there is a need to combine the (...)
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  34. Ernest Nagel on Determinism as a Guiding Principle and Its Compatibility with Quantum Mechanics.Marij van Strien - 2021 - In Matthias Neuber & Adam Tamas Tuboly (eds.), Ernest Nagel: Philosophy of Science and the Fight for Clarity. Springer. pp. 149-170.
    According to Ernest Nagel, determinism is central to the scientific enterprise. Faced with the claim that determinism fails in quantum mechanics, Nagel proposed a notion of determinism which does not rely on a fundamental level of description, and can play a role in different scientific disciplines irrespective of their reducibility to physics. Nagel argues that determinism ultimately plays the role of a guiding principle in scientific research. In this way, Nagel argues that determinism has an enduring relevance in all domains (...)
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  35. Strong Determinism.Eddy Keming Chen - manuscript
    A strongly deterministic theory of physics is one that permits exactly one possible history of the universe. In the words of Penrose (1989), "it is not just a matter of the future being determined by the past; the entire history of the universe is fixed, according to some precise mathematical scheme, for all time.” Such an extraordinary feature may appear unattainable in any realistic and simple theory of physics. In this paper, I propose a definition of strong determinism and contrast (...)
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  36. Our Universe’s Fingerprint: Why Zero Point Radiation Occurs and Are Quantum Fluctuations Truly Random?David Angell - manuscript
    Absolute nothing is the absence of our universe and its laws. Without these rules, nothingness has infinite potential. This implies that within the infinite probability of nothing, infinity can emerge. This would be expressed through infinite universes like our own. Infinite of these universes will differ by several particles, appearing and disappearing for no reason other than fulfilling every possibility. This universe is the product of a greater realisation of infinity and we can test this theory via the measurement of (...)
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  37. Quantum foundations in a nutshell: Emily Adlam: Foundations of quantum mechanics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021, 84pp, £ 15.00 PB.Albert Solé & Antonio Vassallo - 2022 - Metascience 31 (1):17-20.
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  38. Small Bohr: John L. Heilbron: Niels Bohr: a very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020, xxii+132 pp, £8.99 PB. [REVIEW]K. Brad Wray - 2021 - Metascience 31 (1):27-28.
    This is a book review of John Heilbron's book _Niels Bohr: a very short introduction_.
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  39. Richard Healey's The Quantum Revolution in Philosophy. [REVIEW]David Glick - 2018 - BJPS Review of Books.
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  40. Shan Gao's Protective Measurement and Quantum Reality. [REVIEW]Valia Allori - 2017 - BJPS Review of Books.
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  41. If a Photon Falls in the Woods: An Aristotelian Answer to a Quantum Question.Andrew Younan - 2022 - Wiley: The Heythrop Journal 63 (3):458-472.
    The Heythrop Journal, Volume 63, Issue 3, Page 458-472, May 2022.
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  42. The Common Logic of Quantum Universe—Part I: The Case of Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics.Massimo Tessarotto & Claudio Cremaschini - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-38.
    One of the most challenging and fascinating issue in mathematical and theoretical physics concerns the possibility of identifying the logic underlying the so-called quantum universe, i.e., Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Gravity. Besides the sheer difficulty of the problem, inherent in the actual formulation of Quantum Mechanics—and especially of Quantum Gravity—to be used for such a task, a crucial aspect lies in the identification of the appropriate axiomatic logical proposition calculus to be associated to such theories. In this paper the issue (...)
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  43. 9 Temporal Knowledge Arguments and a Note on Presentism 2 17 2022.Paul Merriam - manuscript
  44. Whence the Complex Numbers?Hans Halvorson - manuscript
    A short note on why we use complex numbers in physics.
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  45. A Non-relativistic Approach to Relativistic Quantum Mechanics: The Case of the Harmonic Oscillator.Luis A. Poveda, Luis Grave de Peralta, Jacob Pittman & Bill Poirier - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-20.
    A recently proposed approach to relativistic quantum mechanics is applied to the problem of a particle in a quadratic potential. The methods, both exact and approximate, allow one to obtain eigenstate energy levels and wavefunctions, using conventional numerical eigensolvers applied to Schrödinger-like equations. Results are obtained over a nine-order-of-magnitude variation of system parameters, ranging from the non-relativistic to the ultrarelativistic limits. Various trends are analyzed and discussed—some of which might have been easily predicted, others which may be a bit more (...)
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  46. Beyond Method: The Diatribe Between Feyerabend and Popper Over the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics.Flavio Del Santo - forthcoming - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science:1-18.
    Karl Popper and Paul Feyerabend were among the most influential philosophers of science of the twentieth century. Extensive studies have been dedicated to the development of their controversial rel...
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  47. Niels Bohr’s experimentalist approach to understanding quantum mechanics.Jan Faye - forthcoming - Metascience:1-4.
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  48. A Quantum Informational Approach to the Problem of Time.Salman Sajad Wani, James Q. Quach, Mir Faizal, Sebastian Bahamonde & Behnam Pourhassan - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-8.
    Several novel approaches have been proposed to resolve the problem of time by relating it to change. We argue using quantum information theory that the Hamiltonian constraint in quantum gravity cannot probe change, so it cannot be used to obtain a meaningful notion of time. This is due to the absence of quantum Fisher information with respect to the quantum Hamiltonian of a time-reparametization invariant system. We also observe that the inability of this Hamiltonian to probe change can be related (...)
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  49. The Particles of Quantum Fields.Gregg Jaeger - 2021 - Entropy 11 (23):1416.
    The elementary particles of relativistic quantum field theory are not simple field quanta, as has long been assumed. Rather, they supplement quantum fields, on which they depend but to which they are not reducible, as shown here with particles defined instead as a unified collection of properties that appear in both physical symmetry group representations and field propagators. This notion of particle provides consistency between the practice of particle physics and its basis in quantum field theory.
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  50. Quantum Arrangements.Gregg Jaeger - 2021 - Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature.
    his book presents a collection of novel contributions and reviews by renowned researchers in the foundations of quantum physics, quantum optics, and neutron physics. It is published in honor of Michael Horne, whose exceptionally clear and groundbreaking work in the foundations of quantum mechanics and interferometry, both of photons and of neutrons, has provided penetrating insight into the implications of modern physics for our understanding of the physical world. He is perhaps best known for the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality. This collection (...)
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