Quantum Mechanics

Edited by Michael Cuffaro (Ludwig Maximilians Universität, München)
Assistant editor: Radin Dardashti (Ludwig Maximilians Universität, München, University of Wuppertal)
About this topic
Summary Issues in the philosophy of quantum mechanics include first and foremost, its interpretation. Probably the most well-known of these is the 'orthodox' Copenhagen interpretation associated with Neils Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli, John von Neumann, and others. Beginning roughly at the midway point of the previous century, philosophers' attention began to be drawn towards alternative interpretations of the theory, including Bohmian mechanics, the relative state formulation of quantum mechanics and its variants (i.e., DeWit's "many worlds" variant, Albert and Loewer's "many minds" variant, etc.), and the dynamical collapse family of theories. One particular interpretational issue that has attracted very much attention since the seminal work of John Bell, is the issue of the extent to which quantum mechanical systems do or do not admit of a local realistic description. Bell's investigation of the properties of entangled quantum systems, inspired by the famous thought experiment of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, seems to lead one to the conclusion that the only realistic "hidden variables" interpretation compatible with the quantum mechanical formalism is a nonlocal one. In recent years, some of the attention has focused on applications of quantum mechanics and their potential for illuminating quantum foundations. These include the sciences of quantum information and quantum computation. Additional areas of research include philosophical investigation into the extensions of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics (such as quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory more generally), as well as more formal logico-mathematical investigations into the structure of quantum states, state spaces, and their dynamics.
Key works Bohr 1928 and Heisenberg 1930 expound upon what has since become known as the 'Copenhagen interpretation' of quantum mechanics. The famous 'EPR' thought experiment of Einstein et al 1935 aims to show that quantum mechanics is an incomplete theory which should be supplemented by additional ('hidden') parameters. Bohr 1935 replies. More on Bohr's views can be found in Faye 1991, FOLSE 1985. Inspired by the EPR thought experiment, Bell 2004 [1964] proves what has since become known as "Bell's theorem." This, and a related result due to Kochen & Specker 1967 serve to revive the discussion of hidden variables and alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics. Jarrett 1984 analyses the key "factorisability" assumption Bell uses to derive his theorem into two distinct sub-assumptions, which Jarrett refers to as "locality" and "completeness". Two important volumes dedicated to the topics of entanglement and nonlocality are Cushing & McMullin 1989 and Maudlin 2002. Among the more discussed alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics are: Bohmian mechanics (Bohm 1952, and see also Cushing et al 1996), and Everett's relative state formulation (Everett Iii 1973). The latter gives rise to many variants, including the many worlds, many minds, and decoherence-based approaches (see Saunders et al 2010). Other notable interpretations and alternative theories include dynamical collapse theories (Ghirardi et al 1986), as well as the Copenhagen-inspired QBist view (Fuchs 2003, Fuchs manuscript). An attempt to axiomatize quantum mechanics in terms of information theoretic constraints, and a discussion of the relevance of this for the interpretation of quantum mechanics is given in Clifton et al 2002. Discussion of this and other issues in quantum information theory can be found in: Timpson 2004. Key works in the philosophy of quantum field theory include: Redhead 1995, Redhead 1994, Ruetsche 2011, Teller 1995.
Introductions Hughes 1989 is an excellent introduction to the formalism and interpretation of quantum mechanics. Albert 1992 is another, which focuses particularly on the problem of measurement in quantum mechanics.
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  1. ENCOUNTERING COMPLEXITY: IN NEED FOR A SELF-REFLECTING (PRE)EPISTEMOLOGY.Vasileios Basios - 2007 - In Avshalom C. Elitzur, Metod Saniga & Rosolino Buccheri (eds.), Endophysics, Time, Quantum and the Subjective. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing. pp. 547-566.
    We have recently started to understand that fundamental aspects of complex systems such as emergence, the measurement problem, inherent uncertainty, complex causality in connection with unpredictable determinism, time­irreversibility and non­locality all highlight the observer's participatory role in determining their workings. In addition, the principle of 'limited universality' in complex systems, which prompts us to search for the appropriate 'level of description in which unification and universality can be expected', looks like a version of Bohr's 'complementarity principle'. It is more or (...)
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  2. A Mechanism for Life After Death.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    A mechanism for life after death is given.
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  3. Perspectival Ontology + McTaggart = an AdS/CFT?Paul Merriam - manuscript
    The modest ambition of this short note is to point out a plausible route from a *perspectival ontology* and McTaggart’s *AB-spacetime* to an AdS/CFT correspondence. There are several minor arguments that would need to be filled in for this route to succeed.
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  4. A Model for the Solution of the Quantum Measurement Problem.Biswaranjan Dikshit - 2019 - Science and Philosophy 7 (2):59-70.
    The basic idea of quantum mechanics is that the property of any system can be in a state of superposition of various possibilities. This state of superposition is also known as wave function and it evolves linearly with time in a deterministic way in accordance with the Schrodinger equation. However, when a measurement is carried out on the system to determine the value of that property, the system instantaneously transforms to one of the eigen states and thus we get only (...)
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  5. GAP.7: Reflections and Projections: Challenges to Philosophy.M. Kuhlmann, P. Näger & W. Stelzner - 2011 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 42 (1):177-183.
  6. Gabriel Vacariu (Second April 2019 to 2014) The UNBELIEVABLE Similarities Between the Ideas of Some People (2011-2016) and My Ideas (2002-2008) in Physics (Quantum Mechanics, Cosmology), Cognitive Neuroscience, Philosophy of Mind, and Philosophy (This Manuscript Would Require a REVOLUTION in International Academy Environment!). [REVIEW]Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    COTENT -/- (second April 2019) Why so many people (from so many countries/domains/on so many topics) have already plagiarized my ideas? (Gabriel Vacariu) -/- Some preliminary comments Introduction: The EDWs perspective in my article from 2005 and my book from 2008 -/- I. PHYSICS, COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY (‘REBORN DINOSAURS’ ) • (2016) Did Sean Carroll’s ideas (California Institute of Technology, USA) plagiarize my ideas (2002-2010) (within the EDWs framework)? • (2016) Frank Wilczek’s ideas (Nobel Prize in Physics) (Philosophy of Mind (...)
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  7. UNBELIEVABLE Similarities Between Araújo Et Al’s Ideas (2015) on Quantum Mechanics and My Ideas (2002-2008).Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    This conclusion indicates exactly my EDWs!!! So, the framework is UNBELIEVABLE similar to my EDWs! The authors avoid any contradiction introducing the “theory of causal witnesses” that represent the correspondences between EDWs, no more or less!!!
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  8. How Quantum Mechanics with Deterministic Collapse Localizes Macroscopic Objects.Arthur Jabs - manuscript
    Why microscopic objects exhibit wave properties (are delocalized), but macroscopic do not (are localized)? Traditional quantum mechanics attributes wave properties to all objects. When complemented with a deterministic collapse model (Quantum Stud.: Math. Found. 3, 279 (2016)) quantum mechanics can dissolve the discrepancy. Collapse in this model means contraction and occurs when the object gets in touch with other objects and satisfies a certain criterion. One single collapse usually does not suffice for localization. But the object rapidly gets in touch (...)
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  9. A Conjecture Concerning Determinism, Reduction, and Measurement in Quantum Mechanics.Arthur Jabs - 2016 - Quantum Studies: Mathematics and Foundations 3 (4):279-292.
    Determinism is established in quantum mechanics by tracing the probabilities in the Born rules back to the absolute (overall) phase constants of the wave functions and recognizing these phase constants as pseudorandom numbers. The reduction process (collapse) is independent of measurement. It occurs when two wavepackets overlap in ordinary space and satisfy a certain criterion, which depends on the phase constants of both wavepackets. Reduction means contraction of the wavepackets to the place of overlap. The measurement apparatus fans out the (...)
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  10. Physical Mathematics and The Fine-Structure Constant.Michael A. Sherbon - 2018 - Journal of Advances in Physics 14 (3):5758-64.
    Research into ancient physical structures, some having been known as the seven wonders of the ancient world, inspired new developments in the early history of mathematics. At the other end of this spectrum of inquiry the research is concerned with the minimum of observations from physical data as exemplified by Eddington's Principle. Current discussions of the interplay between physics and mathematics revive some of this early history of mathematics and offer insight into the fine-structure constant. Arthur Eddington's work leads to (...)
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  11. Time's Arrow in a Quantum Universe: On the Status of Statistical Mechanical Probabilities.Eddy Keming Chen - forthcoming - In Valia Allori (ed.), Statistical Mechanics and Scientific Explanation: Determinism, Indeterminism and Laws of Nature. World Scientific.
    In a quantum universe with a strong arrow of time, it is standard to postulate that the initial wave function started in a particular macrostate---the special low-entropy macrostate selected by the Past Hypothesis. Moreover, there is an additional postulate about statistical mechanical probabilities according to which the initial wave function is a ''typical'' choice in the macrostate. Together, they support a probabilistic version of the Second Law of Thermodynamics: typical initial wave functions will increase in entropy. Hence, there are two (...)
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  12. Towards an AB-Series Interpretation of Time in Physics.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    How can McTaggart's A-series notion of time be incorporated into physics while retaining the B-series notion? It may be the A-series 'now' can be construed as ontologically private. How is that modeled? Could a definition of a combined AB-series entropy help with the Past Hypothesis problem? What if the increase in entropy as a system goes from earlier times to later times is canceled by the decrease in entropy as a system goes from future, to present, to past?
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  13. Origin of Quantum Mechanical Results and Life: A Clue From Quantum Biology.Biswaranjan Dikshit - 2018 - Neuroquantology 16 (4):26-33.
    Although quantum mechanics can accurately predict the probability distribution of outcomes in an ensemble of identical systems, it cannot predict the result of an individual system. All the local and global hidden variable theories attempting to explain individual behavior have been proved invalid by experiments (violation of Bell’s inequality) and theory. As an alternative, Schrodinger and others have hypothesized existence of free will in every particle which causes randomness in individual results. However, these free will theories have failed to quantitatively (...)
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  14. How Has Quantum Physics Affected the Free Will Debate?Neer Singhal - manuscript
    This paper discusses the extent to which advances in quantum physics can affect ideas of free will and determinism. It questions whether arguments that conclude the existence of free will from quantum physics are as valid as they seem. -/- The paper discusses the validity of Searle’s philosophy of mind, Robert Kane’s parallel processing, and Ted Honderich’s near-determinism, as well as dealing with chaos theory, the relationship between ‘randomness’ and ‘unpredictability,’ and Bell’s theorem, discussing how they can be used to (...)
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  15. Deep Indeterminacy in Physics and Fiction.George Darby, Martin Pickup & Jon Robson - 2017 - In Otávio Bueno, Steven French, George Darby & Dean Rickles (eds.), Thinking About Science, Reflecting on Art: Bringing Aesthetics and Philosophy of Science Together. Routledge.
    Indeterminacy in its various forms has been the focus of a great deal of philosophical attention in recent years. Much of this discussion has focused on the status of vague predicates such as ‘tall’, ‘bald’, and ‘heap’. It is determinately the case that a seven-foot person is tall and that a five-foot person is not tall. However, it seems difficult to pick out any determinate height at which someone becomes tall. How best to account for this phenomenon is, of course, (...)
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  16. The Legitimate Route to the Scientific Truth.Joseph Krecz - manuscript
    We leave in a beautiful and uniform world, a world where everything probable is possible. Since the epic theory of relativity many scientists have embarked in a pursuit of astonishing theoretical fantasies, abandoning the prudent and logical path to scientific inquiry. The theory is a complex theoretical framework that facilitates the understanding of the universal laws of physics. It is based on the space-time continuum fabric abstract concept, and it is well suited for interpreting cosmic events. However, it is not (...)
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  17. Emergent Quasiparticles. Or How to Get a Rich Physics From a Sober Metaphysics.Alexandre Guay & Olivier Sartenaer - 2018 - In Melinda Fagan, Otávio Bueno & Ruey-Lin Chen (eds.), Individuation, Process and Scientific Practices. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 214-235.
    Among the very architects of the recent re-emergence of emergentism in the physical sciences, Robert B. Laughlin certainly occupies a prominent place. Through a series of works beginning as early as his Nobel lecture in 1998, a lecture given after having been awarded, together with Störmer and Tsui, the Nobel prize in physics for its contribution in the elucidation of the fractional quantum Hall effect, Laughlin openly and relentlessly advocated a strongly anti-reductionistic view of physics – and, more particularly, of (...)
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  18. Von Neumann and the Anti-Realists.JamesRobert Brown - 1985 - Erkenntnis 23 (2):149 - 159.
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  19. The Tacit ‘Quantum’ of Meeting the Aesthetic Sign; Contextualize, Entangle, Superpose, Collapse or Decohere.Jan Broekaert - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (2):255-266.
    The semantically ambiguous nature of the sign and aspects of non-classicality of elementary matter as described by quantum theory show remarkable coherent analogy. We focus on how the ambiguous nature of the image, text and art work bears functional resemblance to the dynamics of contextuality, entanglement, superposition, collapse and decoherence as these phenomena are known in quantum theory. These quantumlike properties in linguistic signs have previously been identified in formal descritions of e.g. concept combinations and mental lexicon representations and have (...)
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  20. The Limits of Physical Equivalence in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory.Tracy Lupher - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (2):553-576.
    Some physicists and philosophers argue that unitarily inequivalent representations in quantum field theory are mathematical surplus structure. Support for that view, sometimes called ‘algebraic imperialism’, relies on Fell’s theorem and its deployment in the algebraic approach to QFT. The algebraic imperialist uses Fell’s theorem to argue that UIRs are ‘physically equivalent’ to each other. The mathematical, conceptual, and dynamical aspects of Fell’s theorem will be examined. Its use as a criterion for physical equivalence is examined in detail and it is (...)
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  21. Physics and Whitehead: Quantum, Process, and Experience.Timothy E. Eastman & Henry Keeton (eds.) - 2003 - Albany, USA: State University of New York Press.
    Featuring discussions and dialogue by prominent scientists and philosophers, this book explores the rich interface of contemporary physics and Whitehead-inspired process thought.
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  22. Scientific Explanation and Atomic Physics. Edward M. MacKinnon.Allan Franklin - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (3):481-483.
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  23. Methodological Foundations of Relativistic Mechanics. Marshall Spector.Peter Kirschenmann - 1973 - Philosophy of Science 40 (3):459-461.
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  24. On the Nature of Meanings, a Philosophical Analysis. Niels Egmont Christensen.Charles E. Caton - 1963 - Philosophy of Science 30 (1):83-84.
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  25. Physics of the Stoics. S. Sambursky.Jerry Stannard - 1961 - Philosophy of Science 28 (1):83-84.
  26. The Physicist's Conception of Nature. Werner Heisenberg, Arnold J. Pomerans. Johnstone Jr - 1959 - Philosophy of Science 26 (4):376-376.
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  27. Theory of Relativity. W. Pauli, G. Field.V. F. Lenzen - 1960 - Philosophy of Science 27 (2):223-224.
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  28. Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge. Niels Bohr.Alfred Lande - 1959 - Philosophy of Science 26 (2):150-153.
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  29. Physics and Microphysics. Louis DeBroglie, Martin Davidson.Erwin Biser - 1957 - Philosophy of Science 24 (3):281-282.
  30. The New Physics. C. V. Raman.David Layzer - 1952 - Philosophy of Science 19 (2):181-182.
  31. Erich Joos Et Al., Decoherence and the Appearance of a Classical World in Quantum Theory. Berlin: Springer , 496 Pp., $69.95 .Geoffrey Sewell, Quantum Mechanics and Its Emergent Macrophysics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press , 304 Pp., $67.50. [REVIEW]Jeremy Butterfield - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (2):395-399.
  32. Quantum Mechanics’ and ‘Scientific Explanation’ An Explanatory Strategy Aiming at Providing ‘Understanding.Pandora Hadzidaki - 2008 - Science & Education 17 (1):49-73.
    Empirical studies persistently indicate that the usual explanatory strategies used in quantum mechanics (QM) instruction fail, in general, to yield understanding. In this study we propose an instructional intervention, which (a) incorporates into its subject matter a critical comparison of QM scientific content with the fundamental epistemological and ontological commitments of the prominent philosophical theories of explanation - a weak form of which we meet in QM teaching; (b) illuminates the reasons of their failure; and (c) implements an explanatory strategy (...)
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  33. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece.Constantin Tampakis & Constantin Skordoulis - 2007 - Science & Education 16 (3-5):371-391.
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  34. Thought Experiments in the Theory of Relativity and in Quantum Mechanics: Their Presence in Textbooks and in Popular Science Books.Athanasios Velentzas, Krystallia Halkia & Constantine Skordoulis - 2007 - Science & Education 16 (3-5):353-370.
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  35. Realism Vs. Constructivism in Contemporary Physics: The Impact of the Debate on the Understanding of Quantum Theory and its Instructional Process.Vassilios Karakostas & Pandora Hadzidaki - 2005 - Science & Education 14 (7-8):607-629.
    In the present study we attempt to incorporate the philosophical dialogue about physical reality into the instructional process of quantum mechanics. Taking into account that both scientific realism and constructivism represent, on the basis of a rather broad spectrum, prevalent philosophical currents in the domain of science education, the compatibility of their essential commitments is examined against the conceptual structure of quantum theory. It is argued in this respect that the objects of science do not simply constitute ‘personal constructions’ of (...)
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  36. Σ 1 0 and Π 1 0 Equivalence Structures.Douglas Cenzer, Valentina Harizanov & Jeffrey B. Remmel - 2011 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 162 (7):490-503.
    We study computability theoretic properties of and equivalence structures and how they differ from computable equivalence structures or equivalence structures that belong to the Ershov difference hierarchy. Our investigation includes the complexity of isomorphisms between equivalence structures and between equivalence structures.
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  37. Interaction-Free Effects Between Distant Atoms.Yakir Aharonov, Eliahu Cohen, Avshalom C. Elitzur & Lee Smolin - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (1):1-16.
    A Gedanken experiment is presented where an excited and a ground-state atom are positioned such that, within the former’s half-life time, they exchange a photon with 50% probability. A measurement of their energy state will therefore indicate in 50% of the cases that no photon was exchanged. Yet other measurements would reveal that, by the mere possibility of exchange, the two atoms have become entangled. Consequently, the “no exchange” result, apparently precluding entanglement, is non-locally established between the atoms by this (...)
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  38. Time Reversal Invariance in Quantum Mechanics.Reza Moulavi Ardakani - 2017 - Dissertation, Texas Tech University
    Symmetries have a crucial role in today’s physics. In this thesis, we are mostly concerned with time reversal invariance (T-symmetry). A physical system is time reversal invariant if its underlying laws are not sensitive to the direction of time. There are various accounts of time reversal transformation resulting in different views on whether or not a given theory in physics is time reversal invariant. With a focus on quantum mechanics, I describe the standard account of time reversal and compare it (...)
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  39. Review of The Quantum Revolution in Philosophy. [REVIEW]David Glick - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
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  40. Toward an Understanding of Parochial Observables.Benjamin Feintzeig - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axw010.
    Ruetsche claims that an abstract C*-algebra of observables will not contain all of the physically significant observables for a quantum system with infinitely many degrees of freedom. This would signal that in addition to the abstract algebra, one must use Hilbert space representations for some purposes. I argue to the contrary that there is a way to recover all of the physically significant observables by purely algebraic methods. 1 Introduction2 Preliminaries3 Three Extremist Interpretations3.1 Algebraic imperialism3.2 Hilbert space conservatism3.3 Universalism4 Parochial (...)
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  41. Kantian Causality and Quantum Quarks: The Compatibility Between Quantum Mechanics and Kant’s Phenomenal World.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2013 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 28 (2):283-302.
    Quantum indeterminism seems incompatible with Kant’s defense of causality in his Second Analogy. The Copenhagen interpretation also takes quantum theory as evidence for anti-realism. This first article of a two-part series argues that the law of causality, as transcendental, applies only to the world as observable, not to hypothetical objects such as quarks, detectable only by high energy accelerators. Taking Planck’s constant and the speed of light as the lower and upper bounds of observability provides a way of interpreting the (...)
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  42. Explanation and Randomness.José Luis Rolleri - 2010 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 25 (1):59-73.
    The aim of this paper is to elaborate a notion of explanation which is applicable to stochastic processes such as quantum processes. The model-theoretic approach was adopted in order to delimit appropriate classes, by defining set-theoretical predicates, of different kinds of physical transformations that quantum systems suffer, either of transitions or of transmutations, by interaction or in a spontaneous manner. To explain a singular quantum process consists in showing that it is feasible to model it as an indeterministic process of (...)
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  43. Cassirer and Bohr on Intuitive and Symbolic Knowledge in Quantum Physics.Hernán Pringe - 2014 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 29 (3):417-429.
    This paper compares Cassirer´s and Bohr´s views on symbolic knowledge in quantum physics. Although both of them consider quantum physics as symbolic knowledge, for Cassirer this amounts to a complete renunciation to intuition in quantum physics, while according to Bohr only spatio-temporal images may provide the mathematical formalism of the theory with physical reference. We show the Kantian roots of Bohr´s position and we claim that his Kantian concept of symbol enables Bohr to account for the sensible content of quantum (...)
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  44. An Intrinsic Theory of Quantum Mechanics: Progress in Field's Nominalistic Program, Part I.Eddy Keming Chen - manuscript
    In this paper, I introduce an intrinsic account of the quantum state. This account contains three desirable features that the standard platonistic account lacks: (1) it does not refer to any abstract mathematical objects such as complex numbers, (2) it is independent of the usual arbitrary conventions in the wave function representation, and (3) it explains why the quantum state has its amplitude and phase degrees of freedom. -/- Consequently, this account extends Hartry Field’s program outlined in Science Without Numbers (...)
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  45. Ontological Aspects of Quantum Field Theory.Meinard Kuhlmann, Holger Lyre & Andrew Wayne (eds.) - 2002 - World Scientific.
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  46. Massimiliano Badino and Jaume Navarro , Research and Pedagogy: A History of Quantum Physics Through Its Textbooks. Berlin: Edition Open Access, 2013, Pp. 296. ISBN 978-3-8442-5871-4. €37.84. [REVIEW]Tilman Sauer - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Science 48 (3):530-532.
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  47. A Century of Quantum Theory: Time for a Change in Thinking: Versus the Popular Belief That Material Building Blocks Are the Basis of the Reality.Thomas Görnitz - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (4):749-762.
    The aim of science is the explanation of complicated systems by reducing it to simple subsystems. According to a millennia-old imagination this will be attained by dividing matter into smaller and smaller pieces of it. The popular superstition that smallness implies simplicity seems to be ineradicable. However, since the beginning of quantum theory it would be possible to realize that the circumstances in nature are exactly the other way round. The idea “smaller becomes simpler” is useful only down to the (...)
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  48. From Cubist Simultaneity to Quantum Complementarity.Christophe Schinckus - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (4):709-716.
    This article offers a contribution to the history of scientific ideas by proposing an epistemological argument supporting the assumption made by Miller whereby Niels Bohr has been influenced by cubism when he developed his non-intuitive complementarity principle. More specifically, this essay will identify the Bergsonian durée as the conceptual bridge between Metzinger and Bohr. Beyond this conceptual link between the painter and the physicist, this paper aims to emphasize the key role played by art in the development of human knowledge.
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  49. Kant or Cassirer: A Study in Complementarity.K. Sundaram - 1972 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 3 (1):40-48.
    Summary The paper considers Ernst' Cassirer's standpoint with reference to Euclidean geometry and the complementarity principle of quantum theory, interpreted as a choice between a causal description and a space-time description. The acceptance of the complementarity principle by Cassirer not only lands him off the Kantian path slightly, but it also leads him to some contradictions and incompatibilities within his own system of thought. 1. Accepting complementarity, Cassirer cannot still hold that there is an infinite hierarchy of objective levels as (...)
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  50. Formal and Physical Equivalence in Two Cases in Contemporary Quantum Physics.Doreen Fraser - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 59:30-43.
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