About this topic

The problem of quantum nonlocality emerged for the first time in the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument against the orthodox (Copenhagen) interpretation of quantum mechanics. The EPR argument employs an entangled state of two particles in which the position and momentum of one particle are correlated respectively with the position and momentum of the other particle regardless of their spatial separation. Under the assumption that quantum mechanics is complete it follows that a measurement of a selected quantity on one particle instantaneously (superluminally) changes the state of the other particle, and this constitutes a standard example of nonlocal quantum correlations. The notion of quantum nonlocality plays an important role in Bell’s theorem, where the joint assumption of locality and realism of properties is shown to have a consequence violating quantum-mechanical predictions. It is common to distinguish two types of quantum nonlocality: outcome dependence and parameter dependence. Only the former is believed to be necessary to account for the predictions of standard quantum mechanics. Modern discussions of quantum nonlocality often rely on the general framework of modal logic, and in particular the logic of counterfactual conditionals.

Key works

The EPR argument in its standard version is laid out in the classic article Einstein et al 1935 . Bell’s theorem and its philosophical consequences are discussed in the seminal papers on the foundation of quantum mechanics collected in Bell 2004. The distinction between the two main types of quantum nonlocality is made in Jarrett 1984.

Introductions  Maudlin 2002, Berkovitz 2008
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  1. (March 2019 to 2014) The UNBELIEVABLE Similarities Between the Ideas of Some People (2011-2016) and My Ideas (2002-2008) in Physics (Quantum Mechanics, Cosmology), Cognitive Neuroscience, Philosophy of Mind, and Philosophy (This Manuscript Would Require a REVOLUTION in International Academy Environment!).Gabriel Vacariu - 2019 - Dissertation,
    CONTENT -/- Some preliminary comments Introduction: The EDWs perspective in my article from 2005 and my book from 2008 -/- I. PHYSICS, COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY (‘REBORN DINOSAURS’ ) • (2016) Did Sean Carroll’s ideas (California Institute of Technology, USA) plagiarize my ideas (2002-2010) on quantum mechanics, the relationship between Einstein relativity and quantum mechanics, life, the mind-brain problem, etc.? • (2016) The unbelievable similarities between Frank Wilczek’s ideas (Nobel Prize in Physics) and my ideas (2002-2008, etc.) (Philosophy of Mind and (...)
  2. UNBELIEVABLE Similarities Between Boge’s Ideas (2019) and My Ideas (2002-2008) on Quantu Mechanics.Gabriel Vacariu - 2019 - Dissertation,
    In this paper I investigate the UNBELIEVABLE similarities between Boge’s ideas (2019) and my ideas on quantum mechanics… The author wrote his paper in an UNBELIEVABLE similar framework to my EDWs perspective! Many of his ideas are UNBELIEVABLE similar to my ideas from 2002-2007!!! -/- .
  3. (2019 + 2017) Strong Similarity Between Carlo Rovelli’s Ideas in Two Books (2015, 2017) to My Ideas (2002-2008) + Commentary February 2018.Gabriel Vacariu - 2019 - Dissertation,
    After 2015, carlo rovelli continues to publish more and more UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas to my ideas!!! His arguments are UNBELIEVABLE similar to my arguments… Until 2015, carlo rovelli had been working within the unicorn world; then he realized a sudden change! I let the reader to understand carlo rovelli’s step after 2015 since I mentioned that my book at Springer has been published in November 2015!! Anyway, I have published FIVE books (2008-2014) with my EDWs, and in 2007, my entire (...)
  4. (2019) The UNBELIEVABLE Similarities Between Oreshkov Et Al.'s Ideas/Framework (2013) and My EDWs.Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    I investigate the UNBELIEVABLE similarities between the ideas of Oreshkov et al. and my ideas. In fact, their framework (the ontological background) is UNBELIEVABLE similar to my EDWs perspective!
  5. (March 2019) UNBELEVABLE Similarities Between Chiribella Et Al. (2008, 2013)’s Ideas/Framework and My Ideas/Framework (I.E., the EDWs).Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    In this paper, I investigate the UNBELIEVABLE similarities between Chiribella et al.’ ideas and my ideas. My main question is: “How was it possible these authors to elaborate their thought experiments without having an ontological background? The answer would be: there are geniuses, of course….
  6. (March 2019) Gabriel Vacariu: UNBELIEVABLE Similar Ideas of Brukner (2015) on Quantum Mechanics and My Ideas (2002-2006).Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    In this article, I investigate the UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas of Brukner’s article (2015) and my ideas (2002-2008) In this article, I investigate the UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas of Brukner’s article (2015) and my ideas (2002-2008) I emphasize that this paragraph is not from my works!! Instead of “objectivity of the ‘facts of the world’, I used EDWs! All the ideas from this paragraph (and the philosophical ideas referring to QM from this article, can be found in my works 2002-2008!
  7. (March 2019) UNBELIEVALBE Similar Ideas, UNBELIEVABLE Similar Framework of the Article on “Quantum Mechanics” Written by Proietti Et Al (2019) with My EDWs (2002-2008).Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    (March 2019) UNBELIEVALBE similar ideas, UNBELIEVABLE similar framework of the article on “quantum mechanics” written by Proietti et al (2019) with my EDWs (2002-2008) -/- Gabriel Vacariu -/- The article that I investigate in this section is -/- (2019) Experimental rejection of observer-independence in the quantum world -/- Massimiliano Proietti,1 Alexander Pickston,1 Francesco Graffitti,1 Peter Barrow,1 Dmytro Kundys,1 Cyril Branciard,2 Martin Ringbauer,1, 3 and Alessandro Fedrizzi1 at arXiv:1902.05080v1 [quant-ph] 13 Feb 2019 -/- In the article written by Proietti et al. (...)
  8. Tim Maudlin - The Metaphysics Within Physics.Emanuele Coppola - 2018 - Humana Mente 4 (13).
  9. Verständliche Quantenmechanik - Drei mögliche Weltbilder der Quantenphysik.Detlef Dürr & Dustin Lazarovici - 2018 - Springer Spektrum.
    Das vorliegende Buch richtet sich an Studierende der Physik, für die nach der Quantenmechanik-Vorlesung die wesentliche Frage offen geblieben ist: „Was sagt denn nun der mathematische Formalismus, den ich jetzt ausgiebig und ach so mühsam studiert habe, über die Natur aus?“. Bei der Suche nach der Antwort besprechen die Autoren unter anderem die modernen Quantentheorien, die von John Stuart Bell „Theorien ohne Beobachter“ genannt wurden: die Bohmsche Mechanik, die Kollaps-Theorie und die Viele-Welten-Theorie. -/- Neben zielgerichteten mathematischen Aussagen, die in Kursvorlesungen (...)
  10. Causes, Probabilities and Propensities in Physics.Mauricio Suarez - 2010 - Springer.
    Table of Contents: Preface.- 1. Introduction; Mauricio Suárez.- PART I: PROBABILITIES.- 2. Probability and time symmetry in classical Markov processes; Guido Bacciagaluppi.- 3. Probability assignments and the principle of indifference: An examination of two eliminative strategies; Sorin Bangu.- 4. Why typicality does not explain the approach to equilibrium; Roman Frigg; PART II: CAUSES.- 5. From metaphysics to physics and back: The example of causation; Federico Laudisa.- 6. On explanation in retro-causal interpretations of quantum mechanics; Joseph Berkovitz.- 7. Causal completeness in (...)
  11. Quantum Theory is Not Only About Information.Laura Felline - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
    In his recent book Bananaworld. Quantum mechanics for primates, Jeff Bub revives and provides a mature version of his influential information-theoretic interpretation of Quantum Theory (QT). In this paper, I test Bub’s conjecture that QT should be interpreted as a theory about information, by examining whether his information-theoretic interpretation has the resources to explain (or explain away) quantum conundrums. The discussion of Bub’s theses will also serve to investigate, more in general, whether other approaches succeed in defending the claim that (...)
  12. A Study of Time in Modern Physics.Peter W. Evans - 2011 - Dissertation,
    This thesis is a study of the notion of time in modern physics, consisting of two parts. Part I takes seriously the doctrine that modern physics should be treated as the primary guide to the nature of time. To this end, it offers an analysis of the various conceptions of time that emerge in the context of various physical theories and, furthermore, an analysis of the relation between these conceptions of time and the more orthodox philosophical views on the nature (...)
  13. Semi-Classical Locality for the Non-Relativistic Path Integral in Configuration Space.Henrique Gomes - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (9):1155-1184.
    In an accompanying paper Gomes, we have put forward an interpretation of quantum mechanics based on a non-relativistic, Lagrangian 3+1 formalism of a closed Universe M, existing on timeless configuration space \ of some field over M. However, not much was said there about the role of locality, which was not assumed. This paper is an attempt to fill that gap. Locality in full can only emerge dynamically, and is not postulated. This new understanding of locality is based solely on (...)
  14. Idealizations, Essential Self-Adjointness, and Minimal Model Explanation in the Aharonov–Bohm Effect.Shech Elay - 2018 - Synthese 195 (11):4839-4863.
    Two approaches to understanding the idealizations that arise in the Aharonov–Bohm effect are presented. It is argued that a common topological approach, which takes the non-simply connected electron configuration space to be an essential element in the explanation and understanding of the effect, is flawed. An alternative approach is outlined. Consequently, it is shown that the existence and uniqueness of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators in quantum mechanics have important implications for philosophical issues. Also, the alleged indispensable explanatory role of (...)
  15. Making Sense of Bell’s Theorem and Quantum Nonlocality.Boughn Stephen - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (5):640-657.
    Bell’s theorem has fascinated physicists and philosophers since his 1964 paper, which was written in response to the 1935 paper of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Bell’s theorem and its many extensions have led to the claim that quantum mechanics and by inference nature herself are nonlocal in the sense that a measurement on a system by an observer at one location has an immediate effect on a distant entangled system. Einstein was repulsed by such “spooky action at a distance” and (...)
  16. Uncertainty Relation and Inseparability Criterion.Ashutosh K. Goswami & Prasanta K. Panigrahi - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):229-235.
    We investigate the Peres–Horodecki positive partial transpose criterion in the context of conserved quantities and derive a condition of inseparability for a composite bipartite system depending only on the dimensions of its subsystems, which leads to a bi-linear entanglement witness for the two qubit system. A separability inequality using generalized Schrodinger–Robertson uncertainty relation taking suitable operators, has been derived, which proves to be stronger than the bi-linear entanglement witness operator. In the case of mixed density matrices, it identically distinguishes the (...)
  17. On Noncontextual, Non-Kolmogorovian Hidden Variable Theories.Benjamin H. Feintzeig & Samuel C. Fletcher - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (2):294-315.
    One implication of Bell’s theorem is that there cannot in general be hidden variable models for quantum mechanics that both are noncontextual and retain the structure of a classical probability space. Thus, some hidden variable programs aim to retain noncontextuality at the cost of using a generalization of the Kolmogorov probability axioms. We generalize a theorem of Feintzeig to show that such programs are committed to the existence of a finite null cover for some quantum mechanical experiments, i.e., a finite (...)
  18. Aspects of Quantum Non-Locality I: Superluminal Signalling, Action-at-a-Distance, Non-Separability and Holism.Joseph Berkovitz - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 29 (2):183-222.
    In this paper and its sequel, I consider the significance of Jarrett’s and Shimony’s analyses of the so-called factorisability condition for clarifying the nature of quantum non-locality. In this paper, I focus on four types of non-locality: superluminal signalling, action-at-a-distance, non-separability and holism. In the second paper, I consider a fifth type of non-locality: superluminal causation according to ‘logically weak’ concepts of causation, where causal dependence requires neither action nor signalling. In this connection, I pay special attention to the difficulties (...)
  19. Part and Whole in Physics: An Introduction.Richard Healey & Jos Uffink - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (1):20-21.
  20. Formalizing the Separability Condition in Bell's Theorem.Brandon Fogel - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (4):920-937.
  21. Locality, Nonlocality and Action at a Distance: A Skeptical Review of Some Philosophical Dogmas.John Earman - 1987 - In .
  22. 8 Delayed-Choice Experiments and the Metaphysics of Entanglement.Matthias Egg - 2012 - In Scientific Realism in Particle Physics: A Causal Approach. De Gruyter. pp. 137-148.
    Delayed-choice experiments in quantum mechanics are often taken to undermine a realistic interpretation of the quantum state. More specifically, Healey has recently argued that the phenomenon of delayed-choice entanglement swapping is incompatible with the view that entanglement is a physical relation between quantum systems. This paper argues against these claims. It first reviews two paradigmatic delayed-choice experiments and analyzes their metaphysical implications. It then applies the results of this analysis to the case of entanglement swapping, showing that such experiments pose (...)
  23. Remote State Preparation for Quantum Fields.Ran Ber & Erez Zohar - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (7):804-814.
    Remote state preparation is generation of a desired state by a remote observer. In spite of causality, it is well known, according to the Reeh–Schlieder theorem, that it is possible for relativistic quantum field theories, and a “physical” process achieving this task, involving superoscillatory functions, has recently been introduced. In this work we deal with non-relativistic fields, and show that remote state preparation is also possible for them, hence obtaining a Reeh–Schlieder-like result for general fields. Interestingly, in the nonrelativistic case, (...)
  24. Bell Correlated and EPR States in the Framework of Jordan Algebras.Jan Hamhalter & Veronika Sobotíková - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (3):330-349.
    We study Bell inequalities and EPR states in the context of Jordan algebras. We show that the set of states violating Bell inequalities across two operator commuting nonmodular Jordan Banach algebras is norm dense in the global state space. It generalizes hitherto known results in quantum field theory in several directions. We propose new Jordan quantity for incommensurable observables in a given state, introduce the concept of EPR state for Jordan structures, and study relationship between EPR states and Bell correlated (...)
  25. On Predictions in Retro-Causal Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics.Joseph Berkovitz - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 39 (4):709-735.
  26. Gauge Theories and Holisms.Richard Healey - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (4):619-642.
    Those looking for holism in contemporary physics have focused their attention primarily on quantum entanglement. But some gauge theories arguably also manifest the related phenomenon of nonseparability. While the argument is strong for the classical gauge theory describing electromagnetic interactions with quantum “particles”, it fails in the case of general relativity even though that theory may also be formulated in terms of a connection on a principal fiber bundle. Anandan has highlighted the key difference in his analysis of a supposed (...)
  27. What Econometrics Cannot Teach Quantum Mechanics.Joseph Berkovitz - 1995 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 26 (2):163-200.
    Cartwright and Humphreys have suggested theories of probabilistic causation for singular events, which are based on modifications of traditional causal linear modelling. On the basis of her theory, Cartwright offered an allegedly local, and non-factorizable, common-cause model for the EPR experiment. In this paper I consider Cartwright's and Humphreys' theories. I argue that, provided plausible assumptions obtain, local models for EPR in the framework of these theories are committed to Bell inequalities, which are violated by experiment.
  28. A Dynamic-Logical Perspective on Quantum Behavior.A. Baltag & S. Smets - 2008 - Studia Logica 89 (2):187-211.
    In this paper we show how recent concepts from Dynamic Logic, and in particular from Dynamic Epistemic logic, can be used to model and interpret quantum behavior. Our main thesis is that all the non-classical properties of quantum systems are explainable in terms of the non-classical flow of quantum information. We give a logical analysis of quantum measurements (formalized using modal operators) as triggers for quantum information flow, and we compare them with other logical operators previously used to model various (...)
  29. Quantum Mechanics and the Plight of Physicalism.Fernando Birman - 2009 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (2):207-225.
    The literature on physicalism often fails to elucidate, I think, what the word physical in physical ism precisely means. Philosophers speak at times of an ideal set of fundamental physical facts, or they stipulate that physical means non-mental , such that all fundamental physical facts are fundamental facts pertaining to the non-mental. In this article, I will probe physicalism in the very much tangible framework of quantum mechanics. Although this theory, unlike “ideal physics” or some “final theory of non-mentality”, is (...)
  30. Nonseparability, Potentiality and the Context-Dependence of Quantum Objects.Vassilios Karakostas - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (2):279-297.
    Standard quantum mechanics undeniably violates the notion of separability that classical physics accustomed us to consider as valid. By relating the phenomenon of quantum nonseparability to the all-important concept of potentiality, we effectively provide a coherent picture of the puzzling entangled correlations among spatially separated systems. We further argue that the generalized phenomenon of quantum nonseparability implies contextuality for the production of well-defined events in the quantum domain, whereas contextuality entails in turn a structural-relational conception of quantal objects, viewed as (...)
  31. Stochastic Einstein Locality Revisited.Jeremy Butterfield - 2007 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (4):805-867.
    I discuss various formulations of stochastic Einstein locality (SEL), which is a version of the idea of relativistic causality, that is, the idea that influences propagate at most as fast as light. SEL is similar to Reichenbach's Principle of the Common Cause (PCC), and Bell's Local Causality. My main aim is to discuss formulations of SEL for a fixed background spacetime. I previously argued that SEL is violated by the outcome dependence shown by Bell correlations, both in quantum mechanics and (...)
  32. Holonomy Interpretation and Time: An Incompatible Match? A Critical Discussion of R. Healey’s Gauging What’s Real: The Conceptual Foundations of Contemporary Gauge Theories.Antigone M. Nounou - 2010 - Erkenntnis 72 (3):387-409.
    I argue that the Holonomy Interpretation, at least as it has been presented in Richard Healey’s Gauging What’s Real, faces serious problems. These problems are revealed when certain approximations and idealizations that are innate in the original formulation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect are thrust aside; in particular, when the temporal dimension is taken into account. There are two ways in which time re-appears in the picture: by considering complete solutions to the original problem, where the magnetic flux is static, and (...)
  33. Book Review: Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. [REVIEW]Francisco Flores - unknown
  34. Hidden Variables and Incompatible Observables in Quantum Mechanics.Benjamin Feintzeig - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (4):905-927.
    This article takes up a suggestion that the reason we cannot find certain hidden variable theories for quantum mechanics, as in Bell’s theorem, is that we require them to assign joint probability distributions on incompatible observables. These joint distributions are problematic because they are empirically meaningless on one standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. Some have proposed getting around this problem by using generalized probability spaces. I present a theorem to show a sense in which generalized probability spaces can’t serve as (...)
  35. Quantum Theory as a Critical Regime of Language Dynamics.Alexei Grinbaum - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (10):1341-1350.
    Some mathematical theories in physics justify their explanatory superiority over earlier formalisms by the clarity of their postulates. In particular, axiomatic reconstructions drive home the importance of the composition rule and the continuity assumption as two pillars of quantum theory. Our approach sits on these pillars and combines new mathematics with a testable prediction. If the observer is defined by a limit on string complexity, information dynamics leads to an emergent continuous model in the critical regime. Restricting it to a (...)
  36. Einstein’s Boxes: Incompleteness of Quantum Mechanics Without a Separation Principle.Carsten Held - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (9):1002-1018.
    Einstein made several attempts to argue for the incompleteness of quantum mechanics, not all of them using a separation principle. One unpublished example, the box parable, has received increased attention in the recent literature. Though the example is tailor-made for applying a separation principle and Einstein indeed applies one, he begins his discussion without it. An analysis of this first part of the parable naturally leads to an argument for incompleteness not involving a separation principle. I discuss the argument and (...)
  37. Local Causality in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Spacetime.Joy Christian - unknown
    A local, deterministic, and realistic model within a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime with constant spatial curvature is presented which describes simultaneous measurements of the spins of two fermions emerging in a singlet state from the decay of a spinless boson. Exact agreement with the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory is achieved in the model without data rejection, remote contextuality, superdeterminism, or backward causation. An event-by-event numerical simulation of the model is presented, which confirms our analytical results with the accuracy of 4 in (...)
  38. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality.Marian Kupczynski - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (7):735-753.
    In this paper we give additional arguments in favor of the point of view that the violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities is not due to a mysterious non locality of nature. We concentrate on an intimate relation between a protocol of a random experiment and a probabilistic model which is used to describe it. We discuss in a simple way differences between attributive joint probability distributions and generalized joint probability distributions of outcomes from distant experiments which depend on (...)
  39. New Developments on Fundamental Problems in Quantum Physics.Miguel Ferrero & Alwyn van der Merwe (eds.) - 1997 - Springer.
    Quantum theory is one of the most fascinating and successful constructs in the intellectual history of mankind. Nonetheless, the theory has very shaky philosophical foundations. This book contains thoughtful discussions by eminent researchers of a spate of experimental techniques newly developed to test some of the stranger predictions of quantum physics. The advances considered include recent experiments in quantum optics, electron and ion interferometry, photon down conversion in nonlinear crystals, single trapped ions interacting with laser beams, atom-field coupling in micromaser (...)
  40. Bell’s Theorem and the Issue of Determinism and Indeterminism.Michael Esfeld - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (5):471-482.
    The paper considers the claim that quantum theories with a deterministic dynamics of objects in ordinary space-time, such as Bohmian mechanics, contradict the assumption that the measurement settings can be freely chosen in the EPR experiment. That assumption is one of the premises of Bell’s theorem. I first argue that only a premise to the effect that what determines the choice of the measurement settings is independent of what determines the past state of the measured system is needed for the (...)
  41. On the Relation Between the Probabilistic Characterization of the Common Cause and Bell׳s Notion of Local Causality.Gábor Hofer-Szabó - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 49:32-41.
    In the paper the relation between the standard probabilistic characterization of the common cause and Bell's notion of local causality will be investigated. It will be shown that the probabilistic common cause follows from local causality if one accepts, as Bell did, two assumptions concerning the common cause: first, the common cause is localized in the intersection of the past of the correlating events; second, it provides a complete specification of the `beables' of this intersection. However, neither assumptions are a (...)
  42. The Peer-to-Peer Simulation Hypothesis and a New Theory of Free Will.Marcus Arvan - 2015 - Scientia Salon.
  43. 7 Causal Realism in the Context of Bell-Type Experiments.Matthias Egg - 2014 - In Scientific Realism in Particle Physics: A Causal Approach. De Gruyter. pp. 103-136.
  44. Does Bell’s Theorem Imply Metaphysical Realism?Ron Bombardi - 2014 - In Javier Cumpa, Greg Jesson & Guido Bonino (eds.), Defending Realism: Ontological and Epistemological Investigations. De Gruyter. pp. 311-322.
  45. Ideas on Bell's Theorem.Kaj Bøge Hansen & Filosofiska föreningen - 1989
  46. Vivisection Up-to-Date [by E. Bell].Ernest Bell - 1899
  47. Mrs. Bell and Her Customers [Signed L.N.H.].N. H. L. & Bell - 1886
  48. Bell's Theorem And The Counterfactual Definition Of Locality.Osvaldo Pessoa Jr - 2010 - Manuscrito 33 (1):351-363.
    This paper proposes a solution to the problem of non-locality associated with Bell’s theorem, within the counterfactual approach to the problem. Our proposal is that a counterfactual definition of locality can be maintained, if a subsidiary hypothesis be rejected, “locality involving two counterfactuals”. This amounts to the acceptance of locality in the actual world, and a denial that locality is always valid in counterfactual worlds. This also introduces a metaphysical asymmetry between the factual and counterfactual worlds. This distinction is analogous (...)
  49. Locality and Holism: The Metaphysics of Quantum Theory.Martin Richard Jones - 1991 - Dissertation, Stanford University
    In recent years, something of a consensus has emerged amongst philosophers of physics to the effect that the violation of Bell's inequalities forces us to draw strong metaphysical conclusions about the structure of the physical world. The arguments which support this position are taken to have weak and general premises, mostly amounting to descriptions of relatively bare experimental data. These premises putatively point to formal constraints on the possible models of the phenomena; from there, we are led to a metaphysical (...)
  50. BELL, Introduction to the Qur'an. [REVIEW]H. A. R. Gibb - 1953 - Hibbert Journal 52:413.
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