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Summary

Robin George Collingwood (1889-1943) was both a British philosopher and a practising historian specialized in the archaeology and history of Roman Britain. His most important contributions to philosophy were on philosophy of history and on aesthetics. In both these areas R. G. Collingwood's reflection was based on his own experience as a historian and as an artist respectively, although only in the first field he was a first class figure. As a philosopher of history, he defended the superiority of history as a form of knowledge with respect to natural sciences, and its methodological independence from them. As a philosopher of art, he understood art as the expression of emotion in the language of imagination. He also made top contributions in meta-philosophy, metaphysics and political philosophy. Collingwood is usually considered to be a British Idealist, although such categorization is polemic because he himself denied it in different places.

Key works

Collingwood's first important work was published in 1924. Its title was Speculum Mentis (Or the Map of Knowledge), and can be considered as his first systematic attempt at describing our complete experience of the world. A year later, he published Outlines of a Philosophy of Art (1925), where he proposed to consider art as an imaginative activity that attempts to achieve beauty and by which we enjoy it. From here he moved on to the consideration of the place and methodology of philosophy as a distinct form of knowledge in An Essay on Philosophical Method, published in 1933 (and reedited in 2000). Five years later, in 1938, he returned once again to the philosophy of art, in The Principles of Art, where he substantially revised and expanded his original definition of art, considering it now as the expression of emotion in the language of imagination. Around this time, Collingwood was conscious of the seriousness of the illness that would end his life, and published An Autobiography in 1939 as his philosophical testament. In the last years of his life, he managed to prepare and publish An Essay on Metaphysics (1940) where he considered Metaphysics to be the study of absolute presuppositions and not the study of being; and The New Leviathan (1942) which is more than a contribution to the war effort, as Collingwood himself considered it, and can be better viewed both as a complete summary of more than twenty years of philosophical work, and as his last attempt at providing a coherent explanation of mankind (individual, society, civilization and barbarism). Finally and although Collingwood's reflection on the philosophy of history was a constant throughout his life, he didn't publish any major work during it and his views are scattered in many articles. Following his own plans but after his death and both from the materials he published and from the ones he left unpublished, his ideas on the subject can be studied in The Idea of History, Essays on the Philosophy of History, and The Principles of History.

Introductions - Collingwood's entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2010). - TAYLOR, D.S.: R. G. Collingwood--A Bibliography: The Complete Manuscripts and Publications, Selected Secondary Writings, with Selective Annotation Garland (1988). - TOMLIN, E.W.F.: R. G. Collingwood (1961). - JOHNSON, P., R. G. Collingwood: An Introduction (1998).
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  1. added 2020-05-10
    History Against Psychology in the Thought of R. G. Collingwood.Guive Assadi - 2019 - Critical Review 31 (2):135-159.
    ABSTRACTR. G. Collingwood is mostly remembered for his theory that historical understanding consists in re-enacting the thoughts of the historical figure whom one is studying. His first recognizable expression of this view followed from an argument about the emptiness of psychological interpretations of religion, and throughout his career Collingwood offered history as re-enactment as an alternative to psychology. Over time, his argument that the psychology of religion could not be relevant to the veracity of religious beliefs was supplanted by the (...)
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  2. added 2019-10-29
    Collingwood on Philosophical Methodology. Edited by Karim Dharamsi, Giuseppina D’Oro, and Stephen Leach. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. Pp. Xiii + 270. [REVIEW]James Camien McGuiggan - 2019 - Metaphilosophy 50 (5):747-751.
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  3. added 2019-07-30
    Collingwood, Pragmatism, and Philosophy of Science.Elena Popa - 2018 - In Karim Dharamsi, Giuseppina D'Oro & Stephen Leach (eds.), Collingwood on Philosophical Methodology. pp. 131-149.
    This paper argues that there are notable similarities between Collingwood’s method of investigating absolute presuppositions and contemporary strands of pragmatism, focusing on two areas - the critique of realism and causation. It is first argued that there are methodological similarities between Collingwood’s argument against realism and his Kantian-inspired critique of metaphysics, and Putnam’s critique of externalism. Regarding causation, it is argued that Collingwood’s view and Price’s pragmatist approach have a common method – investigating causation in the context of specific human (...)
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  4. added 2019-07-30
    Collingwood and Manipulability-Based Approaches to Causation: Methodological Issues.E. Popa - 2016 - Collingwood and British Idealism Studies 22 (1):139-166.
    This paper discusses methodological similarities between Collingwood's approach to causation and contemporary manipulability-based views. Firstly, I argue that on both approaches there is a preoccupation with the origin of causal concepts which further connects to the aim of establishing the priority of a certain concept/sense of causation as more fundamental. The significant difference lies in Collingwood's focus on the logical and historical priority (Collingwood's sense I) while in more recent theories the focus has been on psychology (i.e., on different philosophical (...)
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  5. added 2019-06-06
    Anti-Realism in R. G. Collingwood’s Theory of Art as Imagination.Timothy C. Lord - 2011 - Idealistic Studies 41 (1-2):45-54.
    Aaron Ridley has concluded that “Collingwood’s global Idealism is really only a distraction from the much more important and interesting ideas that constitute his aesthetics.” My paper takes issue with this conclusion. Collingwood’s idealism is an integral part of his aesthetics, and it simply cannot be shucked off, leaving his aesthetics untouched and intact. A careful reading of Collingwood’s oeuvre in aesthetics reveals that it is his long-standing antipathy to realism that grounds both his critique of pseudo-art and his own (...)
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  6. added 2019-06-06
    The Concrete Universal in Collingwood's Moral Philosophy.M. J. O'Neill - 2010 - Collingwood and British Idealism Studies 16 (1-2):25-67.
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  7. added 2019-06-06
    Communauté et société, Collingwood contre les sociologues.Laurent Jaffro - 2008 - Dialogue 47 (2):253-271.
    RÉSUMÉ: L'opposition entre communauté et société que Collingwood expose dans son Nouveau Léviathan doit être confrontée avec la distinction entre Gemeinschaft et Gesellschaft que Tönnies avait introduite en 1887. Cette discussion sur les types idéaux d'organisation sociale relève apparemment de la «sociologie pure» et est poursuivie par Durkheim et Weber. Néanmoins, on peut interpréter l'usage qu'en fait Collingwood comme une mise en question du principe même de la sociologie au nom de la prééminence de la volonté rationnelle.ABSTRACT: The opposition between (...)
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    At the Crossroads of Historiography and Metaphysics of History: Gadamer’s Critique of Collingwood.Raymun Festin - 2005 - Idealistic Studies 35 (1):35-47.
    Gadamer profoundly appreciates Collingwood’s Logic of Question and Answer. But while he grants its innovative serviceability, he contends that it has not been fully developed, and that its function in historical re-enactment is an exercise in historicism. Attempts have been made to defend Collingwood from Gadamer’s charge of historicism. But they have not documented the source ofGadamer’s alleged misunderstanding of Collingwood. This article will do the task. I will argue that Gadamer came up with a wrong conclusion about Collingwood’s doctrine (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-06
    Learning From the Past: Collingwood and the Idea of Organisational History.Deborah Blackman & James Connelly - 2001 - Philosophy of Management 1 (2):43-54.
    Through a consideration of the views of R. G. Collingwood on historical knowledge and conceptual change, this paper addresses organisational issues such as history, culture and memory. It then subjects the idea of learning histories to critical scrutiny. It concludes that, because of their potential to become framing mental models, they may be in danger of failing to achieve the purposes for which they are used.
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Bosanquet, Temple and Collingwood: “Penetrative Imagination” and “Essential Symbol” in Aesthetic and Religious Experience.Silvio Morigi - 2001 - Bradley Studies 7 (2):214-230.
    I propose to show in this paper how Bosanquet’s aesthetics, in certain of its aspects, conditions William Temple’s reflection on art — a reflection which occupies a central position in Temple’s “Christo-centric metaphysics,” and which finds expression particularly in Mens Creatrix. Bosanquet’s influence becomes still more evident if we compare Temple’s position with the philosophy of art which R.G. Collingwood delineated in the initial phase of his thought, above all in Speculum Mentis and Outlines of a Philosophy of Art.
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  11. added 2019-06-06
    Collingwood’s Critique of Scissors-and-Paste History Revisited in the Light of His Conception of Metaphysics.Giuseppina D’Oro - 2000 - International Studies in Philosophy 32 (4):23-45.
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    History as Re-Enactment. [REVIEW]Lionel Rubinoff - 1999 - Dialogue 38 (3):679-683.
    Although it is generally acknowledged that the coming of age of analytical philosophy of history as a flourishing enterprise in contemporary philosophical circles is due chiefly to the pioneering work of R.G. Collingwood, what Collingwood had to say about history in particular and the scientific study of it has sometimes been obscured by a concern with larger questions, such as whether Collingwood’s writings can be viewed as a single system or as successive but ultimately incompatible attempts at elaborating such a (...)
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    Collingwood and A.N. Whitehead on Metaphysics, History, and Cosmology.Guido Vanheeswicjk - 1998 - Process Studies 27 (3-4):215-236.
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  14. added 2019-06-06
    Collingwood’s “Lost” Manuscript Of.Jan van der Dussen - 1997 - History and Theory 36 (1):32-62.
    In his edition of The Idea of History Knox made use of parts of Collingwood's unfinished manuscript of The Principles of History, written during a voyage through the Dutch East Indies in 1938–1939. This manuscript, however, is not among Collingwood's manuscripts, available at the Bodleian Library at Oxford since 1978. It was therefore considered lost, but it has recently been discovered in the Electronics of Oxford University Press. Originally, it consisted of ninety pages containing finished chapters on "Evidence," "Action," and (...)
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  15. added 2019-06-06
    R.G. Collingwood’s Pragmatist Approach to Metaphysics.Angela Requate - 1997 - International Studies in Philosophy 29 (2):57-71.
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  16. added 2019-06-06
    Bradley, Collingwood and the ‘Other Metaphysics’.James Connelly - 1997 - Bradley Studies 3 (2):89-112.
    In so far as Collingwood is branded an ‘idealist’, the corresponding assumption is that he subscribed to the broad themes associated with the ‘English idealists or Hegelians’; in so far as he is thought to have broken free from their pernicious influence he is regarded as a proto-Kuhn or Wittgenstein who saw the error of his early ways. This paper suggests that neither picture is fully accurate, and that while the figure of F.H. Bradley perhaps played a more significant part (...)
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  17. added 2019-06-06
    Collingwood’s Logic of Questions and Answers.R. A. Young - 1997 - Bradley Studies 3 (2):151-175.
    The aim of this paper is to understand the philosophical role of Collingwood’s proposed logic of question and answer. I shall consider its historical background as a response to Bradley, to the “realists” and to the logical positivists. I shall also consider the similarities and differences between it and modern developments in logics of question and answer and also in anti-realist philosophical logic. In analysing Collingwood’s proposed logic, and its potential for development, I shall attempt a sketch of how it (...)
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  18. added 2019-06-06
    Interpretation in History: Collingwood and Historical Understanding: Patrick Gardiner.Patrick Gardiner - 1996 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 41:109-119.
    When considering a suitable topic for inclusion in this collection, it occurred to me that it might be worth discussing a writer whose interests were largely centred on themes directly related to those cited in the collection's title, and who throughout most of his philosophical career remained particularly insistent upon the need to define the boundaries separating humanistic modes of understanding from ones associated with the physical sciences. The writer in question was R. G. Collingwood. Although Collingwood has justly been (...)
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  19. added 2019-06-06
    The Philosophical Context of Collingwood’s Re-Enactment Theory.Jan van der Dussen - 1995 - International Studies in Philosophy 27 (2):81-99.
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  20. added 2019-06-06
    The Role of Practice in Collingwood’s Theory of Art.S. K. Wertz - 1995 - Southwest Philosophy Review 11 (1):143-150.
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  21. added 2019-06-06
    David Boucher: "The Social and Political Thought of R. G. Collingwood". [REVIEW]Matti Häyry - 1994 - Idealistic Studies 24:283.
    Although interest in the philosophy of the Oxford idealist Robin George Collingwood has been growing steadily during the past two decades, his political thought has up until now been all but forgotten. David Boucher in his book The Social and Political Thought of R. G. Collingwood has set out to rectify the situation by attempting to show that Collingwood’s political philosophy as well as his more widely recognized views on history and aesthetics deserve some serious attention from today’s philosophers.
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  22. added 2019-06-06
    Collingwood in Context: Theory, Practice, and Academic Ethos.Margot Browning - 1993 - International Studies in Philosophy 25 (3):17-33.
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    Mounce And Collingwood On Art And Craft.R. T. Allen - 1993 - British Journal of Aesthetics 33 (2):173-176.
  24. added 2019-06-06
    Collingwood: The Idea of a ‘Late’ Aesthetics.Graham McFee - 1992 - Idealistic Studies 22 (2):144-162.
    Collingwood’s work has proved a rich source of ideas for aestheticians, and also fruitful in respect of metaphysical ideas; most especially, suggestive in ways in which a non-realist theory of meaning and understanding might be developed within contemporary directions in the philosophy of language. But these two areas of interest are traditionally seen as importantly different, as depending on different aspects of Collingwood’s works. This paper argues that a potentially fruitful line of development for aesthetics comes from importing into our (...)
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  25. added 2019-06-06
    David Boucher. "The Social and Political Thought of R. G. Collingwood". [REVIEW]Joseph M. Levine - 1992 - New Vico Studies 10:126.
  26. added 2019-06-06
    The New Leviathan: Or Man, Society, Civilization, and Barbarism Goodness.R. G. Collingwood - 1992 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The New Leviathan, originally published in 1942, a few months before the author's death, is the book which R. G. Collingwood chose to write in preference to completing his life's work on the philosophy of history. It was a reaction to the Second World War and the threat which Nazism and Fascism constituted to civilization. The book draws upon many years of work in moral and political philosophy and attempts to establish the multiple and complex connections between the levels of (...)
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  27. added 2019-06-06
    Collingwood on Reasons, Causes, and the Explanation of Action.Rex Martin - 1991 - International Studies in Philosophy 23 (3):47-62.
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  28. added 2019-06-06
    Some Aspects of R. G. Collingwood’s Doctrine of Absolute Presuppositions.Heikki Saari - 1991 - International Studies in Philosophy 23 (1):61-73.
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  29. added 2019-06-06
    R. G. Collingwood and the Hermenentical Tradition.A. P. Fell - 1991 - International Studies in Philosophy 23 (3):1-12.
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  30. added 2019-06-06
    Review: The Social and Political Thought of R.G. Collingwood. [REVIEW]David Blaazer - 1991 - Thesis Eleven 29 (1):129-131.
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  31. added 2019-06-06
    Art as Imagination. The Development of R. G. Collingwood's Theory of Art.Edward Main - 1988 - Diálogos. Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad de Puerto Rico 23 (51):123-138.
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  32. added 2019-06-06
    Ultimate Reality and Theories of History. A Note to Paul Trainor's History and Reality: R. C. Collingwood's Theory of Absolute Presuppositions, "URAM" 7: 270-287. [REVIEW]J. Christopher Thomas - 1985 - Ultimate Reality and Meaning 8 (2):134.
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  33. added 2019-06-06
    Gadamer’s Criticisms of Collingwood.E. F. Bertoldi - 1984 - Idealistic Studies 14 (3):213-228.
    To English readers certain parts of Gadamer’s Truth and Method are reminiscent of the later works of R. G. Collingwood. The expectation that Gadamer might agree with Collingwood’s view of history is suggested by the fact that Gadamer, as he tells us himself, was responsible for some of Collingwood’s works being translated into German. But Gadamer’s general assessment of Collingwood proves to be a negative one: he finds lapses and contradictions that lead him to criticize Collingwood’s conception of historical understanding. (...)
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  34. added 2019-06-06
    Collingwood’s Phenomenological Account of the Development of Conceptual Language.Sherman M. Stanage - 1978 - Idealistic Studies 8 (3):233-252.
    Special problems relating to theories of language are always embedded within the sedimentary layers through which genuine philosophical problems arise, or behind any question or problem considered philosophically. Indeed, much of the most significant philosophizing in our century has been devoted to both the uncovering and the clarification of language games and theories of language which have generated both genuine and spurious ontological and metaphysical problems, and to the clarification of the language through which certain kinds of problems have arisen, (...)
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  35. added 2019-06-06
    Peter Skagestad, "Making Sense of History: The Philosophies of Popper and Collingwood". [REVIEW]Eugene Garver - 1978 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 16 (3):369.
  36. added 2019-06-06
    History and Nature In Collingwood’s Dialectic.James A. Blachowicz - 1976 - Idealistic Studies 6 (1):49-61.
    Metaphysics, for Collingwood, is an historical science. Accordingly, nature and the science of nature did not occupy a prominent position within his general scheme. To appreciate this fact and to consider how this deficiency might be overcome requires that we first attend to the disconnected nature of the doctrines that loosely comprise that scheme. More specifically, we must examine the problematical relationship between Collingwood’s familiar theory of presuppositions and his less frequently discussed doctrine of the scale of forms presented in (...)
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  37. added 2019-06-06
    Collingwood’s Essay on Philosophical Method.Rex Martin - 1974 - Idealistic Studies 4 (3):224-250.
    Among Collingwood’s major books his Essay on Philosophical Method is, perhaps, the least well-known. There were a few reviews, some unfavorable, at the time of publication and, after that, an essay or two. But the book has largely been ignored.
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  38. added 2019-06-06
    Collingwood and Art Media: A Reply.John Hospers - 1971 - Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 2 (1/2):43-46.
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  39. added 2019-06-06
    Inference and Intuition in Collingwood’s Philosophy of History.Robert G. Shoemaker - 1969 - The Monist 53 (1):100-115.
    My concern here is with the possibility of defending some of R. G. Collingwood’s views regarding the roles of inference and ‘re-enactment’ in ‘doing history’. The difficulties encountered result from the fact that Collingwood never presented his views in an altogether clear and complete form, and the fact that several metaphysical and epistemological problems are involved. The specific problems dealt with are, for the most part, those which seem most easily disposed of by an adequate interpretation of Collingwood.
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  40. added 2019-06-06
    William M. Johnston, "The Formative Years of R. G. Collingwood". [REVIEW]Alan Donagan - 1969 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 7 (2):219.
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  41. added 2019-06-06
    Roman Inscriptions in Britain. [REVIEW]A. R. Burn - 1966 - The Classical Review 16 (3):377-379.
  42. added 2019-06-06
    Alan Donagan, "The Later Philosophy of R. G. Collingwood". [REVIEW]George E. Derfer - 1965 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 3 (1):143.
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  43. added 2019-06-06
    The Later Philosophy of R. G. Collingwood. [REVIEW]W. L. M. - 1963 - Review of Metaphysics 17 (2):302-302.
  44. added 2019-06-06
    R. G. Collingwood's Philosophy of History: PHILOSOPHY.W. H. Walsh - 1947 - Philosophy 22 (82):153-160.
    Philosophy of history is not a subject which has hitherto attracted much attention in this country. Preoccupation with the methods and achievements of the natural sciences, and distaste for the sort of rationale of history as a whole which Hegel and others offered under the title in the early nineteenth century, have served to make most British philosophers accord its problems only the most casual recognition. It is therefore all the more interesting to find an English writer of unusual powers (...)
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  45. added 2019-06-06
    V.—On the So-Called Idea of Causation.R. G. Collingwood - 1937 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 38 (1):85-112.
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  46. added 2019-06-06
    Roman Britain and the English Settlements. [REVIEW]G. Clement Whittick - 1937 - The Classical Review 51 (2):77-78.
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  47. added 2019-06-06
    The Archaeology of Roman Britain. [REVIEW]Harold Mattingly - 1931 - The Classical Review 45 (2):84-85.
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  48. added 2019-06-06
    The Roman Pottery at Crambeck, Castle Howard. By Philip Corder. Pp. 45, with Map and 21 Plates. Published by the Roman Antiquities Committee of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1928. 5s. Net. [REVIEW]R. G. Collingwood - 1928 - The Classical Review 42 (6):243-244.
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  49. added 2019-06-06
    Furneaux, Haverfield, and Anderson. [REVIEW]R. G. Collingwood & E. Harrison - 1924 - The Classical Review 38 (1-2):22-24.
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  50. added 2019-06-06
    IX.—The Nature and Aims of a Philosophy of History.R. G. Collingwood - 1924 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 25 (1):151-174.
1 — 50 / 661