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  1. Racisms: Racial, Ethnic, and National.Jorge J. E. Gracia - manuscript
    Racism has been the subject of considerable attention in recent years, and although many varieties of it have been identified and discussed, most of the discussions take insufficient account of the differences between the racial, ethnic, and national elements that play roles in it. Nonetheless, the talk of racism against members of ethnic and national groups is quite common and gives rise to misunderstandings and confusions about what racism is and the various forms it can take when these differences are (...)
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  2. Thales – the ‘First Philosopher’? A Troubled Chapter in the Historiography of Philosophy.Lea Cantor - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-24.
    It is widely believed that the ancient Greeks thought that Thales was the first philosopher, and that they therefore maintained that philosophy had a Greek origin. This paper challenges these assumptions, arguing that most ancient Greek thinkers who expressed views about the history and development of philosophy rejected both positions. I argue that not even Aristotle presented Thales as the first philosopher, and that doing so would have undermined his philosophical commitments and interests. Beyond Aristotle, the view that Thales was (...)
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  3. Cognitive Dissonance and the Logic of Racism.Dimitria Gatzia & Berit Brogaard - forthcoming - In Berit Brogaard & Dimitria Gatzia (eds.), Being of Two Minds: The Philosophy and Psychology of Ambivalence. Routledge.
    Cognitive dissonance is a kind of ambivalence in which your apprehension of the fact that you performed or want to perform an action of which you disapprove gives rise to psychological distress. This, in turn, causes you to solicit unconscious processes that can help you reduce the distress. Here we look at the role that cognitive dissonance plays in explaining the inner workings of racism. We distinguish between three types of racist acts: inadvertent bigotry, habitual racism, and explicit racism. Unlike (...)
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  4. On Biologising Racism.Raamy Majeed - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    To biologise racism is to treat racism as a neurological phenomenon susceptible to biochemical intervention. In 'Race on the Brain: What Implicit Bias Gets Wrong About the Struggle for Racial Injustice', Kahn (2018) critiques cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists for framing racism in a way that tends to biologise racism, which he argues draws attention and resources away from non-individualistic solutions to racial inequality. In this paper I argue the psychological sciences can accommodate several of Kahn’s criticisms by adopting a situated (...)
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  5. Doth He Protest Too Much? Thoughts on Matthew’s Black Devaluation Thesis.Michael Merry - forthcoming - Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review.
    I am broadly sympathetic to Dale Matthew’s analysis concerning phenotypic devaluation and disadvantage. However, in what follows, I restrict my remarks to a few areas where I think he either lacks empirical precision, or overstates his case.
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  6. Dehumanizing Strategies in Nazi Ideology and Their Anthropological Context.Johannes Steizinger - forthcoming - In Maria Kronfeldner (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Dehumanization. London, New York: Routledge.
    This chapter explores the ideological dimension of dehumanization in the context of National Socialism, focusing on the connection between concepts of humanity and dehumanizing images. NS regarded itself as a political revolution, realizing a new concept of humanity. Nazi ideologues undergirded the self-understanding of NS by developing racist anthropologies. I examine two major strands of Nazi ideology, focusing on their diverging strategies of dehumanization, and arguing that they were dependent on different anthropological frameworks. Richard Walther Darré held a naturalistic concept (...)
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  7. Race, Racism and Political Correctness in Comedy - A Psychoanalytic Exploration.Jack Black - 2021 - Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
    In what ways is comedy subversive? This vital new book critically considers the importance of comedy in challenging and redefining our relations to race and racism through the lens of political correctness. -/- By viewing comedy as both a constitutive feature of social interaction and as a necessary requirement in the appraisal of what is often deemed to be ‘politically correct’, this book provides an innovative and multidisciplinary approach to the study of comedy and popular culture. In doing so, it (...)
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  8. Feeling Racial Pride in the Mode of Frederick Douglass.Jeremy Fischer - 2021 - Critical Philosophy of Race 9 (1):71-101.
    Drawing on Frederick Douglass’s arguments about racial pride, I develop and defend an account of feeling racial pride that centers on resisting racialized oppression. Such pride is racially ecumenical in that it does not imply partiality towards one’s own racial group. I argue that it can both accurately represent its intentional object and be intrinsically and extrinsically valuable to experience. It follows, I argue, that there is, under certain conditions, a morally unproblematic, and plausibly valuable, kind of racial pride available (...)
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  9. Racism as Civic Vice.Jeremy Fischer - 2021 - Ethics 131 (3):539-570.
    I argue that racism is essentially a civic character trait: to be a racist is to have a character that rationally reflects racial supremacist sociopolitical values. As with moral vice accounts of racism, character is my account’s primary evaluative focus: character is directly evaluated as racist, and all other racist things are racist insofar as, and because, they cause, are caused by, express or are otherwise suitably related to racist character. Yet as with political accounts of racism, sociopolitical considerations provide (...)
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  10. Desuperhumanizing Whiteness.Björn Freter - 2021 - In Taylor LaVada (ed.), Implications of Race and Racism in Student Evaluations of Teaching: The Hate U Give Students. Lanham, Boulder, New York, London: pp. 159-178.
  11. The Quest for a Global Age of Reason. Part I: Asia, Africa, the Greeks, and the Enlightenment Roots.Dag Herbjørnsrud - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):113-131.
    This paper will contend that we, in the first quarter of the 21st century, need an enhanced Age of Reason based on global epistemology. One reason to legitimize such a call for more intellectual enlightenment is the lack of required information on non-European philosophy in today’s reading lists at European and North American universities. Hence, the present-day Academy contributes to the scarcity of knowledge about the world’s global history of ideas outside one’s ethnocentric sphere. The question is whether we genuinely (...)
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  12. Will There Be Races in Heaven?Nathan Placencia - 2021 - In T. Ryan Byerly (ed.), Death, Immortality, and Eternal Life. Routledge. pp. 192-206.
    Drawing on work in the Philosophy of Race, this chapter argues that the existence of races in heaven is either incompatible or only questionably compatible with the mainstream Christian view of the afterlife. However, it also argues that there is a phenomenon adjacent and related to race that can exist in the afterlife, namely racial identity. If one thinks of racial identity as a kind of practical identity, it turns out that racial identity is primarily psychological. Thus, its existence in (...)
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  13. A Philosophy of Struggle: The Leonard Harris Reader.Leonard Harris & Lee A. Mcbride Iii - 2020 - New York, USA: Bloomsbury Publishing.
    Collating, for the first time, the key writings of Leonard Harris, this volume introduces readers to a leading figure in African-American and liberatory thought. -/- Harris' writings on honor, insurrectionist ethics, tradition, and his work on Alain Locke have established him as a leading figure in critical philosophy. His timely and urgent responses to structural racism and structural violence mark him out as a bold cultural commentator and a deft theoretician. -/- The wealth and depth of Harris' writings are brought (...)
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  14. Summer of Protest.Alida Liberman - 2020 - The Philosophers' Magazine 91:33-39.
    I assess the ways in which popular narratives about protests against police brutality in the summer of 2020 are ethically and epistemically problematic. I argue that many news outlets have pushed a false and misleading narrative that frames the protests as inherently violent and dangerous when in fact they were primarily non-violent. I analyze the ways in which these narratives are likely to increase epistemic injustice, including testimonial injustice against protestors. I then introduce a new framework that I call ignorance (...)
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  15. Suicidio por la Democracia - un Obituario para América y el Mundo 5ª Edición.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Estados Unidos y el mundo están en el proceso de colapso de un crecimiento excesivo de la población, la mayoría de ella para el siglo pasado, y ahora todo ello, debido a la gente del 3ª mundo. El consumo de recursos y la adición de 4 mil millones más ca. 2100 colapsarán la civilización industrial y traerán hambre, enfermedad, violencia y guerra a una escala asombrosa. La tierra pierde al menos el 1% de su suelo vegetal cada año, por lo (...)
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  16. Reparations for Police Killings.Jennifer Page - 2019 - Perspectives on Politics 17 (4):958-972.
    After a fatal police shooting in the United States, it is typical for city and police officials to view the family of the deceased through the lens of the law. If the family files a lawsuit, the city and police department consider it their legal right to defend themselves and to treat the plaintiffs as adversaries. However, reparations and the concept of “reparative justice” allow authorities to frame police killings in moral rather than legal terms. When a police officer kills (...)
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  17. White Supremacy in Eurowestern Epistemologies. On the West’s Responsibility for its Philosophical Heritage.Björn Freter - 2018 - Synthesis Philosophica 33 (1):237-249.
    There is a fundamental flaw in the Eurocentric epistemological foundation. Counter to the overwhelming ethos of the Enlightenment this epistemological bedrock shockingly does not seem to be an epistemology of the human being, but only of the white human being. I, as Western scholar, have to relativize my epistemological heritage, because it does not take into account the diversity of the human being. I will briefly explore the racist views of Voltaire, Hume and Kant and I will argue that Western (...)
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  18. Racial Profiling and a Reasonable Sense of Inferior Political Status.Adam Omar Hosein - 2018 - Journal of Political Philosophy 26 (3):1-20.
    This paper presents a novel framework for evaluating racial profiling, including 'rational profiling' that does in fact decrease crime rates. It argues that while profiling some groups, such as African Americans and Muslims, is impermissible, profiling others, such as white men, may be permissible. The historical and sociological context matters significantly. Along the way, the paper develops a new theory of what expressive harms are, why they matter, and when it is the responsibility of the state to correct them.
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  19. Review of Darby & Rury's The Color of Mind: Why the Origins of the Achievement Gap Matters for Justice. [REVIEW]Michael Merry - 2018 - Theory and Research in Education 16 (3):381-384.
    One cannot adequately understand the persistence of the achievement gap, Darby and Rury argue, until one knows and understands the history that continues to inflict all varieties of dignitary harm on Black people. The authors deploy the phrase, ‘color of mind’, to describe the deeply embedded attitudinal and institutional norms that diminish the intellect, character, and conduct of Black students – norms with a long history that continue to poison the school system. There is, of course, no dearth of American (...)
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  20. Unravelling the Knot: On Race, Racism, and Human History.Benjamin Mitchell-Yellin - 2018 - Think 17 (50):61-74.
    This article argues for a shift in our thinking about racism. There are two main philosophical approaches at present: the moral view, which analyses racism in terms of individuals' attitudes, and the political view, which analyses it in terms of institutions. But neither is fully satisfactory. So I propose an alternative, genealogical account, which is better equipped to explain the phenomena associated with racism and is more in line with the historical record.Export citation.
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  21. Racial Sexual Desires.Raja Halwani - 2017 - In Raja Halwani, Alan Soble, Sarah Hoffman & Jacob Held (eds.), The Philosophy of Sex: Contemporary Readings, 7th edition. Lanham, Md, USA: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 181-199.
    The paper addresses the issue of whether there is something morally defective with someone who sexually prefers members of a particular race or ethnic group (or someone who does not sexually desire or prefer members of a particular race or ethnic group). People with such “racial desires” are often viewed as racists, but virtually no sustained arguments have been given in support of this view. The paper reconstructs three possible arguments—those based in discrimination, exclusion, and stereotypes—that might support the charge (...)
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  22. Insurrectionist Ethics and Racism.Lee A. Mcbride Iii - 2017 - In Naomi Zack (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Race. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 225-234.
    This paper discusses racism and the liberation of racially oppressed peoples. An account of insurrectionist ethics is offered, outlining the types of moral intuitions, character traits, and methods required to garner impetus for the liberation of oppressed groups. For illustrative purposes, the core tenets of insurrectionist ethics are highlighted in the work of Angela Davis. It is argued that insurrectionist ethics and its militant posture of resistance is crucial to human liberation and social amelioration in the face of racism.
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  23. Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology.Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    Most people show unconscious bias in their evaluations of social groups, in ways that may run counter to their conscious beliefs. This volume addresses key metaphysical and epistemological questions about implicit bias, including its effect on scientific research, gender stereotypes in philosophy, and the role of heuristics in biased reasoning.
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  24. Of Vikings and Nazis: Norwegian Contributions to the Rise and the Fall of the Idea of a Superior Aryan Race.Adam Hochman - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54:84-88.
    Nazi ideology was premised on a belief in the superiority of the Germanic race. However, the idea of a superior Germanic race was not invented by the Nazis. By the beginning of the 20th century this idea had already gained not only popular but also mainstream scientific support in England, Germany, the U.S., Scandinavia, and other parts of the world in which people claimed Germanic origins (p. xiii). Yet how could this idea, which is now recognised as ideology of the (...)
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  25. Nitzan Lebovic: The Philosophy of Life and Death. Ludwig Klages and the Rise of a Nazi Biopolitics. Palgrave Mac Millan, New York 2013, 301 S. [REVIEW]Johannes Steizinger - 2015 - Weimarer Beiträge 2015 (1):156−160.
  26. Race and Laboratory Norms: The Critical Insights of Julian Herman Lewis.Christopher Crenner - 2014 - Isis 105 (3):477-507.
    The work of Julian Herman Lewis helps to expose the underlying racial organization of laboratory normality in early twentieth-century medicine. In the 1920s and 1930s, Lewis launched a critique of prevailing racial theory, as he established an academic career in pathology at the University of Chicago. As one of the small number of black research physicians at the time, Lewis met barriers to his work that eventually derailed his career. Although his research fell short of its goals, his work continues (...)
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  27. Studying While Black: Trust, Opportunity and Disrespect.Sally Haslanger - 2014 - Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 11 (1):109-136.
    How should we explore the relationship between race and educational opportunity? One approach to the Black-White achievement gap explores how race and class cause disparities in access and opportunity. In this paper, I consider how education contributes to the creation of race. Considering examples of classroom micropolitics, I argue that breakdowns of trust and trustworthiness between teachers and students can cause substantial disadvantages and, in the contemporary United States, this happens along racial lines. Some of the disadvantages are academic: high (...)
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  28. Nietzsche's Naturalist Morality of Breeding: A Critique of Eugenics as Taming.Donovan Miyasaki - 2014 - In Vanessa Lemm (ed.), Nietzsche and the Becoming of Life. Fordham University Press. pp. 194-213.
    In this paper, I directly oppose Nietzsche ’s endorsement of a morality of breeding to all forms of comparative, positive eugenics: the use of genetic selection to introduce positive improvement in individuals or the species, based on negatively or comparatively defined traits. I begin by explaining Nietzsche ’s contrast between two broad categories of morality: breeding and taming. I argue that the ethical dangers of positive eugenics are grounded in their status as forms of taming, which preserves positively evaluated character (...)
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  29. Racism.Bernard R. Boxill - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  30. Solitary Confinement: Social Death and its Afterlives.Lisa Guenther - 2013 - Minnesota University Press.
    Prolonged solitary confinement has become a widespread and standard practice in U.S. prisons—even though it consistently drives healthy prisoners insane, makes the mentally ill sicker, and, according to the testimony of prisoners, threatens to reduce life to a living death. In this profoundly important and original book, Lisa Guenther examines the death-in-life experience of solitary confinement in America from the early nineteenth century to today’s supermax prisons. Documenting how solitary confinement undermines prisoners’ sense of identity and their ability to understand (...)
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  31. Doing Philosophy Personally: Thinking About Metaphysics, Theism, and Antiblack Racism.Dwayne A. Tunstall - 2013 - Fordham University Press.
    Gabriel Marcel’s reflective method is animated by his extraphilosophical commitment to battle the ever-present threat of dehumanization in late Western modernity. Unfortunately, Marcel neglected to examine what is perhaps the most prevalent threat of dehumanization in Western modernity: antiblack racism. Without such an account, Marcel’s reflective method is weakened because it cannot live up to its extraphilosophical commitment. Tunstall remedies this shortcoming in his eloquent new volume.
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  32. Beyond Dehumanization: A Post-Humanist Critique of Intensive Confinement.Lisa Guenther - 2012 - Journal of Critical Animal Studies. Special Issue on Animals and Prisons 10 (2).
    Prisoners involved in the Attica rebellion and in the recent Georgia prison strike have protested their dehumanizing treatment as animals and as slaves. Their critique is crucial for tracing the connections between slavery, abolition, the racialization of crime, and the reinscription of racialized slavery within the US prison system. I argue that, in addition to the dehumanization of prisoners, inmates are further de-animalized when they are held in conditions of intensive confinement such as prolonged solitude or chronic overcrowding. To be (...)
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  33. Resistance Through Re-Narration: Fanon on De-Constructing Racialized Subjectivities.Cynthia R. Nielsen - 2011 - African Identies 9 (4):363-385.
    Frantz Fanon offers a lucid account of his entrance into the white world where the weightiness of the ‘white gaze’ nearly crushed him. In chapter five of Black Skins, White Masks, he develops his historico-racial and epidermal racial schemata as correctives to Merleau-Ponty’s overly inclusive corporeal schema. Experientially aware of the reality of socially constructed (racialized) subjectivities, Fanon uses his schemata to explain the creation, maintenance, and eventual rigidification of white-scripted ‘blackness’. Through a re-telling of his own experiences of racism, (...)
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  34. Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant. [REVIEW]Garland Allen - 2010 - Isis 101:909-911.
  35. A Man’s a Man for All That.Bernard R. Boxill - 2010 - The Monist 93 (2):188-207.
  36. When the State Speaks What Should.Corey Brettschneider - 2010 - Perspectives on Politics.
  37. Alief in Action (and Reaction).Tamar Szabó Gendler - 2008 - Mind and Language 23 (5):552--585.
    I introduce and argue for the importance of a cognitive state that I call alief. An alief is, to a reasonable approximation, an innate or habitual propensity to respond to an apparent stimulus in a particular way. Recognizing the role that alief plays in our cognitive repertoire provides a framework for understanding reactions that are governed by nonconscious or automatic mechanisms, which in turn brings into proper relief the role played by reactions that are subject to conscious regulation and deliberate (...)
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  38. Race, Equality, and the Burdens of History.John Arthur - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    John Arthur philosophically addresses the problems of racism and the legacy of past racial discrimination in the United States. Offering a thorough analysis of the concepts of race and racism, Arthur also discusses racial equality, poverty and race, reparations and affirmative action, and merit in ways that cut across the usual political lines. A philosopher, former civil-rights plaintiff and professor at an historically black college in the South, Arthur draws on both his personal experiences as well as his rigorous philosophical (...)
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  39. The N-Word.Nancy Bauer - 2007 - Fringe 10.
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  40. Racial Virtues.Lawrence Blum - 2007 - In Rebecca L. Walker & Philip J. Ivanhoe (eds.), Working Virtue: Virtue Ethics and Contemporary Moral Problems. Oxford University Press.
  41. Why Bioethics Cannot Figure Out What to Do with Race.Olivette R. Burton - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):6 – 12.
    Race and religion are integral parts of bioethics. Harm and oppression, with the aim of social and political control, have been wrought in the name of religion against Blacks and people of color as embodied in the Ten Commandments, the Inquisition, and in the history of the Holy Crusades. Missionaries came armed with Judeo/Christian beliefs went to nations of people of color who had their own belief systems and forced change and caused untold harms because the indigenous belief systems were (...)
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  42. 4. Marx, Capitalism, and Race.Tom Jeannot - 2007 - Radical Philosophy Today 2007:69-92.
    Cedric J. Robinson and others have criticized “Marxism” for “its inability to comprehend either the racial character of capitalism…or mass movements outside Europe.” Whatever the merits of this criticism for “standard Marxism,” Marx’s own thought is neither “economistic” nor Eurocentric, it does not deny historical agency to the struggle against anti-black racism in its own right, and it does not reduce that struggle to the European class struggle. By exploring Marx’s Civil War journalism and correspondence as well as his critique (...)
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  43. Kant's Second Thoughts on Race.Pauline Kleingeld - 2007 - Philosophical Quarterly 57 (229):573–592.
    During the 1780s, as Kant was developing his universalistic moral theory, he published texts in which he defended the superiority of whites over non-whites. Whether commentators see this as evidence of inconsistent universalism or of consistent inegalitarianism, they generally assume that Kant's position on race remained stable during the 1780s and 1790s. Against this standard view, I argue on the basis of his texts that Kant radically changed his mind. I examine his 1780s race theory and his hierarchical conception of (...)
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  44. Eugenics In Australia: Striving For National Fitness. [REVIEW]Claire Hooker - 2006 - Isis 97:784-786.
  45. From Darwin to Hitler: Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism in Germany. [REVIEW]Nils Roll-Hansen - 2005 - Isis 96:669-671.
  46. The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund; Intelligence, Race, and Genetics: Conversations with Arthur Jensen. [REVIEW]Garland Allen - 2004 - Isis 95:159-161.
  47. Les Boeufs Bipèdes.Guy Bouchard - 2004 - Presses de l'Universite Laval.
    Face à la défense aristotélicienne de l'esclavage, il faut, dit-on "sauver l'honneur des philosophes". Objectif: dévoiler le coût de cette entreprise dans un contexte où l'on préconise de plus en plus le recours à Aristote pour surmonter les impasses imputées à la pensée éthico-politique contemporaine. Au delà de sa portée historique, cet ouvrage interroge l'image actuelle du philosophe grec véhiculée par ses commentateurs francophones (1932-1999) et la pertinence attribuée à son message.
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  48. Einstein, Race, and the Myth of the Cultural Icon.Fred Jerome - 2004 - Isis 95:627-639.
    The most remarkable aspect of Einstein’s 1946 address at Lincoln University is that it has vanished from Einstein’s recorded history. Its disappearance into a historical black hole symbolizes what seems to happen in the creation of a cultural icon. It is but one of many political statements by Einstein to have met such a fate, though his civil rights activism is most glaringly missing. One explanation for this historical amnesia is that those who shape our official memories felt that Einstein’s (...)
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  49. Rhetoric and Anti-Semitism.Lawrence Lengbeyer - 2004 - Academic Questions 17 (2):22-32.
    Given that charges of anti-Semitism, racism, and the like continue to be potent weapons of moral and intellectual critique in our culture, it is important that we work toward a clear understanding about just what sorts of conduct and circumstances constitute these moral offenses. In particular, can criticism of a state (such as Israel), or other social or political institution or organization (such as the NAACP), ever amount to anti-Semitism, racism, or other bigotry against the people represented by or associated (...)
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  50. Building a Better Race: Gender, Sexuality, and Eugenics From the Turn of the Century to the Baby Boom. [REVIEW]Elof Carlson - 2003 - Isis 94:761-761.
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