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  1. Inhibitory Set in Problem Solving as Related to Reinforcement Learning.Robert Adamson - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (4):280.
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  2. The Ecological Rationality of Delay Tolerance: Insights From Capuchin Monkeys.Elsa Addessi, Fabio Paglieri & Valentina Focaroli - 2011 - Cognition 119 (1):142-147.
  3. Emotion and Memory: A Recognition Advantage for Positive and Negative Words Independent of Arousal.J. S. Adelman & Z. Estes - 2013 - Cognition 129 (3):530-535.
  4. Human Rationality: Essential Conflicts, Multiple Ideals.Jonathan E. Adler - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):245.
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  5. Cartographic Systems and Non-Linguistic Inference.Mariela Aguilera - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (3):349-364.
    It is often assumed that the capability to make inferences requires language. Against this assumption, I claim that inferential abilities do not necessarily require a language. On the contrary, certain cartographic systems could be used to explain some forms of inferences, and they are capable of warranting rational relations between contents they represent. By arguing that certain maps, as well as sentences, are adequate for inferential processes, I do not mean to neglect that there are important differences between maps and (...)
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  6. Game Theory Can Build Higher Mental Processes From Lower Ones.George Ainslie - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):16-18.
    The question of reductionism is an obstacle to unification. Many behavioral scientists who study the more complex or higher mental functions avoid regarding them as selected by motivation. Game-theoretic models in which complex processes grow from the strategic interaction of elementary reward-seeking processes can overcome the mechanical feel of earlier reward-based models. Three examples are briefly described. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  7. Sebastian Gardner, Irrationality and the Philosophy of Psychoanalysis Reviewed By.Hakam Al-Shawi - 1994 - Philosophy in Review 14 (6):391-393.
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  8. The Evolution of Rational Demons.Colin Allen - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):742-742.
    If fast and frugal heuristics are as good as they seem to be, who needs logic and probability theory? Fast and frugal heuristics depend for their success on reliable structure in the environment. In passive environments, there is relatively little change in structure as a consequence of individual choices. But in social interactions with competing agents, the environment may be structured by agents capable of exploiting logical and probabilistic weaknesses in competitors' heuristics. Aspirations toward the ideal of a demon reasoner (...)
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  9. IMPLICIT BIAS, STEREOTYPE THREAT, AND POLITICAL CORRECTNESS IN PHILOSOPHY.Sean Allen-Hermanson - 2017 - Philosophies 2 (2).
    This paper offers an unorthodox appraisal of empirical research bearing on the question of the low representation of women in philosophy. It contends that fashionable views in the profession concerning implicit bias and stereotype threat are weakly supported, that philosophers often fail to report the empirical work responsibly, and that the standards for evidence are set very low—so long as you take a certain viewpoint.
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  10. Imitation and Learning.Carlos Alós-Ferrer & Karl Schlag - 2009 - In Paul Anand, Prasanta Pattanaik & Clemens Puppe (eds.), The Handbook of Rational and Social Choice. Oxford University Press.
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  11. Partner Selection, Coordination Games, and Group Selection.Michael S. Alvard - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):80-81.
    The process of partner selection reflects ethnographic realities where cooperative rewards obtain that would otherwise be lost to loners. Baumard et al. neglect frequency-dependent processes exemplified by games of coordination. Such games can produce multiple equilibria that may or may not include fair outcomes. Additional, group-selection processes are required to produce the outcomes predicted by the models.
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  12. The Natural Frequency Hypothesis and Evolutionary Arguments.Yuichi Amitani - 2015 - Mind and Society 15 (1):1-19.
    In the rationality debate, Gerd Gigerenzer and his colleagues have argued that human’s apparent inability to follow probabilistic principles does not mean our irrationality, because we can do probabilistic reasoning successfully if probability information is given in frequencies, not percentages (the natural frequency hypothesis). They also offered an evolutionary argument to this hypothesis, according to which using frequencies was evolutionarily more advantageous to our hominin ancestors than using percentages, and this is why we can reason correctly about probabilities in the (...)
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  13. Jonathan St. B. T. Evans , Thinking Twice: Two Minds in One Brain . Reviewed By. [REVIEW]Yuichi Amitani - 2012 - Philosophy in Review 32 (3):174-176.
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  14. The Frequency Hypothesis and Evolutionary Arguments.Yuichi Amitani - 2008 - Kagaku Tetsugaku 41 (1):79-94.
    Gerd Gigerenzer's views on probabilistic reasoning in humans have come under close scrutiny. Very little attention, however, has been paid to his evolutionary component of his argument. According to Gigerenzer, reasoning about probabilities as frequencies is so common today because it was favored by natural selection in the past. This paper presents a critical examination of this argument. It will show first, that, _pace_ Gigerenzer, there are some reasons to believe that using the frequency format was not more adaptive than (...)
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  15. Probability Rather Than Logic as the Basis of Perception.Thomas J. Anastasio - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (3):283-284.
    Formal logic may be an inappropriate framework for understanding perception. The responses of neurons at various levels of the sensory hierarchy may be better described in terms of probability than logic. Analysis and modeling of the multisensory responses of neurons in the midbrain provide a case study.
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  16. The Myth of Computational Level Theory and the Vacuity of Rational Analysis.Barton L. Anderson - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):189-190.
    I extend Jones & Love's (J&L's) critique of Bayesian models and evaluate the conceptual foundations on which they are built. I argue that: (1) the part of Bayesian models is scientifically trivial; (2) theory is a fiction that arises from an inappropriate programming metaphor; and (3) the real scientific problems lie outside Bayesian theorizing.
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  17. Mental Models and Tableau Logic.Avery D. Andrews - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):334.
  18. Drawing the Line: Rational Cognitive Therapy, Information, and Boundary Issues.William Angelette - manuscript
    It has been claimed that cognitive therapists endorse sets of uplifting beliefs BECAUSE the client feels better believing them: not because they lead towards greater verisimilitude, a purported cognitivists’ hallmark of rational choice. Since standard cognitive therapists sometimes ask us to choose sets of beliefs that interpret evidence on the basis of greater individual happiness (all other things being equal), this suggests that the basis of choice goes beyond rationality. I contend that the case against the rationality of cognitive therapy (...)
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  19. Sebastian Gardner, Irrationality and the Philosophy of Psychoanalysis.D. Archard - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  20. Irrationality and the Philosophy of Psychoanalysis. [REVIEW]David Archard - 1996 - Radical Philosophy 76.
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  21. Functions: New Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology and Biology.Andre Ariew, Robert C. Cummins & Mark Perlman (eds.) - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
  22. Heuristics Can Be Ecologically Rational.Hal R. Arkes - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (5):260-261.
  23. Cognitive Externalism Meets Bounded Rationality.Eric Arnau, Saray Ayala & Thomas Sturm - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology 27 (1):50-64.
    When proponents of cognitive externalism (CE) turn to empirical studies in cognitive science to put the framework to use and to assess its explanatory success, they typically refer to perception, memory, or motor coordination. In contrast, not much has been said about reasoning. One promising avenue to explore in this respect is the theory of bounded rationality (BR). To clarify the relationship between CE and BR, we criticize Andy Clark's understanding of BR, as well as his claim that BR does (...)
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  24. Case-Based Reasoning and its Implications for Legal Expert Systems.Kevin D. Ashley - 1992 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 1 (2-3):113-208.
    Reasoners compare problems to prior cases to draw conclusions about a problem and guide decision making. All Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) employs some methods for generalizing from cases to support indexing and relevance assessment and evidences two basic inference methods: constraining search by tracing a solution from a past case or evaluating a case by comparing it to past cases. Across domains and tasks, however, humans reason with cases in subtly different ways evidencing different mixes of and mechanisms for these components.In (...)
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  25. Evolutionary Psychology's Grain Problem and the Cognitive Neuroscience of Reasoning.Anthony P. Atkinson & M. Wheeler - 2003 - In David E. Over (ed.), Evolution and the Psychology of Thinking: The Debate. Psychology Press. pp. 61--99.
  26. Where Does Fast and Frugal Cognition Stop? The Boundary Between Complex Cognition and Simple Heuristics.Thom Baguley & S. Ian Robertson - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):742-743.
    Simple heuristics that make us smart presents a valuable and valid interpretation of how we make fast decisions particularly in situations of ignorance and uncertainty. What is missing is how this intersects with thinking under even greater uncertainty or ignorance, such as novice problem solving, and with the development of expert cognition.
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  27. Alternative Task Construals, Computational Escape Hatches, and Dual-System Theories of Reasoning.Linden J. Ball & Jeremy D. Quayle - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):667-668.
    Stanovich & West's dual-system represents a major development in an understanding of reasoning and rationality. Their notion of System 1 functioning as a computational escape hatch during the processing of complex tasks may deserve a more central role in explanations of reasoning performance. We describe examples of apparent escape-hatch processing from the reasoning and judgement literature.
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  28. Development of Syllogistic Reasoning.Bruno G. Bara, Monica Bucciarelli & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1995 - American Journal of Psychology 108:157-157.
    The following values have no corresponding Zotero field: PB - University of Illinois Press.
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  29. Humans Should Be Individualistic and Utility-Maximizing, but Not Necessarily “Rational”.Pat Barclay & Martin Daly - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):154-155.
    One reason why humans don't behave according to standard game theoretical rationality is because it's not realistic to assume that everyone else is behaving rationally. An individual is expected to have psychological mechanisms that function to maximize his/her long-term payoffs in a world of potentially “irrational” individuals. Psychological decision theory has to be individualistic because individuals make decisions, not groups.
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  30. Assembling the Emotions.Vincent Bergeron & Mohan Matthen - 2006 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 36 (sup1):185-212.
  31. Rationality and Psychological Explanation Without Language.Jose Luis Bermudez - 2002 - In Jose Luis Bermudez & Alan Millar (eds.), Reason and Nature. Clarendon Press.
  32. Rationality, Logic, and Fast and Frugal Heuristics.José Luis Bermúdez - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):744-745.
    Gigerenzer and his co-workers make some bold and striking claims about the relation between the fast and frugal heuristics discussed in their book and the traditional norms of rationality provided by deductive logic and probability theory. We are told, for example, that fast and frugal heuristics such as “Take the Best” replace “the multiple coherence criteria stemming from the laws of logic and probability with multiple correspondence criteria relating to real-world decision performance.” This commentary explores just how we should interpret (...)
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  33. Reason and Nature.Jose Luis Bermudez & Alan Millar (eds.) - 2002 - Clarendon Press.
    Reason and Nature investigates the norms of reason--the standards which contribute to determining whether beliefs, inferences, and actions are rational. Nine philosophers and two psychologists discuss what kinds of things these norms are, how they can be situated within the natural world, and what role they play in the psychological explanation of belief and action. Current work in the theory of rationality is subject to very diverse influences ranging from experimental and theoretical psychology, through philosophy of logic and language, to (...)
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  34. Reply to Garnham.Robert C. Berwick & Amy S. Weinberg - 1983 - Cognition 15 (1-3):271-276.
  35. Interactivism: A Manifesto.Mark H. Bickhard - manuscript
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  36. How Does the Environment Affect the Person?Mark H. Bickhard - 1992 - In L. T. Winegar & Jaan Valsiner (eds.), Children's Development Within Social Contexts: Metatheoretical, Theoretical and Methodological Issues. Erlbaum.
    How Does the Environment Affect the Person? Mark H. Bickhard invited chapter in Children's Development within Social Contexts: Metatheoretical, Theoretical and Methodological Issues, Erlbaum. edited by L. T. Winegar, J. Valsiner, in press.
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  37. Irrationality and Happiness: A (Neo-)Shopenhauerian Argument for Rational Pessimism.Alexandre Billon - 2016 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 11 (1):1-26.
    There is a long tradition in philosophy of blaming passions for our unhappiness. If only we were more rational, it is claimed, we would live happier lives. I argue that such optimism is misguided and that, paradoxically, people with desires, like us, cannot be both happy and rational. More precisely, if someone rational has desires he will not be fully happy, and if he has some desires that are rational and – in a yet-to-be-specified sense – demanding, he will be (...)
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  38. Are There More Than Minimal a Priori Limits on Irrationality?John I. Biro & Kirk A. Ludwig - 1994 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72 (1):89-102.
    Our concern in this paper is with the question of how irrational an intentional agent can be, and, in particular, with an argument Stephen Stich has given for the claim that there are only very minimal a priori requirements on the rationality of intentional agents. The argument appears in chapter 2 of The Fragmentation of Reason.1 Stich is concerned there with the prospects for the ‘reform-minded epistemologist’. If there are a priori limits on how irrational we can be, there are (...)
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  39. Fast and Frugal Heuristics.Michael A. Bishop - 2006 - Philosophy Compass 1 (2):201–223.
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  40. Intentionality Without Rationality.Lisa Bortolotti - 2005 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 105 (3):385-392.
    It is often taken for granted in standard theories of interpretation that there cannot be intentionality without rationality. According to the background argument, a system can be interpreted as having irrational beliefs only against a general background of rationality. Starting from the widespread assumption that delusions can be reasonably described as irrational beliefs, I argue here that the background argument fails to account for their intentional description.
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  41. Inconsistency and Interpretation.Lisa Bortolotti - 2003 - Philosophical Explorations 6 (2):109-123.
    Abstract In this paper I discuss one apparent counterexample to the rationality constraint on belief ascription. The fact that there are inconsistent believers does not seem compatible with the idea that only rational creatures can be ascribed beliefs. I consider Davidson's explanation of the possibility of inconsistent believers and claim that it involves a reformulation of the rationality constraint in terms of the believers' subscription to norms of rationality. I shall argue that Davidson's strategy is partially successful, but that the (...)
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  42. Costs and Benefits of Realism and Optimism.Lisa Bortolotti & Magdalena Antrobus - 2015 - Current Opinion in Psychiatry 28 (2):194-198.
    Purpose of review: What is the relationship between rationality and mental health? By considering the psychological literature on depressive realism and unrealistic optimism it was hypothesized that, in the context of judgments about the self, accurate cognitions are psychologically maladaptive and inaccurate cognitions are psychologically adaptive. Recent studies recommend being cautious in drawing any general conclusion about style of thinking and mental health. Recent findings: Recent investigations suggest that people with depressive symptoms are more accurate than controls in tasks involving (...)
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  43. Costs and Benefits of Imperfect Cognitions.Lisa Bortolotti & Ema Sullivan-Bissett - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:487-489.
    Introduction to a special issue of Consciousness and Cognition on the costs and benefits of imperfect cognitions.
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  44. We Are Again at the Very Beginning.Miro Brada - 2003 - Nove Slovo.
    About selected philosophical questions of the past and today, with Egon Bondy (1930-2007). In a reaction to his response, I'll add a redefinition of the existential view of decision that is incomplete, and an explanation why 'social science' can be mathematized. The article also include my other ideas which have been developed since 1995. The interview was published in Blisty and Nove Slovo (2003), and some experts were published in The Ice House, Holland Park, London (2013), and Parallax Art Fair (...)
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  45. Discrepancies Between Human Behavior and Formal Theories of Rationality: The Incompleteness of Bayesian Probability Logic.Lea Brilmayer - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):488.
  46. Rationality and Irrationality: Proceeedings of the 23rd International Wittgenstein Symposium, 13-19 August 2000, Kirchberg Am Wechsel. [REVIEW]Berit Brogaard (ed.) - 2001 - öbv&hpt.
  47. Contribution à une théorie de l'abandon des croyances : la fin du Père Noël.Gérald Bronner - 2004 - Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 116 (1):117.
    Cet article propose, à la lumière d’un exemple particulier – l’abandon de la croyance en l’existence du Père Noël –, de tester différents scénarios théoriques de la rupture cognitive. L’exemple choisi, en raison de ses spécificités, ne peut prétendre invalider un modèle ou en confirmer définitivement un autre, mais il souhaite être une contribution au débat sur la base d’un matériau empirique rarement réuni en cette matière. Les 142 entretiens mobilisés permettent d’appréhender dans le détail divers aspects de l’abandon de (...)
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  48. What Do Children Know About the Universal Quantifiers All and Each?P. J. Brooks & M. D. Braine - 1996 - Cognition 60 (3):235-268.
    Children's comprehension of the universal quantifiers all and each was explored in a series of experiments using a picture selection task. The first experiment examined children's ability to restrict a quantifier to the noun phrase it modifies. The second and third experiments examined children's ability to associate collective, distributive, and exhaustive representations with sentences containing universal quantifiers. The collective representation corresponds to the "group" meaning (for All the flowers are in a vase all of the flowers are in the same (...)
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  49. Reasoning Strategies in Syllogisms: Evidence for Performance Errors Along with Computational Limitations.Monica Bucciarelli - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):669-670.
    Stanovich & West interpret errors in syllogistic reasoning in terms of computational limitations. I argue that the variety of strategies used by reasoners in solving syllogisms requires us to consider also performance errors. Although reasoners' performance from one trial to another is quite consistent, it can be different, in line with the definition of performance errors. My argument has methodological implications for reasoning theories.
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  50. Rational Inference: The Lowest Bounds.Cameron Buckner - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research:1-28.
    A surge of empirical research demonstrating flexible cognition in animals and young infants has raised interest in the possibility of rational decision-making in the absence of language. A venerable position, which I here call “Classical Inferentialism”, holds that nonlinguistic agents are incapable of rational inferences. Against this position, I defend a model of nonlinguistic inferences that shows how they could be practically rational. This model vindicates the Lockean idea that we can intuitively grasp rational connections between thoughts by developing the (...)
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