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  1. Making the Veil of Ignorance Work: Evidence from Survey Experiments.Akira Inoue, Masahiro Zenkyo & Haruya Sakamoto - 2021 - In Tania Lombrozo, Joshua Knobe & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy Volume 4. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 53-80.
    This chapter purports to give empirical feedback on impartial reasoning to justice by using online survey experiments. More precisely, the study focuses on whether and how the different conceptions of the veil of ignorance and John Rawls’s method of reflective equilibrium affect real people’s impartial reasoning to justice. The findings show that, while ordinary people support impartial reasoning to the difference principle (maximin), their endorsement of it echoes neither John Harsanyi’s nor Rawls’s reasoning. The results illuminate that findings in human (...)
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  2. Kantian Autonomy.Helga Varden - 2022 - Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy.
  3. A Theory of Justice – en radikal vision om det fullständigt rättvisa samhället.Emil Andersson - 2021 - Tidskrift För Politisk Filosofi 25 (2-3):4-28.
    John Rawls A Theory of Justice har haft ett monumentalt inflytande på den moderna politiska filosofin. Jag försöker här genom några nedslag i den nutida diskussionen förmedla en bild av detta inflytande, och av bokens fortsatta filosofiska relevans. Jag inleder med en kort presentation av huvuddragen i Rawls rättviseteori. Efter det går jag igenom, och bemöter, kritiken mot idealteori. Jag diskuterar sedan förhållandet mellan rättvisa och ekonomisk ojämlikhet, och förklarar varför teorin är radikalare än vad många kritiker insett. Slutligen går (...)
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  4. Another objection from Sidgwick to Rawls’s liberty principle, and a response.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    There are other problems for John Rawls’s philosophy that can be extracted from Henry Sidgwick’s discussion of the priority of freedom, apart from the problem H.L.A. Hart focuses on. This paper considers one such problem – that it is an empirical issue whether a sane adult is better off more free, rather than something to be assumed – and presents one Rawlsian solution.
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  5. Conceptual Disagreement about Justice: Verbal, but Not Merely Verbal.Kyle Johannsen - 2019 - Dialogue 58 (4):701-709.
    Ce texte offre un aperçu des articles composant ce numéro spécial et présente brièvement les principaux arguments avancés dansA Conceptual Investigation of Justice, dont une des thèses centrales veut qu’un important désaccord à la fois sémantique et philosophique sur la définition du terme «justice» soit au cœur de plusieurs questions en philosophie politique contemporaine. Cette présentation nous amène par ailleurs à décrire les caractéristiques d’un débat sémantique dont la portée dépasse la stricte sphère linguistique.
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  6. Defending 'A Conceptual Investigation of Justice'.Kyle Johannsen - 2019 - Dialogue 58 (4):763-778.
    Cet article détaille et défend les arguments avancés dans l’ouvrageA Conceptual Investigation of Justiceen réponse aux critiques. Cette mise au point développe certaines des idées contenues dans le livre, mais elle présente également des perspectives inédites, étayant l’argumentaire de sa thèse principale.
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  7. Distributive justice, social cooperation, and the basis of equality.Emil Andersson - 2022 - Theoria 88 (6):1180-1195.
    This paper considers the view that the basis of equality is the range property of being a moral person. This view, suggested by John Rawls in his A Theory of Justice (1971), is commonly dismissed in the literature. By defending the view against the criticism levelled against it, I aim to show that this dismissal has been too quick. The critics have generally failed to fully appreciate the fact that Rawls's account is restricted to the domain of distributive justice. On (...)
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  8. Kant and Rawls on the Moral and Political Development of Persons.Olga Lenczewska - 2021 - Dissertation, Stanford University
    My dissertation examines Kant’s and Rawls’s theories of the moral development of individuals within structured political communities. I reconstruct Kant’s under-studied account of the emergence of reason by looking at his remarks on the transition our species underwent from mere irrational animals into primitive human beings. I show how his account of the emergence of reason fits with his broader view of humankind’s rational progress and the moral development of an individual. Next, I argue that Kant’s anthropological and pedagogical writings (...)
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  9. Kenneth Arrow on Rawls’s “asset egalitarian” assumption about justice.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    Kenneth Arrow presents Rawls as making a controversial assumption, which he terms “asset egalitarianism”: that all the assets of society, including personal skills, are available for distribution. I distinguish two versions of the assumption and draw attention to difficulties in determining what Arrow’s concern over the assumption is.
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  10. Public Reason and Political Autonomy: Realizing the Ideal of a Civic People.Blain Neufeld - 2022 - London, UK: Routledge.
    This book advances a novel justification for the idea of "public reason": citizens within diverse societies can realize the ideal of shared political autonomy, despite their adherence to different religious and philosophical views, by deciding fundamental political questions with "public reasons." Public reasons draw upon or are derived from ecumenical political ideas, such as toleration and equal citizenship, and mutually acceptable forms of reasoning, like those of the sciences. This book explains that if citizens share equal political autonomy—and thereby constitute (...)
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  11. The Right to Exist: The Position of Universal Basic Income in the Works of the Most Influential Contemporary Philosophers.Shamsaddin Amanov - 2022 - Dissertation, University of Szeged
    Universal Basic Income has become a popular idea in the last few decades even though one can find its roots in the earlier centuries. In this thesis, I have examined the position of UBI in the works of the most influential contemporary philosophers. By connecting the idea of UBI with some certain concepts from different philosophers, I aimed to improve the overall understanding of UBI. I have mentioned the concepts such as "labor", "leisure", "idleness", "boredom", "poverty", "inequality", "distribution", "happiness", "power", (...)
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  12. Nozick.Helga Varden - 2015 - In Cambridge Rawls Lexicon. pp. 561-564.
    Short lexicon entry on the Rawls-Nozick discussions.
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  13. Rawls on global economic justice: a critical examination.Rekha Nath - 2020 - In Jon Mandle & Sarah Roberts-Cady (eds.), Rawls on global economic justice: a critical examination. Oxford University Press. pp. 313-328.
    This chapter canvasses the debate between John Rawls and his cosmopolitan critics over the demands of economic justice that arise beyond state borders. In particular, it examines the merits of four defenses of the position Rawls advances in The Law of Peoples that justice does not call for a cross-society egalitarian distributive principle: first, that such a principle would fail to hold states responsible for their economic position; second, that because societies do not have a fundamental interest in wealth, they (...)
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  14. Species of Pluralism in Political Philosophy.Kyle Johannsen - 2021 - Journal of Value Inquiry 55 (3):491-506.
    The name ‘pluralism’ frequently rears its head in political philosophy, but theorists often have different things in mind when using the term. Whereas ‘reasonable pluralism’ refers to the fact of moral diversity among citizens of a liberal democracy, ‘value pluralism’ is a metaethical view about the structure of moral practical reasoning. In this paper, I argue that value pluralism is part of the best explanation for reasonable pluralism. However, I also argue that embracing this explanation is compatible with political liberalism’s (...)
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  15. Reading Rawls Rightly: A Theory of Justice at 50.Robert S. Taylor - 2021 - Polity 53 (4):564-71.
    A half-century of Rawls interpreters have overemphasized economic equality in A Theory of Justice, slighting liberty—the central value of liberalism—in the process. From luck-egalitarian readings of Rawls to more recent claims that Rawls was a “reticent socialist,” these interpretations have obscured Rawls’s identity as a philosopher of freedom. They have also obscured the perhaps surprising fact that Rawlsian liberties (basic and non-basic) restrain and even undermine that same economic equality. As I will show in this article, such undermining occurs in (...)
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  16. Wie viel Wohlfahrtsstaat braucht das bedingungslose Grundeinkommen? Eine idealtheoretische Analyse der politischen Stabilität umverteilender Institutionen.Jürgen Sirsch - 2019 - Zeitschrift Für Politische Theorie 10 (2):193-210.
    Often, an unconditional basic income (UBI) is seen as a means for reducing economic inequality. For many of its proponents, UBI is both just and efficient, which potentially makes it an effective means of redistribution. Among other reasons, this has led egalitarian theorists to view UBI as part of an egalitarian ideal society. However, this assessment mostly includes only immediate distributive implications of an implementation of UBI. From the perspective of egalitarian ideal theory, however, long-term distributive implications of institutional designs (...)
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  17. Should Liberal-Egalitarians Support a Basic Income? An Examination of the Effectiveness and Stability of Ideal Welfare Regimes.Jürgen Sirsch - 2020 - Moral Philosophy and Politics (aop):1-25.
    The article deals with the question whether an unconditional basic income (UBI) is part of an ideal liberal-egalitarian welfare regime. Analyzing UBI from an ideal-theoretical perspective requires a comparison of the justice performance of ideal welfare regimes instead of comparing isolated institutional designs. This holistic perspective allows for a more systematic consideration of issues like institutional complementarity. I compare three potential ideal welfare regimes from a liberal-egalitarian perspective of justice: An ideal social democratic regime, a mixed regime containing a moderate (...)
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  18. Against Moderate Morality: The Demands of Justice in an Unjust World.Brian Berkey - 2012 - Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    Extremism about Demands is the view that morality is significantly more demanding than prevailing common-sense morality acknowledges. This view is not widely held, despite the powerful advocacy on its behalf by philosophers such as Peter Singer, Shelly Kagan, Peter Unger, and G.A. Cohen. Most philosophers have remained attracted to some version of Moderation about Demands, which holds that the behavior of typical well-off people is permissible, including the ways that such people tend to employ their economic and other resources. It (...)
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  19. The Moral Implications of the Global Basic Structure as a Subject of Justice.Fausto Corvino - 2019 - Glocialism. Journal of culture, politics and innovation 2019 (2):1-36.
    In this article, I discuss whether the theory of justice as fairness famously proposed by John Rawls can justify the implementation of global principles of socioeconomic justice, contrary to what Rawls himself maintains. In particular, I dwell on the concept of the basic structure of society, which Rawls defines as “the primary subject of justice” and considers as a prerogative of domestic societies. In the first part, I briefly present Rawls’s theory of socio-economic justice and his account of justice between (...)
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  20. One-by-one: moral theory for separate persons.Bastian Steuwer - 2020 - Dissertation, London School of Economics
    You and I lead different lives. While we share a society and a world, our existence is separate from one another. You and I matter individually, by ourselves. My dissertation is about this simple thought. I argue that this simple insight, the separateness of persons, tells us something fundamental about morality. My dissertation seeks to answer how the separateness of persons matters. I develop a precise view of the demands of the separateness of persons. The separateness of persons imposes both (...)
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  21. Desert-based Justice.Jeffrey Moriarty - 2018 - In Serena Olsaretti (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Distributive Justice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 152-173.
    Justice requires giving people what they deserve. Or so many philosophers – and according to many of those philosophers, everyone else – thought for centuries. In the 1970’s and 1980’s, however, perhaps under the influence of Rawls’s (1971) desert-less theory, desert was largely cast out of discussions of distributive justice. Now it is making a comeback. In this chapter I consider recent research on the concept of desert, arguments for its requital, and connections between desert and other distributive ideals. I (...)
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  22. Przyszłość wieloetnicznego państwa w Afryce. Perspektywa Ifeanyiego A. Menkitiego.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2011 - In B. Nowak, M. Nagielski & J. Pysiak (eds.), Europejczycy, Afrykanie, Inni. Studia ofiarowane Profesorowi Michałowi Tymowskiemu. Warszawa: pp. 595-619.
    W artykule tym przedstawiam i krytycznie analizuję główne wątki rozważań nigeryjskiego filozofa Ifeanyiego A. Menkitiego o przyszłości afrykańskiego państwa. Menkiti jest w pełni świadomy historycznej, etnicznej i terytorialnej specyfiki typowego pokolonialnego państwa w Afryce. Powstało ono w XX w. jako organizm charakteryzujący się bardzo głębokimi podziałami etnokulturowymi. Przebieg jego granic został jeszcze w czasach kolonialnych arbitralnie ustanowiony przez Europejczyków. W konsekwencji ich decyzji większość afrykańskich granic dzieli dziś członków wielu ludów na nominalnych obywateli różnych państw. Z drugiej strony, w granicach (...)
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  23. Political Liberalism, Autonomy, and Education.Blain Neufeld - forthcoming - In The Palgrave Handbook of Citizenship and Education.
    Citizens are politically autonomous insofar as they are subject to laws that are (a) justified by reasons acceptable to them and (b) authorized by them via their political institutions. An obstacle to the equal realization of political autonomy is the plurality of religious, moral, and philosophical views endorsed by citizens. Decisions regarding certain fundamental political issues (e.g., abortion) can involve citizens imposing political positions justified in terms of their respective worldviews upon others. Despite citizens’ disagreements over which worldview is correct, (...)
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  24. Justice in the Social Distribution of Health.Johannes Kniess - 2019 - Social Theory and Practice 45 (3):397-425.
    How should we think, from the point of view of distributive justice, about inequalities in health and longevity? Norman Daniels’s influential account derives a social duty to reduce health inequalities from Rawls’s principle of fair equality of opportunity. This paper criticises Daniels’s approach and offers an alternative. To the extent that the basic structure of society shapes people’s opportunities to be healthy, we ought to think of ‘the social bases of health’ directly as a Rawlsian primary social good. The paper (...)
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  25. A social division of responsibility for health.Johannes Kniess - 2018 - Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 13 (3):105-122.
    When is it fair that some people are less healthy than others due to their own individual choices and preferences? In this paper, I explore two alternative answers. The first is a luck-egalitarian account that holds people responsible for choices that society could have reasonably expected them to avoid. I argue that this account is indeterminate and go on to sketch an alternative proposal based on Rawls’s idea of a “social division of responsibility.” This latter approach connects the notion of (...)
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  26. Rescuing Rawls’s Institutionalism and Incentives Inequality.Edward Andrew Greetis - 2019 - Res Publica 25 (4):571-590.
    G. A. Cohen argues that Rawls’s difference principle is incompatible with his endorsement of incentives inequality—higher pay for certain professions is just when that pay benefits everyone. Cohen concludes that Rawls must reject both incentives inequality and ‘institutionalism’—the view that egalitarian principles, including the difference principle, apply exclusively to social institutions. I argue that the premises of Cohen’s ‘internal criticism’ of Rawls require rejecting two important parts of his theory: a ‘subjective circumstance of justice’ and a ‘shared conception of justice’. (...)
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  27. Rawls y el pricipio aristótelico. Una aproximación a la idea de bien en A Theory of Justice.Pablo Aguayo Westwood - 2014 - Ideas Y Valores 156 (LVIII):129-143.
    Con la finalidad de fundamentar y reforzar su teoría de los bienes primarios, J. Rawls introduce, en el §65 de Una teoría de la justicia, la idea de “principio aristotélico”. Se discuten las dificultades que implica aceptar dicha noción, así como las limitaciones de la idea de bien que subyace en dicho principio. Se busca mostrar que la concepción de bien que Rawls presenta allí padece de “insuficiencia moral” y se defiende la tesis de que su aproximación a la idea (...)
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  28. Robert S. Taylor, Reconstructing Rawls: The Kantian Foundations of Justice as Fairness (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2011), 360 pp. ISBN: 978-0271037714. $74.95 (hbk.). [REVIEW]Paul Voice - 2013 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 10 (6):799-801.
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  29. Taylor, Robert S. Reconstructing Rawls: The Kantian Foundations of Justice as Fairness. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press, 2011. Pp. 60. $74.95. [REVIEW]Catherine Galko Campbell - 2012 - Ethics 122 (3):632-637.
  30. Book ReviewsThomas Pogge,. John Rawls: His Life and Theory of Justice. Translated by, Kosch Michelle.Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Pp. 228+xv. $25.00. [REVIEW]Anthony Simon Laden - 2009 - Ethics 119 (3):594-598.
  31. Book Review: Rawls and Habermas: Reason, Pluralism and the Claims of Political PhilosophyHedrickToddRawls and Habermas: Reason, Pluralism and the Claims of Political Philosophy, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010. [REVIEW]Jørgen Pedersen - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (4):569-575.
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  32. Book Review: Rawls Explained: From Fairness to Utopia. [REVIEW]Rajesh Sampath - 2014 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44 (6):843-847.
  33. Freedom, money and justice as fairness.Blain Neufeld - 2017 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 16 (1):70-92.
    The first principle of Rawls’s conception of justice secures a set of ‘basic liberties’ equally for all citizens within the constitutional structure of society. The ‘worth’ of citizens’ liberties, however, may vary depending upon their wealth. Against Rawls, Cohen contends that an absence of money often can directly constrain citizens’ freedom and not simply its worth. This is because money often can remove legally enforced constraints on what citizens can do. Cohen’s argument – if modified to apply to citizens’ ‘moral (...)
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  34. Rawls's Lexical Orderings Are Good Economics.Robert D. Cooter - 1989 - Economics and Philosophy 5 (1):47-54.
    Basic liberty, according to Rawls's first principle of justice, is not to be sacrificed for other values such as wealth. And, according to his second principle of justice, the material well-being of the worst-off members of society is not to be sacrificed to benefit better-off members of society. These trade-offs would be unjust, according to Rawls, no matter how small the sacrifice or how large the offsetting benefit. A decision-maker conforming to Rawls's theory, who is unwilling to sacrifice some values (...)
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  35. Who Owns What? An Egalitarian Interpretation of John Rawls's Idea of a Property‐Owning Democracy.Thad Williamson - 2009 - Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (3):434-453.
  36. Justice for the Disabled: A Contractualist Approach.Christie Hartley - 2009 - Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (1):17-36.
  37. Maximin Justice, Sacrifice, and the Reciprocity Argument: A Pragmatic Reassessment of the Rawls/Nozick Debate.Stephen W. Ball - 1993 - Utilitas 5 (2):157-184.
    Theories of economic justice are characteristically based on abstract ethical concerns often unrelated to practical distributive results. Two decades ago, Rawls's theory of justice began as a reaction against the alleged ‘sacrifices’ condoned by utilitarian theory. One variant of this objection is that utilitarianism permits gross inequalities, severe deprivations of individual liberty, or even the enslavement of society's least well-off individuals. There are, however, more subtle forms of the objection. In Rawls, it is often waged without any claim that utilitarianismdoesin (...)
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  38. Justice in context: assessing contextualism as an approach to justice.Buckley Michael - 2012 - Ethics and Global Politics 5 (2):71-94.
    Moral and political philosophers are increasingly using empirical data to inform their normative theories. This has sparked renewed interest into questions concerning the relationship between facts and principles. A recent attempt to frame these questions within a broader approach to normative theory comes from David Miller, who has on several occasions defended ‘contextualism’ as the best approach to justice. Miller argues that the context of distribution itself brings one or another political principle into play. This paper examines this claim. It (...)
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  39. Rawls, equality, and democracy.C. Edwin Baker - 2008 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 34 (3):203-246.
    Part I distinguishes epistemic and choice democracy, attributing the first to the Rawls of A Theory of Justice but arguing that the second is more justifiable. Part II argues that in comparison with the difference principle, three principles — equal participation in choice democracy, no subordinating purpose, and a just wants guarantee — constitute a more rational choice in the original position; and that they better provide all the benefits claimed for the difference principle in its comparison with either average (...)
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  40. Review of Robert Paul Wolff: Understanding Rawls: A Reconstruction and Critique of A Theory of Justice[REVIEW]Barry R. Gross - 1978 - Ethics 89 (1):115-120.
  41. A Puzzle about Economic Justice in Rawls’ Theory.Jan Narveson - 1976 - Social Theory and Practice 4 (1):1-27.
  42. Some Comments on Rawls’ Theory of Justice.Norman Bowie - 1974 - Social Theory and Practice 3 (1):65-74.
  43. Utilitarianism versus Rawls.Timothy D. Roche - 1982 - Social Theory and Practice 8 (2):189-212.
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  44. Understanding Rawls; a Reconstruction and Critique of a Theory of Justice. [REVIEW]G. W. - 1977 - Review of Metaphysics 30 (4):778-778.
    According to Wolff, Rawls’ thinking developed through three stages, represented respectively by his article "Justice as Fairness," which appeared in 1958; a second article, "Distributive Justice," published nine years later; and the 1971 book A Theory of Justice. Wolff proceeds, in his "reconstruction and critique," by setting forth his understanding of "the central idea, or key, of Rawls’ work", then tracing the development of the idea from Rawls’ article of 1958 through the "final baroque complexity" of the 1971 book, continuing (...)
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  45. Equal Minds behind the Veil of Ignorance.Speranta Dumitru - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 1:127-135.
    Rawls' original position is a thought experiment by which we are asked to imagine ourselves as rational agents choosing the principles of justice under specific informational and motivational constraints. In this paper, I am concerned only with the informational constraints and I shall argue that the way Rawls designed them reveals an implausible conception of mind and knowledge. This conception, of a mind separable from knowledge, as well as one of its correlates which I will call epistemic egalitarianism, is not (...)
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  46. Can Justice as Fairness Accommodate Diversity?Lara M. Trout - 1994 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 1 (3):39-45.
    The purpose of this paper is to expose a problem of application in John Rawls’ theory of justice. An examination of his treatment of the application of his principles in A Theory of Justice reveals an insensitivity toward the proper representation of minorities and women. This problem, which is rooted in Rawls’ conception of the relevant social position is not properly addressed by him, yet is grounded in inconsistencies which undermine the just practical implementation of his theory. A provisional solution (...)
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  47. John Rawls’ Theory of Social Justice. [REVIEW]John T. Wilcox - 1985 - International Studies in Philosophy 17 (3):85-86.
  48. ‘Perhaps the most important primary good’: self-respect and Rawls’s principles of justice.Nir Eyal - 2005 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 4 (2):195-219.
    The article begins by reconstructing the just distribution of the social bases of self-respect, a principle of justice that is covert in Rawls’s writing. I argue that, for Rawls, justice mandates that each social basis for self-respect be equalized. Curiously, for Rawls, that principle ranks higher than Rawls’s two more famous principles of justice - equal liberty and the difference principle. I then recall Rawls’s well-known confusion between self-respect and another form of self-appraisal, namely, confidence in one’s determinate plans and (...)
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  49. Rawls and Walzer on Non-Domestic Justice.Caroline Walsh - 2007 - Contemporary Political Theory 6 (4):419-436.
    This article illuminates the relationship between John Rawls' and Michael Walzer's accounts of non-domestic justice by tracing its connection to their domestic relationship. More precisely, it places the celebrated positional shifts that characterize the latter within the context of the fundamental justificatory tension between their projects which endures: reason vs trust; and then juxtaposes this justificatory tension and their non-domestic political prescriptions. Such contextualization is important to the clarification of the pair's non-domestic relationship since it enables the observation that despite (...)
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  50. Just democracy: The Rawls-Machiavelli programme, by Philippe Van Parijs.Simon Thompson - 2013 - Contemporary Political Theory 12 (1):e19-e21.
1 — 50 / 457