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Summary

Reformed epistemology is a thesis about the rationality of religious belief. A central claim made by the reformed epistemologist is that religious belief can be rational without any appeal to evidence or argument. One way reformed epistemologists have defended this claim is by comparing belief in God with other beliefs we take to be rational—if the latter set of beliefs can be rational without appeal to evidence or argument, then belief in God can also be rational without appeal to evidence or argument. A more detailed version of this parity argument, offered by Alvin Plantinga, argues that belief in God (like perceptual beliefs) is properly basic. Plantinga argues that humans are endowed with a special cognitive faculty, the sensus divinitatis, which gives rise to belief in God in an immediate and non-inferential fashion when occasioned by some event or experience. In this way, then, belief in God is said to be properly basic and can be warranted without inference from any evidence or argument.

Key works Two of the most important works in reformed epistemology are Plantinga & Wolterstorff 1983 and Plantinga 2000. For a number of essays critical of reformed epistemology see Zagzebski 1993.
Introductions Good introductory articles include Bolos & Scott 2015Bergmann 2012, and van Woudenberg 2008. Beilby 2005 and McNabb 2018 provide a thorough overview of Plantinga's reformed epistemology. For an overview of recent work in reformed epistemology see Moon 2016.
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  1. Problems of Religious Luck, Chapter 2: The New Problem of Religious Luck.Guy Axtell - manuscript
    One main kind of etiological challenge to the well-foundedness of someone’s belief is the consideration that if you had a different education/upbringing, you would very likely accept different beliefs than you actually do. Although a person’s religious identity and attendant religious beliefs are usually the ones singled out as targets of such “contingency” or “epistemic location” arguments, it is clear that a person’s place and time has a conditioning effect in all domains of controversial views, and over all of what (...)
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  2. Problems of Religious Luck, Ch. 5: "Scaling the ‘Brick Wall’: Measuring and Censuring Strongly Fideistic Religious Orientation".Guy Axtell - forthcoming - In Problems of Religious Luck: Assessing the Limits of Reasonable Religious Disagreement.
    This chapter sharpens the book’s criticism of exclusivist responsible to religious multiplicity, firstly through close critical attention to arguments which religious exclusivists provide, and secondly through the introduction of several new, formal arguments / dilemmas. Self-described ‘post-liberals’ like Paul Griffiths bid philosophers to accept exclusivist attitudes and beliefs as just one among other aspects of religious identity. They bid us to normalize the discourse Griffiths refers to as “polemical apologetics,” and to view its acceptance as the only viable form of (...)
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  3. Interpreting the Probabilities in Plantinga’s Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism.Gary Neels - forthcoming - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-13.
    In this paper, I examine Plantinga’s (1993, 2000, 2011) Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism (EAAN). While there has been much discussion about Plantinga’s use of probabilities in the argument, I contend that insufficient attention has been paid to the question of how we are to interpret those probabilities. In this paper, I argue that views Plantinga defends elsewhere limit the range of interpretations available to him here. The upshot is that the EAAN is more limited in its applicability than Plantinga alleges.
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  4. Knowledge and the Fall in American Neo-Calvinism: Toward a Van Til–Plantinga Synthesis.Bálint Békefi - 2022 - Philosophia Reformata 87 (1):27-48.
    Cornelius Van Til and Alvin Plantinga represent two strands of American Protestant philosophical thought influenced by Dutch neo-Calvinism. This paper compares and synthetizes their models of knowledge in non-Christians given the noetic effects of sin and non-Christian worldview commitments. The paper argues that Van Til’s distinction between the partial realization of the antithesis in practice and its absolute nature in principle correlates with Plantinga’s insistence on prima facie–warranted common-sense beliefs and their ultimate defeasibility given certain metaphysical commitments. Van Til endorsed (...)
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  5. Secularism, Reformed Epistemology, and Liturgy: Considering the Liturgy Role in Secular Society.Samuel Vincenzo Jonathan & Albertus Harsawibawa - 2022 - Societas Dei: Jurnal Agama Dan Masyarakat 9 (1):5-28.
    Secularism is a condition of the times when we live in today. It gives awareness to the global community that in reality there is only the immanent—there is no God. So, theism is seen as just one of the many available options: atheism becomes even more attractive to embrace. Generally, a theist will respond by demonstrating the theism plausibility through positive arguments about the existence of God. The author rejects this and offers an approach from Reformed epistemology on the problem, (...)
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  6. Tempo da Decisão e Chamado à Decisão em Yeshua Hamashiach.Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa - 2022 - Chisinau, Moldávia: Novas Edições Acadêmicas/OmniScriptum Publishing Group.
    Detendo-se na pregação ético-escatológica de Jesus, que anuncia o reino de Deus e o tempo da decisão e o chamado à decisão, o Prof. Luiz Carlos Mariano Da Rosa assinala que, escapando à condição de um dever que pressupõe a formação do caráter e o princípio de determinação da comunhão humana, é a exigência do amor que se impõe à pregação escatológica de Jesus e a sua pregação ética e ao conhecimento da vontade de Deus, que implica o dever-ser e (...)
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  7. Islamic Beliefs and Epistemic Defeaters: A Response to Baldwin and McNabb.Nader A. Alsamaani - 2021 - Sophia 8:1-12.
    In this paper, I outline some exegetical and philosophical problems with Baldwin and McNabb’s epistemic defeater for Islamic beliefs. I maintain that their argument is based upon a misinterpretation of Quranic verses. I also argue that exceptional instances of divine deception inflicted upon the senses, if they indeed happen, should not undermine the general trust in our cognitive faculties. I conclude that virtually all Muslims are immune from Baldwin and McNabb’s proposed defeater and from the threat posed by divine deception (...)
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  8. Revisiting Reid on Religion.Todd Buras - 2021 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 19 (3):261-274.
    This paper answers two interpretive questions surrounding belief in God in Thomas Reid’s philosophy, the status question and the detachability question. The former has to do with the type of justification Reid assigns to belief in God – immediate or mediate. The later question is whether anything philosophically significant depends on his belief in God. I argue that, for Reid, belief in God is immediately justified and integral to some parts of his system. Reid’s response to skepticism about God is (...)
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  9. The de Jure Objection Against Belief in Miracles.Gesiel da Silva - 2021 - Manuscrito 44 (4):434-452.
    Alvin Plantinga (1993a, 1993b, 2000) argues that de jure objections to theism depend on de facto objections: in order to say that belief in God is not warranted, one should first assume that this belief is false. Assuming Plantinga’s epistemology and his de facto/de jure distinction, In this essay, I argue that to show that belief in miracles is not warranted, one must suppose that belief in miracles is always false. Therefore, a person who holds a skeptical position regarding miracles (...)
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  10. Divine Hiddenness or de Jure Objections to Theism: You Cannot Have Both.Perry Hendricks - 2021 - Analysis 81 (1):27-32.
    De facto objections to theism purport to show that theism is false, whereas de jure objections to theism claim that, whether or not theism is true, belief in God is irrational. Divine hiddenness – the fact that there are people who non-resistantly lack belief in God – is sometimes used as an argument against theism. In this article I will show that accepting the argument from divine hiddenness carries a high cost: it eliminates all de jure objections to theism. So (...)
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  11. Wolfhart Pannenberg, Openness to the World, and the Sensus Divinitatis.Andrew Hollingsworth - 2021 - Irish Theological Quarterly 86 (3).
    One of the foundational concepts for Wolfhart Pannenberg’s theological anthropology is his notion of ‘openness to the world.’ Openness to the world, according to Pannenberg, is essential to human identity in that one’s identity is established in their openness to the world, to the other, and, ultimately, to God. I aim to bring Pannenberg’s openness to the world into dialogue with the concept of the sensus divinitatis as articulated by John Calvin and further developed by Alvin Plantinga. The question driving (...)
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  12. Circular and question-begging responses to religious disagreement and debunking arguments.Andrew Moon - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (3):785-809.
    Disagreement and debunking arguments threaten religious belief. In this paper, I draw attention to two types of propositions and show how they reveal new ways to respond to debunking arguments and disagreement. The first type of proposition is the epistemically self-promoting proposition, which, when justifiedly believed, gives one a reason to think that one reliably believes it. Such a proposition plays a key role in my argument that some religious believers can permissibly wield an epistemically circular argument in response to (...)
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  13. Against Alvin Plantinga's Reformed Epistemology: The Sufficiency of Evidence for the Belief in God.Alfie Polistico - 2021 - Philosophia: International Journal of Philosophy 22 (2):230-244.
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  14. Pentecostalism, Postmodernism, and Reformed Epistemology: James K. A. Smith and the Contours of a Postmodern Christian Epistemology.Yoon Shin - 2021 - Lexington Books.
    This work critically builds on James K. A. Smith's postmodern Pentecostal epistemology with the aid of Reformed epistemology. The resulting postmodern Christian epistemology retains the central postmodern characteristics of perspectivalism and embodiment while integrating the truth element of Reformed epistemology’s warrant criteria.
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  15. A Will to Believe: Shakespeare and Religion. By David Scott Kastan. Pp. 155, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, $39.95. [REVIEW]Andrea Campana - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (3):544-545.
  16. Reformation Divided: Catholics, Protestants and the Conversion of England [Book Review].Michael E. Daniel - 2020 - The Australasian Catholic Record 97 (1):120.
  17. Does God Intend That Sin Occur? We Affirm.Matthew J. Hart & Daniel J. Hill - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (1):143-171.
    In this paper we discuss the question whether God intends that sin occur. We clarify the question, consider some of the answers given in the Christian tradition, and give a careful commentary on a few especially telling passages from the Christian Scriptures. We consider two philosophically informed interpretative strategies, one derived from the work of Frances Kamm, the other from Reformed scholasticism, against our interpretation of these passages. While we concede that in other passages such interpretations may allow a way (...)
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  18. Gemeinschaft „sub unica Veritatis auctoritate“.Eilert Herms - 2020 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 62 (1):58-100.
    Zusammenfassung Das gegenwärtige Pontifikat betreibt den Ökumenismus pragmatisch und mit ethischem Schwerpunkt. Gleichwohl bleibt die Klärung der Frage nach den fundamentaltheologischen und dogmatischen Fundamenten von Kirchenordnung und Kirchenrecht für die begründete Erklärung von sichtbarer Einheit unabdingbar. Differenzen bestehen hier nicht nur zwischen reformatorischer und römisch-katholischer Theologie, sondern auch innerhalb der letzteren. Sie reichen – das zeigt die systematische Analyse von drei jüngeren römisch-katholischen Veröffentlichungen zum Thema – von unterschiedlichen Vorstellungen über die methodische Fortsetzung des Bemühens um Erreichung eines „differenzierten Konsensen“ (...)
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  19. A Meaning to Life. By Michael Ruse. Pp. Ix, 149, NY, Oxford University Press, 2019, $14.49. [REVIEW]Timb D. Hoswell - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (2):357-358.
    Does human life have any meaning? Does the question even make sense today? For centuries, the question of the meaning or purpose of human life was assumed by scholars and theologians to have a religious answer: life has meaning because humans were made in the image of a good god. In the 19th century, however, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution changed everything-and the human organism was seen to be more machine than spirit. Ever since, with the rise of science and (...)
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  20. Wiara bez świadectw? Wokół Alvina Plantingi krytyki ewidencjalizmu w epistemologii religii.Ewa Odoj - 2020 - Lublin: Towarzystwo Naukowe Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego Jana Pawła II.
    Książka stanowi zebranie i krytyczną analizę rozważań jednego z najwybitniejszych współczesnych filozofów analitycznych – Alvina Plantingi – dotyczących epistemologii przekonań religijnych. W jego ocenie przekonania te mogą być racjonalnie żywione bez posiadania świadectw na ich rzecz, o ile tylko powstały za pomocą odpowiedniej władzy poznawczej. Swoje stanowisko Plantinga przeciwstawia tradycyjnemu poglądowi, który określa mianem ewidencjalizmu. Autorka szczegółowo analizuje twierdzenia i argumentację Plantingi, koncentrując się przy tym na zależności głoszonych tez od przyjętych przez niego rozstrzygnięć z zakresu ogólnej epistemologii. Następnie autorka (...)
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  21. A Brief History of Australian Catholic Youth Ministry-Part II.Christopher Ryan - 2020 - The Australasian Catholic Record 97 (1):30.
    This article continues an historical overview of Australian Catholic youth ministry begun in the previous issue of the 'Australasian Catholic Record'.
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  22. Implikasi The Five Point Of Calvinism (TULIP) Dalam Penginjilan Dan Implementasinya Bagi Cosmic Mission.Made Nopen Supriadi - 2020 - Sesawi 1 (2):64-76.
    Salvation is an important part of the Christian faith. In the acronym, TULIP shows the principle that salvation is certain. A sovereign God saves humans. John Calvin has a soteriological concept that focuses on God's sovereignty. Calvin's soteriological thinking is contained in the TULIP acronym formulation of salvation. At present there are problems with the environment, a great deal of environmental degradation has led to a relational disharmony. Such conditions require responses from people who have been saved so that the (...)
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  23. Problems of Religious Luck: Assessing the Limits of Reasonable Religious Disagreement.Guy Axtell - 2019 - Lanham, MD, USA & London, UK: Lexington Books/Rowman & Littlefield.
    To speak of being religious lucky certainly sounds odd. But then, so does “My faith holds value in God’s plan, while yours does not.” This book argues that these two concerns — with the concept of religious luck and with asymmetric or sharply differential ascriptions of religious value — are inextricably connected. It argues that religious luck attributions can profitably be studied from a number of directions, not just theological, but also social scientific and philosophical. There is a strong tendency (...)
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  24. The New Problem of Religious Luck.Guy Axtell - 2019 - In Ian M. Church & Robert J. Hartman (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy and Psychology of Luck. pp. 436-450.
  25. Australia: The Vatican Museum's Indigenous Collection [Book Review].Brian Lucas - 2019 - The Australasian Catholic Record 96 (2):242.
  26. Da prece como invocação das forças sagradas em Eliade e poder mágico em Mauss à oração como expressão da existência escatológica em Bultmann e superação da alienação existencial em Tillich.Luiz Carlos Mariano Da Rosa - 2019 - Revista Teológica Doxia 4 (7):27-37.
    Sublinhando que a evocação dos acontecimentos que tiveram lugar ab origine converge, segundo a perspectiva mítico-religiosa, para a manifestação das forças sagradas, de acordo com o referencial teórico-conceitual de Eliade, o artigo assinala que tal invocação implica uma correlação de narrativas míticas e gestos e ações paradigmáticas que se destinam a suscitar o poder sagrado e a produção de seus efeitos, ressaltando a prece como poder mágico de exercer influência sobrenatural, como afirma Mauss. Dessa forma, analisando a oração que caracteriza (...)
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  27. Evidence is Required for Religious Belief.Blake McAllister - 2019 - In Michael Peterson & Ray VanArragon (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion, 2nd edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 269-278.
  28. Reforming Reformed Epistemology: A New Take on the Sensus Divinitatis.Blake Mcallister & Trent Dougherty - 2019 - Religious Studies 55 (4):537-557.
    Alvin Plantinga theorizes the existence of a sensus divinitatis – a special cognitive faulty or mechanism dedicated to the production and non-inferential justification of theistic belief. Following Chris Tucker, we offer an evidentialist-friendly model of the sensus divinitatis whereon it produces theistic seemings that non-inferentially justify theistic belief. We suggest that the sensus divinitatis produces these seemings by tacitly grasping support relations between the content of ordinary experiences (in conjunction with our background evidence) and propositions about God. Our model offers (...)
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  29. Knowledge, Belief, and God: New Insights in Religious Epistemology, Edited by Matthew A. Benton, John Hawthorne, and Dani Rabinowitz. [REVIEW]Andrew Moon - 2019 - Faith and Philosophy 36 (1):129-134.
  30. Another World Is Present.Jakob Karl Rinderknecht - 2019 - Philosophy and Theology 31 (1):175-197.
    Contemporary Roman Catholic considerations of church reform are often impeded by the worry that any acknowledgment of systematic or properly ecclesial failure calls Jesus’s promise of the church’s indefectibility into question. This makes honesty about such failure, and therefore true reform, impossible. At best, in this way of thinking, blame can be shifted onto a few “bad apples.” Karl Rahner’s engagement with a quite different problem—how Roman Catholics can account for the fruits of the Spirit in Protestant Ministries—can provide tools (...)
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  31. The Most Profound Spiritual Autobiography of All Time? - a Review of "The Knee of Listening" by Adi Da (Franklin Jones) (1995) (Review Revised 2019).Michael Starks - 2019 - In Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century-- Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization -- Articles and Reviews 2006-2019 4th Edition Michael Starks. Las Vegas: Reality Press. pp. 349-352.
    A brief review of the life and spiritual autobiography of the unique American mystic Adi Da (Franklin Jones). The sticker on the cover of some editions says `The most profound spiritual autobiography of all time` and this might well be true. I am in my 70´s and have read many books by spiritual teachers and on spirituality, and this is one of the greatest. Certainly, it is by far the fullest and clearest account of the process of enlightenment I have (...)
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  32. The Explanatory Challenge: Moral Realism Is No Better Than Theism.Dan Baras - 2018 - European Journal of Philosophy 26 (1):368-389.
    Many of the arguments for and against robust moral realism parallel arguments for and against theism. In this article, I consider one of the shared challenges: the explanatory challenge. The article begins with a presentation of Harman's formulation of the explanatory challenge as applied to moral realism and theism. I then examine two responses offered by robust moral realists to the explanatory challenge, one by Russ Shafer-Landau and another by David Enoch. Shafer-Landau argues that the moral realist can plausibly respond (...)
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  33. Sceptical Theism and the Evil-God Challenge.Perry Hendricks - 2018 - Religious Studies 54 (4):549-561.
    This article is a response to Stephen Law's article ‘The evil-god challenge’. In his article, Law argues that if belief in evil-god is unreasonable, then belief in good-god is unreasonable; that the antecedent is true; and hence so is the consequent. In this article, I show that Law's affirmation of the antecedent is predicated on the problem of good (i.e. the problem of whether an all-evil, all-powerful, and all-knowing God would allow there to be as much good in the world (...)
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  34. Does One Need Evidence for Belief in God?Leyla Hunn - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Warwick
    It is commonly the case that sound, epistemological principles such as basic beliefs immediately become regarded as invalid when applied to theistic contexts. I will show that despite this, there is a strong sense of comparability between beliefs in God with beliefs in non-theistic beings and other commonly-held basic beliefs such as qualities of love and trust. To establish that both the belief in the existence of God and the existence of other beings and non-perceptual qualities are justified as evidence (...)
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  35. Religious Epistemology.Tyler Dalton McNabb - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    If epistemology is roughly the study of knowledge, justification, warrant, and rationality, then religious epistemology is the study of how these epistemic concepts relate to religious belief and practice. This Element, while surveying various religious epistemologies, argues specifically for Plantingian religious epistemology. It makes the case for proper functionalism and Plantinga's AC models, while it also responds to debunking arguments informed by cognitive science of religion. It serves as a bridge between religious epistemology and natural theology.
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  36. Independence and New Ways to Remain Steadfast in the Face of Disagreement.Andrew Moon - 2018 - Episteme 15 (1):65-79.
    An important principle in the epistemology of disagreement is Independence, which states, “In evaluating the epistemic credentials of another’s expressed belief about P, in order to determine how (or whether) to modify my own belief about P, I should do so in a way that doesn’t rely on the reasoning behind my initial belief about P” (Christensen 2011, 1-2). I present a series of new counterexamples to both Independence and also a revised, more widely applicable, version of it. I then (...)
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  37. Cognitive Science of Religion and the Cognitive Consequences of Sin.Rik Peels, Hans Van Eyghen & Gijsbert Van den Brink - 2018 - In Hans Van Eyghen, Rik Peels & Gijsbert Van den Brink (eds.), NewDevelopments in the Cognitive Science of Religion: The Rationality of Religious Belief. Dordrecht: Springer.
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  38. Two Views on Justification: Martin Luther & Jacques Maritain.Scott D. G. Ventureyra - 2018 - Maritain Studies/Etudes Maritainiennes 34 (1):23-38.
    In recognition of the five-hundredth anniversary of the Protestant reformation, I propose to examine a critical issue that is central to the Christian faith; one that has divided Western Christendom ever since. In this paper, I will explore Martin Luther's and Jacque Maritain's position on justification by faith. First, I will outline Luther's view which is more accurately known as sola fide, that is, justification by faith alone. Second, I will outline Maritain's understanding of faith and examine his criticism of (...)
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  39. Acquaintance and the Sublime: An Alternative Account of Theistic Sublime Experience.Thomas Atkinson - 2017 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 82 (2):175-193.
    In this paper I argue that when one has an epiphany of the form ‘God is F’ upon having a sublime experience one can be accurately described as being acquainted with the fact that God is F as opposed to inferring that God is F from the experience at hand. To argue for this, I will, first, outline what a sublime experience is, in general, before outlining what a theistic sublime experience is in particular. Second, I will outline two ways (...)
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  40. Movilidad intergeneracional educativa en zonas urbanas y rurales de Colombia: ¿Igualdad de oportunidades?Concepción García Correa - 2017 - Sophia 13 (1):27-33.
    Este artículo expone los resultados de medición de la movilidad intergeneracional educativa en las zonas urbanas y rurales de Colombia. Utilizando matrices de transición se encontró evidencia de movilidad educativa intergeneracional tanto en las zonas urbanas como rurales de Colombia; no obstante, es más restringida en el caso de las rurales. En efecto, la posibilidad de escalar más niveles educativos se hace mayor para los hijos con padres con mayor educación y se acentúa si éstos pertenecen a las zonas urbanas (...)
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  41. Evidence and Religious Belief, Edited by Kelly James Clark and Raymond J. VanArragon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Ix + 214 Pp. ISBN 13: 978‐0‐19‐960371‐8 Hb £36; Also Available as eBook. [REVIEW]Amber L. Griffioen - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy (1):178-184.
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  42. On the Socratic Injunction to Follow the Argument Where It Leads.Jason Marsh - 2017 - In Paul Draper & J. L. Schellenberg (eds.), Renewing Philosophy of Religion: Exploratory Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 187-207.
    This chapter examines a common objection to the philosophy of religion, namely, that it has not sufficiently embraced the injunction of Socrates to follow the argument where it leads. Although a general version of this charge is unfair, one emerging view in the field, which I call religious Mooreanism, nonetheless risks running contrary to the Socratic injunction. According to this view, many people can quickly, easily, and reasonably deflect all known philosophical challenges to their core religious outlooks, including arguments from (...)
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  43. Epistemic Externalism in the Philosophy of Religion.Baker-Hytch Max - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (4):e12411.
    Epistemic externalism is a view about what it takes for a belief to be epistemically justified or to be an item of knowledge. Externalism has grown considerably in popularity over the past few decades and this development has spilled over into the philosophy of religion, where we find externalist theories of justification and knowledge being employed to make the case for the positive epistemic status of religious beliefs. In §1, I offer an overview of epistemic externalism and its rival, internalism. (...)
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  44. Divine Methodology: A Lawful Deflection of Kantian and Kantian-Esque Defeaters.Tyler Dalton McNabb & Erik Baldwin - 2017 - Open Theology 3:293-304.
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  45. Plantinga’s Religious Epistemology, Skeptical Theism, and Debunking Arguments.Andrew Moon - 2017 - Faith and Philosophy 34 (4):449-470.
    Alvin Plantinga’s religious epistemology has been used to respond to many debunking arguments against theistic belief. However, critics have claimed that Plantinga’s religious epistemology conflicts with skeptical theism, a view often used in response to the problem of evil. If they are correct, then a common way of responding to debunking arguments conflicts with a common way of responding to the problem of evil. In this paper, I examine the critics’ claims and argue that they are right. I then present (...)
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  46. Faith as Extended Knowledge.Kegan J. Shaw - 2017 - Religious Studies:1-19.
    You don’t know that p unless it’s on account of your cognitive abilities that you believe truly that p. Virtue epistemologists think there’s some such ability constraint on knowledge. This looks to be in considerable tension, though, with putative faith- based knowledge. For it can easily seem that when you believe something truly on the basis of faith this isn't because of anything you're competent to do. Rather faith-based beliefs are a product of divine agency. Appearances notwithstanding, I argue in (...)
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  47. Is Knowledge of God a Cognitive Achievement?Anthony Bolos - 2016 - Ratio 29 (2):184-201.
    This essay considers whether reformed epistemology is compatible with the claim that knowledge is a cognitive achievement. It is argued that knowledge of God is not only compatible with a more general achievement claim, but is also compatible with a much stronger achievement claim – namely, the strong achievement thesis where achievements are characterized by the overcoming of some obstacle. With respect to reformed epistemology, then, it is argued that the obstacle that is overcome is an environment that is not (...)
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  48. Mackie Vs Plantinga on the Warrant of Theistic Belief Without Arguments.Domingos Faria - 2016 - Scientia et Fides 4 (1):77.
    My aim in this paper is to critically assess two opposing theses about the epistemology of religious belief. The first one, developed by John Mackie, claims that belief in God can be justified or warranted only if there is a good argument for the existence of God. The second thesis, elaborated by Alvin Plantinga, holds that even if there is no such argument, belief in God can be justified or warranted. I contend that the first thesis is plausibly false, because (...)
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  49. Recent Work in Reformed Epistemology.Andrew Moon - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (12):879-891.
    Reformed epistemology, roughly, is the thesis that religious belief can be rational without argument. After providing some background, I present Plantinga’s defense of reformed epistemology and its influence on religious debunking arguments. I then discuss three objections to Plantinga’s arguments that arise from the following topics: skeptical theism, cognitive science of religion, and basicality. I then show how reformed epistemology has recently been undergirded by a number of epistemological theories, including phenomenal conservatism and virtue epistemology. I end by noting that (...)
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  50. Kevin Diller, Theology’s Epistemological Dilemma: How Karl Barth and Alvin Plantinga Provide a Unified Response.Rik Peels - 2016 - Journal of Analytic Theology 4:421-427.
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