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Summary

Reformed epistemology is a thesis about the rationality of religious belief. A central claim made by the reformed epistemologist is that religious belief can be rational without any appeal to evidence or argument. One way reformed epistemologists have defended this claim is by comparing belief in God with other beliefs we take to be rational—if the latter set of beliefs can be rational without appeal to evidence or argument, then belief in God can also be rational without appeal to evidence or argument. A more detailed version of this parity argument, offered by Alvin Plantinga, argues that belief in God (like perceptual beliefs) is properly basic. Plantinga argues that humans are endowed with a special cognitive faculty, the sensus divinitatis, which gives rise to belief in God in an immediate and non-inferential fashion when occasioned by some event or experience. In this way, then, belief in God is said to be properly basic and can be warranted without inference from any evidence or argument.

Key works Two of the most important works in reformed epistemology are Plantinga & Wolterstorff 1983 and Plantinga 2000. For a number of essays critical of reformed epistemology see Zagzebski 1993.
Introductions Good introductory articles include Bolos & Scott 2015Bergmann 2012, and van Woudenberg 2008. Beilby 2006 and McNabb 2018 provide a thorough overview of Plantinga's reformed epistemology. For an overview of recent work in reformed epistemology see Moon 2016.
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  1. Problems of Religious Luck, Chapter 2: The New Problem of Religious Luck.Guy Axtell - manuscript
    One main kind of etiological challenge to the well-foundedness of someone’s belief is the consideration that if you had a different education/upbringing, you would very likely accept different beliefs than you actually do. Although a person’s religious identity and attendant religious beliefs are usually the ones singled out as targets of such “contingency” or “epistemic location” arguments, it is clear that a person’s place and time has a conditioning effect in all domains of controversial views, and over all of what (...)
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  2. Problems of Religious Luck, Ch. 5: "Scaling the ‘Brick Wall’: Measuring and Censuring Strongly Fideistic Religious Orientation".Guy Axtell - forthcoming - In Problems of Religious Luck: Assessing the Limits of Reasonable Religious Disagreement.
    This chapter sharpens the book’s criticism of exclusivist responsible to religious multiplicity, firstly through close critical attention to arguments which religious exclusivists provide, and secondly through the introduction of several new, formal arguments / dilemmas. Self-described ‘post-liberals’ like Paul Griffiths bid philosophers to accept exclusivist attitudes and beliefs as just one among other aspects of religious identity. They bid us to normalize the discourse Griffiths refers to as “polemical apologetics,” and to view its acceptance as the only viable form of (...)
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  3. Divine Hiddenness or de Jure Objections to Theism: You Cannot Have Both.Perry Hendricks - 2021 - Analysis 81 (1):27-32.
    De facto objections to theism purport to show that theism is false, whereas de jure objections to theism claim that, whether or not theism is true, belief in God is irrational. Divine hiddenness – the fact that there are people who non-resistantly lack belief in God – is sometimes used as an argument against theism. In this article I will show that accepting the argument from divine hiddenness carries a high cost: it eliminates all de jure objections to theism. So (...)
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  4. Circular and question-begging responses to religious disagreement and debunking arguments.Andrew Moon - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (3):785-809.
    Disagreement and debunking arguments threaten religious belief. In this paper, I draw attention to two types of propositions and show how they reveal new ways to respond to debunking arguments and disagreement. The first type of proposition is the epistemically self-promoting proposition, which, when justifiedly believed, gives one a reason to think that one reliably believes it. Such a proposition plays a key role in my argument that some religious believers can permissibly wield an epistemically circular argument in response to (...)
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  5. A Will to Believe: Shakespeare and Religion. By David Scott Kastan. Pp. 155, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, $39.95. [REVIEW]Andrea Campana - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (3):544-545.
  6. Reformation Divided: Catholics, Protestants and the Conversion of England [Book Review].Michael E. Daniel - 2020 - The Australasian Catholic Record 97 (1):120.
  7. Does God Intend That Sin Occur? We Affirm.Matthew J. Hart & Daniel J. Hill - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (1):143-171.
    In this paper we discuss the question whether God intends that sin occur. We clarify the question, consider some of the answers given in the Christian tradition, and give a careful commentary on a few especially telling passages from the Christian Scriptures. We consider two philosophically informed interpretative strategies, one derived from the work of Frances Kamm, the other from Reformed scholasticism, against our interpretation of these passages. While we concede that in other passages such interpretations may allow a way (...)
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  8. Gemeinschaft „sub unica Veritatis auctoritate“.Eilert Herms - 2020 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 62 (1):58-100.
    Zusammenfassung Das gegenwärtige Pontifikat betreibt den Ökumenismus pragmatisch und mit ethischem Schwerpunkt. Gleichwohl bleibt die Klärung der Frage nach den fundamentaltheologischen und dogmatischen Fundamenten von Kirchenordnung und Kirchenrecht für die begründete Erklärung von sichtbarer Einheit unabdingbar. Differenzen bestehen hier nicht nur zwischen reformatorischer und römisch-katholischer Theologie, sondern auch innerhalb der letzteren. Sie reichen – das zeigt die systematische Analyse von drei jüngeren römisch-katholischen Veröffentlichungen zum Thema – von unterschiedlichen Vorstellungen über die methodische Fortsetzung des Bemühens um Erreichung eines „differenzierten Konsensen“ (...)
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  9. A Meaning to Life. By Michael Ruse. Pp. Ix, 149, NY, Oxford University Press, 2019, $14.49. [REVIEW]Timb D. Hoswell - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (2):357-358.
    Does human life have any meaning? Does the question even make sense today? For centuries, the question of the meaning or purpose of human life was assumed by scholars and theologians to have a religious answer: life has meaning because humans were made in the image of a good god. In the 19th century, however, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution changed everything-and the human organism was seen to be more machine than spirit. Ever since, with the rise of science and (...)
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  10. Wiara bez świadectw? Wokół Alvina Plantingi krytyki ewidencjalizmu w epistemologii religii.Ewa Odoj - 2020 - Lublin: Towarzystwo Naukowe Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego Jana Pawła II.
    Książka stanowi zebranie i krytyczną analizę rozważań jednego z najwybitniejszych współczesnych filozofów analitycznych – Alvina Plantingi – dotyczących epistemologii przekonań religijnych. W jego ocenie przekonania te mogą być racjonalnie żywione bez posiadania świadectw na ich rzecz, o ile tylko powstały za pomocą odpowiedniej władzy poznawczej. Swoje stanowisko Plantinga przeciwstawia tradycyjnemu poglądowi, który określa mianem ewidencjalizmu. Autorka szczegółowo analizuje twierdzenia i argumentację Plantingi, koncentrując się przy tym na zależności głoszonych tez od przyjętych przez niego rozstrzygnięć z zakresu ogólnej epistemologii. Następnie autorka (...)
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  11. A Brief History of Australian Catholic Youth Ministry-Part II.Christopher Ryan - 2020 - The Australasian Catholic Record 97 (1):30.
    This article continues an historical overview of Australian Catholic youth ministry begun in the previous issue of the 'Australasian Catholic Record'.
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  12. Implikasi The Five Point Of Calvinism (TULIP) Dalam Penginjilan Dan Implementasinya Bagi Cosmic Mission.Made Nopen Supriadi - 2020 - Sesawi 1 (2):64-76.
    Salvation is an important part of the Christian faith. In the acronym, TULIP shows the principle that salvation is certain. A sovereign God saves humans. John Calvin has a soteriological concept that focuses on God's sovereignty. Calvin's soteriological thinking is contained in the TULIP acronym formulation of salvation. At present there are problems with the environment, a great deal of environmental degradation has led to a relational disharmony. Such conditions require responses from people who have been saved so that the (...)
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  13. Problems of Religious Luck: Assessing the Limits of Reasonable Religious Disagreement.Guy Axtell - 2019 - Lanham, MD, USA & London, UK: Lexington Books/Rowman & Littlefield.
    To speak of being religious lucky certainly sounds odd. But then, so does “My faith holds value in God’s plan, while yours does not.” This book argues that these two concerns — with the concept of religious luck and with asymmetric or sharply differential ascriptions of religious value — are inextricably connected. It argues that religious luck attributions can profitably be studied from a number of directions, not just theological, but also social scientific and philosophical. There is a strong tendency (...)
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  14. Australia: The Vatican Museum's Indigenous Collection [Book Review].Brian Lucas - 2019 - The Australasian Catholic Record 96 (2):242.
  15. Evidence is Required for Religious Belief.Blake McAllister - 2019 - In Michael Peterson & Ray VanArragon (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion, 2nd edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 269-278.
  16. Reforming Reformed Epistemology: A New Take on the Sensus Divinitatis.Blake Mcallister & Trent Dougherty - 2019 - Religious Studies 55 (4):537-557.
    Alvin Plantinga theorizes the existence of a sensus divinitatis – a special cognitive faulty or mechanism dedicated to the production and non-inferential justification of theistic belief. Following Chris Tucker, we offer an evidentialist-friendly model of the sensus divinitatis whereon it produces theistic seemings that non-inferentially justify theistic belief. We suggest that the sensus divinitatis produces these seemings by tacitly grasping support relations between the content of ordinary experiences (in conjunction with our background evidence) and propositions about God. Our model offers (...)
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  17. Knowledge, Belief, and God: New Insights in Religious Epistemology, Edited by Matthew A. Benton, John Hawthorne, and Dani Rabinowitz. [REVIEW]Andrew Moon - 2019 - Faith and Philosophy 36 (1):129-134.
  18. Another World Is Present.Jakob Karl Rinderknecht - 2019 - Philosophy and Theology 31 (1):175-197.
    Contemporary Roman Catholic considerations of church reform are often impeded by the worry that any acknowledgment of systematic or properly ecclesial failure calls Jesus’s promise of the church’s indefectibility into question. This makes honesty about such failure, and therefore true reform, impossible. At best, in this way of thinking, blame can be shifted onto a few “bad apples.” Karl Rahner’s engagement with a quite different problem—how Roman Catholics can account for the fruits of the Spirit in Protestant Ministries—can provide tools (...)
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  19. The Most Profound Spiritual Autobiography of All Time? - a Review of "The Knee of Listening" by Adi Da (Franklin Jones) (1995) (Review Revised 2019).Michael Starks - 2019 - In Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century-- Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization -- Articles and Reviews 2006-2019 4th Edition Michael Starks. Las Vegas: Reality Press. pp. 349-352.
    A brief review of the life and spiritual autobiography of the unique American mystic Adi Da (Franklin Jones). The sticker on the cover of some editions says `The most profound spiritual autobiography of all time` and this might well be true. I am in my 70´s and have read many books by spiritual teachers and on spirituality, and this is one of the greatest. Certainly, it is by far the fullest and clearest account of the process of enlightenment I have (...)
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  20. The Explanatory Challenge: Moral Realism Is No Better Than Theism.Dan Baras - 2018 - European Journal of Philosophy 26 (1):368-389.
    Many of the arguments for and against robust moral realism parallel arguments for and against theism. In this article, I consider one of the shared challenges: the explanatory challenge. The article begins with a presentation of Harman's formulation of the explanatory challenge as applied to moral realism and theism. I then examine two responses offered by robust moral realists to the explanatory challenge, one by Russ Shafer-Landau and another by David Enoch. Shafer-Landau argues that the moral realist can plausibly respond (...)
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  21. Sceptical Theism and the Evil-God Challenge.Perry Hendricks - 2018 - Religious Studies 54 (4):549-561.
    This article is a response to Stephen Law's article ‘The evil-god challenge’. In his article, Law argues that if belief in evil-god is unreasonable, then belief in good-god is unreasonable; that the antecedent is true; and hence so is the consequent. In this article, I show that Law's affirmation of the antecedent is predicated on the problem of good (i.e. the problem of whether an all-evil, all-powerful, and all-knowing God would allow there to be as much good in the world (...)
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  22. Does One Need Evidence for Belief in God?Leyla Hunn - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Warwick
    It is commonly the case that sound, epistemological principles such as basic beliefs immediately become regarded as invalid when applied to theistic contexts. I will show that despite this, there is a strong sense of comparability between beliefs in God with beliefs in non-theistic beings and other commonly-held basic beliefs such as qualities of love and trust. To establish that both the belief in the existence of God and the existence of other beings and non-perceptual qualities are justified as evidence (...)
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  23. Religious Epistemology.Tyler Dalton McNabb - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    If epistemology is roughly the study of knowledge, justification, warrant, and rationality, then religious epistemology is the study of how these epistemic concepts relate to religious belief and practice. This Element, while surveying various religious epistemologies, argues specifically for Plantingian religious epistemology. It makes the case for proper functionalism and Plantinga's AC models, while it also responds to debunking arguments informed by cognitive science of religion. It serves as a bridge between religious epistemology and natural theology.
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  24. Independence and New Ways to Remain Steadfast in the Face of Disagreement.Andrew Moon - 2018 - Episteme 15 (1):65-79.
    An important principle in the epistemology of disagreement is Independence, which states, “In evaluating the epistemic credentials of another’s expressed belief about P, in order to determine how (or whether) to modify my own belief about P, I should do so in a way that doesn’t rely on the reasoning behind my initial belief about P” (Christensen 2011, 1-2). I present a series of new counterexamples to both Independence and also a revised, more widely applicable, version of it. I then (...)
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  25. Cognitive Science of Religion and the Cognitive Consequences of Sin.Rik Peels, Hans Van Eyghen & Gijsbert Van den Brink - 2018 - In Hans Van Eyghen, Rik Peels & Gijsbert Van den Brink (eds.), NewDevelopments in the Cognitive Science of Religion: The Rationality of Religious Belief. Dordrecht: Springer.
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  26. Acquaintance and the Sublime: An Alternative Account of Theistic Sublime Experience.Thomas Atkinson - 2017 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 82 (2):175-193.
    In this paper I argue that when one has an epiphany of the form ‘God is F’ upon having a sublime experience one can be accurately described as being acquainted with the fact that God is F as opposed to inferring that God is F from the experience at hand. To argue for this, I will, first, outline what a sublime experience is, in general, before outlining what a theistic sublime experience is in particular. Second, I will outline two ways (...)
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  27. Movilidad intergeneracional educativa en zonas urbanas y rurales de Colombia: ¿Igualdad de oportunidades?Concepción García Correa - 2017 - Sophia 13 (1):27-33.
    Este artículo expone los resultados de medición de la movilidad intergeneracional educativa en las zonas urbanas y rurales de Colombia. Utilizando matrices de transición se encontró evidencia de movilidad educativa intergeneracional tanto en las zonas urbanas como rurales de Colombia; no obstante, es más restringida en el caso de las rurales. En efecto, la posibilidad de escalar más niveles educativos se hace mayor para los hijos con padres con mayor educación y se acentúa si éstos pertenecen a las zonas urbanas (...)
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  28. Evidence and Religious Belief, Edited by Kelly James Clark and Raymond J. VanArragon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Ix + 214 Pp. ISBN 13: 978‐0‐19‐960371‐8 Hb £36; Also Available as eBook. [REVIEW]Amber L. Griffioen - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy (1):178-184.
  29. On the Socratic Injunction to Follow the Argument Where It Leads.Jason Marsh - 2017 - In Paul Draper & J. L. Schellenberg (eds.), Renewing Philosophy of Religion: Exploratory Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 187-207.
    This chapter examines a common objection to the philosophy of religion, namely, that it has not sufficiently embraced the injunction of Socrates to follow the argument where it leads. Although a general version of this charge is unfair, one emerging view in the field, which I call religious Mooreanism, nonetheless risks running contrary to the Socratic injunction. According to this view, many people can quickly, easily, and reasonably deflect all known philosophical challenges to their core religious outlooks, including arguments from (...)
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  30. Epistemic Externalism in the Philosophy of Religion.Baker-Hytch Max - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (4):e12411.
    Epistemic externalism is a view about what it takes for a belief to be epistemically justified or to be an item of knowledge. Externalism has grown considerably in popularity over the past few decades and this development has spilled over into the philosophy of religion, where we find externalist theories of justification and knowledge being employed to make the case for the positive epistemic status of religious beliefs. In §1, I offer an overview of epistemic externalism and its rival, internalism. (...)
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  31. Divine Methodology: A Lawful Deflection of Kantian and Kantian-Esque Defeaters.Tyler Dalton McNabb & Erik Baldwin - 2017 - Open Theology 3:293-304.
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  32. Plantinga’s Religious Epistemology, Skeptical Theism, and Debunking Arguments.Andrew Moon - 2017 - Faith and Philosophy 34 (4):449-470.
    Alvin Plantinga’s religious epistemology has been used to respond to many debunking arguments against theistic belief. However, critics have claimed that Plantinga’s religious epistemology conflicts with skeptical theism, a view often used in response to the problem of evil. If they are correct, then a common way of responding to debunking arguments conflicts with a common way of responding to the problem of evil. In this paper, I examine the critics’ claims and argue that they are right. I then present (...)
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  33. Faith as Extended Knowledge.Kegan J. Shaw - 2017 - Religious Studies:1-19.
    You don’t know that p unless it’s on account of your cognitive abilities that you believe truly that p. Virtue epistemologists think there’s some such ability constraint on knowledge. This looks to be in considerable tension, though, with putative faith- based knowledge. For it can easily seem that when you believe something truly on the basis of faith this isn't because of anything you're competent to do. Rather faith-based beliefs are a product of divine agency. Appearances notwithstanding, I argue in (...)
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  34. Is Knowledge of God a Cognitive Achievement?Anthony Bolos - 2016 - Ratio 29 (2):184-201.
    This essay considers whether reformed epistemology is compatible with the claim that knowledge is a cognitive achievement. It is argued that knowledge of God is not only compatible with a more general achievement claim, but is also compatible with a much stronger achievement claim – namely, the strong achievement thesis where achievements are characterized by the overcoming of some obstacle. With respect to reformed epistemology, then, it is argued that the obstacle that is overcome is an environment that is not (...)
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  35. Mackie Vs Plantinga on the Warrant of Theistic Belief Without Arguments.Domingos Faria - 2016 - Scientia et Fides 4 (1):77.
    My aim in this paper is to critically assess two opposing theses about the epistemology of religious belief. The first one, developed by John Mackie, claims that belief in God can be justified or warranted only if there is a good argument for the existence of God. The second thesis, elaborated by Alvin Plantinga, holds that even if there is no such argument, belief in God can be justified or warranted. I contend that the first thesis is plausibly false, because (...)
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  36. Recent Work in Reformed Epistemology.Andrew Moon - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (12):879-891.
    Reformed epistemology, roughly, is the thesis that religious belief can be rational without argument. After providing some background, I present Plantinga’s defense of reformed epistemology and its influence on religious debunking arguments. I then discuss three objections to Plantinga’s arguments that arise from the following topics: skeptical theism, cognitive science of religion, and basicality. I then show how reformed epistemology has recently been undergirded by a number of epistemological theories, including phenomenal conservatism and virtue epistemology. I end by noting that (...)
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  37. Kevin Diller, Theology’s Epistemological Dilemma: How Karl Barth and Alvin Plantinga Provide a Unified Response.Rik Peels - 2016 - Journal of Analytic Theology 4:421-427.
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  38. Religious Belief is Not Natural. Why Cognitive Science of Religion Does Not Show That Religious Belief is Rational.Hans Van Eyghen - 2016 - Studia Humana 5 (4):34-44.
    It is widely acknowledged that the new emerging discipline cognitive science of religion has a bearing on how to think about the epistemic status of religious beliefs. Both defenders and opponents of the rationality of religious belief have used cognitive theories of religion to argue for their point. This paper will look at the defender-side of the debate. I will discuss an often used argument in favor of the trustworthiness of religious beliefs, stating that cognitive science of religion shows that (...)
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  39. There Is No Sensus Divinitatis.Hans van Eyghen - 2016 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 15 (45):24-40.
    Inspired by Alvin Plantinga, many philosophers of religion accept the existence of a sensus divinitatis, a cognitive mechanism that produces religious beliefs. In this paper I will argue that there are no good reasons to accept the existence of a sensus divinitatis and hence its existence should not be affirmed. Plantinga gives two arguments for its existence, one empirical and one from the nature of God. I will argue that the first argument fails because God’s nature makes it more likely (...)
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  40. Christianity and Religious Diversity: Clarifying Christian Commitments in a Globalizing Age. [REVIEW]Paul D. Adams - 2015 - Philosophia Christi 17 (1):230-235.
    This is a sweeping treatment of navigating the difficulties of engaging a religiously pluralistic culture and offers sage and compassionate advice from one of the leading Christian thinkers today. His special treatment of Buddhism is engaging and should be carefully considered by all. Whether believer, nonbeliever, or none, this book engages all readership with careful research and deserves a wide audience.
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  41. An Epistemic Defeater for Islamic Belief?Erik Baldwin & Tyler McNabb - 2015 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 76 (4):352-367.
    We aim to further develop and evaluate the prospects of a uniquely Islamic extension of the Standard Aquinas/Calvin model. One obstacle is that certain Qur’an passages such as Surah 8:43–44 apparently suggest that Muslims have reason to think that Allah might be deceiving them. Consistent with perfect/maximally good being theology, Allah would allow such deceptions only if doing so leads to a greater good, so such passages do not necessarily give Muslims reason to doubt Allah’s goodness. Yet the possibility of (...)
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  42. Reformed Epistemology.Anthony Bolos & Kyle Scott - 2015 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    An introduction to Reformed Epistemology.
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  43. 50 Years of Gettier: A New Direction in Religious Epistemology?Ian Michael Church - 2015 - Journal of Analytic Theology 3:147-171.
    In this paper, I lend credence to the move toward non-reductive religious epistemology by highlighting the systematic failings of Alvin Plantinga’s seminal, religious epistemology when it comes to surmounting the Gettier Problem. Taking Plantinga’s account as archetypal, I argue that we have systematic reasons to believe that no reductive theory of knowledge can viably surmount the Gettier Problem, that the future of religious epistemology lies in non-reductive models of knowledge.
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  44. Alvin Plantinga and Thomas Aquinas on Theism and Christianity.Roberto Di Ceglie - 2015 - Philosophy and Theology 27 (1):235-252.
    According to Plantinga, both the theistic and the Christian belief can be affirmed basically, namely, without proofs. Such a position—he tells us—traces back to Aquinas and Calvin. Here I intend to revisit Plantinga’s view of the relation between his own position and Aquinas’s. I shall argue that the type of harmony the Reformed philosopher believes to have with Aquinas is only partially present, and that there is a different type of affinity between the two thinkers—though Plantinga is not aware of (...)
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  45. Responses to Evidentialism in Contemporary Religious Epistemology: Plantinga and Swinburne in Conversation with Aquinas.Edmond Eh - 2015 - GSTF Journal of General Philosophy 1 (2):33-41.
    In contemporary debates in religious epistemology, theistic philosophers provide differing responses to the evidentialist argument against religious beliefs. Plantinga’s strategy is to argue that evidence is not needed to justify religious beliefs while Swinburne’s strategy is to argue that religious beliefs can be justified by evidence. However, in Aquinas’ account of religious epistemology, he seems to employ both strategies. In his account of religious knowledge by faith, he argues that evidence is unnecessary for religious beliefs. But in his account of (...)
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  46. Haverá uma viável objeção de jure à crença teísta?Domingos Faria - 2015 - Evista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade Do Porto – Série de Filosofia 32.
    In this paper I want to dispute Plantinga’s claim that there is no viable de jure objection to theistic belief that does not presuppose that such belief is false. So, contrary to Plantinga, I argue that there is at least one viable de jure objection, i.e., an objection to justification or warrant of theistic belief which does not previously depend nor presuppose the falsehood of theism.
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  47. Será procedente o argumento de Plantinga contra o naturalismo metafísico?Domingos Faria - 2015 - Princípios: Revista de Filosofia 22 (39):121-139.
    O naturalismo metafísico é a perspetiva de que não há uma pessoa como Deus, nem algo semelhante a Deus. Alvin Plantinga tem argumentado que esta perspetiva é auto-refutante e, por isso, irracional. Isto porque se o naturalismo metafísico fosse verdadeiro (em conjunção com a teoria da evolução), então teríamos fortes razões para duvidar da fiabilidade das nossas faculdades cognitivas e, por conseguinte, teríamos fortes razões para duvidar da verdade de qualquer das nossas crenças, inclusive do naturalismo metafísico. O meu objetivo (...)
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  48. The Rationality of Religious Beliefs.Bryan Frances - 2015 - Think 14 (40):109-117.
    Many highly educated people think religious belief is irrational and unscientific. If you ask a philosopher, however, you'll likely get two answers: most religious belief is rational in some respects and irrational in other respects. In this essay I explain why they think religious belief is rational. In a sequel essay I explain why they think the very same beliefs are irrational.
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  49. An Epistemological Turn in Contemporary Islamic Reform Discourse.Shadi Heydar - 2015 - Confluence 3 (1):215-239.
    Abdolkarim Soroush’s thought is regarded by some researchers as a turning point in contemporary Islamic reform discourse. This article concerns Soroush’s epistemology as a determining factor in this paradigm shift and interprets this shift as an epistemological turn in Islamic reform discourse, shifting from ›Islamic genealogy of modernity‹ to rationalization of Islamic methodology. After a short introduction to Soroush’s intellectual biography, this article will isolate neorationalism or neo-Mu’tazilism, religious post-positivism, historicism, hermeneutics, and dialogism as main features of Soroush’s epistemology. This (...)
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  50. Cosmology, Logic, and Judaeo‐Christian Belief.James Higgins - 2015 - Heythrop Journal 56 (1):99-107.
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