Relations

Edited by Elle Benjamin (University of Massachusetts, Amherst)
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  1. added 2020-05-08
    Frédéric Nef, L'Anti-Hume: De la logique des relations à la métaphysique des connexions, Paris: Librairie philosophique J. Vrin, 2017. [REVIEW]Frédéric Tremblay - 2020 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 106 (2):289-295.
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  2. added 2020-04-02
    A Platonic Theory of Truthmaking.Scott Berman - 2013 - Metaphysica 14 (1):109-125.
    A Platonic explanation of non-modal and modal truths is explained and defended using non-spatiotemporal entities as their truthmakers. It is argued, further, that this theory is parsimonious, naturalistic, and ontologically serious. These features should commend the view to a wide swath of philosophers.
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  3. added 2020-03-27
    Ontology in Heidegger and Deleuze: A Comparative Analysis.Gavin Rae - 2014 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Prince of Networks is the rst treatment of Bruno Latour speci cally as a philosopher. Part One covers four key works that display Latour’s underrated contributions to metaphysics: Irreductions, Science in Action, We Have Never Been Modern, and Pandora’s Hope. Harman contends that Latour is one of the central gures of contemporary philosophy, with a highly original ontology centred in four key concepts: actants, irreduction, translation, and alliance.
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  4. added 2020-03-24
    The Umwelt of Uexküll and Merleau-Ponty.Agustin Ostachuk - 2013 - Ludus Vitalis 21 (39):45-65.
    The organism against its environment. The organism against other organisms, competing and struggling for life. Antagonism and confrontment as the only possible relation in nature. The tendency to anthropomorphize nature and explain it using concepts and facts from the human sphere. A stroll through the worlds of Uexküll and Merleau-Ponty in the search of alternative knowledge that allow us to understand relation from another point of view. A counterpoint and identification of common tonalities between the research programs from both thinkers (...)
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  5. added 2020-03-17
    Non-Symmetric Relations.Cian Dorr - 2004 - In Dean Zimmerman (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaphysics Volume 1. Oxford University Press. pp. 155-92.
    Presupposing that most predicates do not correspond directly to genuine relations, I argue that all genuine relations are symmetric. My main argument depends on the premise that there are no brute necessities, interpreted so as to require logical and metaphysical necessity to coincide for sentences composed entirely of logical vocabulary and primitive predicates. Given this premise, any set of purportedly primitive predicates by which one might hope to express the facts about non-symmetric relations order their relata will generate an objectionable (...)
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  6. added 2020-03-09
    Integrated-Structure Emergence and its Mechanistic Explanation.Gil Santos - forthcoming - Synthese:1-25.
    This paper proposes an integrated-structure notion of interlevel emergence, from a dynamic relational ontological perspective. First, I will argue that only the individualist essentialism of atomistic metaphysics can block the possibility of interlevel emergence. Then I will show that we can make sense of emergence by recognizing the formation of structures of transformative and interdependent causal relations in the generation and development of a particular class of mereological complexes called integrated systems. Finally, I shall argue that even though the emergent (...)
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  7. added 2020-03-03
    Argumentative Strategies Against Bradley’s Regress.Joshua Woo - unknown
    In this paper I will examine the infinite regress arguments pertaining to the unreality of relations that are presented in Francis Herbert Bradley’s paper, Appearance and Reality. Then I will suggest two argumentative strategies one can take to undermine Bradley’s regress argument. The first option concerns plainly rejecting the regress by stating that Bradley is viewing relations as kinds of objects that are in need of being related, whereas the second option is in regards to adopting an existential-dependence view between (...)
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  8. added 2020-02-23
    The Age of Trickery.Ghislain Guigon - manuscript
    This is partly fictional. It is chiefly a reconstruction (not always faithful) of Hume’s fundamental uses of notions of similarity, mostly based on Enquiry. It is the first part (out of four) of a monograph on the evolution of similarity toolmaking. Histories of doctrines are common in our discipline, not so for histories of tools; this is what it’s about. What’s disturbing: I write as if I were talking about the customs and beliefs of ancient tribes instead of real philosophers. (...)
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  9. added 2020-02-23
    The Metaphysics of Resemblance.Ghislain Guigon - 2009 - Dissertation, University of Geneva
    The topic of this study is the resemblance of individuals. The underlying contention of this dissertation is that the resemblance of individuals is a taxing and challenging philosophical topic. Two main claims are defended in this study to support this contention. The first of these claims is that resemblance is not a binary relation but a monadic multigrade property. The second of these claims is that the metaphysics of resemblance and the metaphysics of properties are distinct, although not independent, philosophical (...)
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  10. added 2020-02-19
    Emergence and Structural Properties.Michele Paolini Paoletti - 2020 - Synthese:1-24.
    I present in this article a new theory of structural properties or, more precisely, of structural kinds, such as being methane. According to this theory, structural kinds are kinds that are both emergent and sustained in their existence. In the first section, I introduce structural properties and four problems that affect the most widely held conception of them, namely, the pictorial conception. In the second section, I introduce some theses about emergence, powers, emergent powers, relations and structures that I have (...)
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  11. added 2020-02-19
    The Organism and its Umwelt: A Counterpoint Between the Theories of Uexküll, Goldstein and Canguilhem.Agustin Ostachuk - 2019 - In Jakob von Uexküll and Philosophy: Life, Environments, Anthropology. Londres, Reino Unido: pp. 158-171.
    The topic of the relationship between the organism and its environment runs through the theories of Uexküll, Goldstein and Canguilhem with equal importance. In this work a counterpoint will be established between their theories, in the attempt to assess at which points the melodies are concordant and at which points they are discordant. As fundamental basis to his theory, Uexküll relies on the concept of conformity to a plan, which allows him to account for the congruity and perfect adjustment between (...)
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  12. added 2020-02-03
    Measures of Similarity.Karin Enflo - 2020 - Theoria 86 (1):73-99.
    This article analyses the relationship between the concept of single aspect similarity and proposed measures of similarity. More precisely, it compares eleven measures of similarity in terms of how well they satisfy a list of desiderata, chosen to capture common intuitions concerning the properties of similarity and the relations between similarity and dissimilarity. Three types of measures are discussed: similarity as commonality, similarity as a function of dissimilarity, and similarity as a joint function of commonality and difference. Relative to the (...)
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  13. added 2019-12-06
    Relative Positionalism and Variable Arity Relations.T. Scott Dixon - 2019 - Metaphysics 2 (1):55-72.
    Maureen Donnelly’s (2016) relative positionalism correctly handles any fixed arity relation with any symmetry such a relation can have, yielding the intuitively correct way(s) in which that relation can apply. And it supplies an explanation of what is going on in the world that makes this the case. But it has at least one potential shortcoming — one that its opponents are likely to seize upon: it can only handle relations with fixed arities. It is unable to handle relations with (...)
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  14. added 2019-11-23
    Absurd Relations.Jacob Fox - 2019 - Human Affairs 29 (4):387-394.
    Absurdist accounts of life’s meaning posit that life is absurd because our pretensions regarding its meaning conflict with the actual or perceived reality of the situation. Relationary accounts posit that contingent things gain their meaning only from their relationship to other meaningful things. I take a detailed look at the two types of account, and, proceeding under the assumption that they are correct, combine them to see what the implications of such a combination might be. I conclude that another way (...)
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  15. added 2019-09-04
    Lowe’s Eliminativism About Relations and the Analysis of Relational Inherence.Markku Keinänen - forthcoming - In Jonathan Lowe and Ontology.
    Contrary to widely shared opinion in analytic metaphysics, E.J. Lowe argues against the existence of relations in his posthumously published paper There are probably no relations (2016). In this article, I assess Lowe’s eliminativist strategy, which aims to show that all contingent “relational facts” have a monadic foundation in modes characterizing objects. Second, I present two difficult ontological problems supporting eliminativism about relations. Against eliminativism, metaphysicians of science have argued that relations might well be needed in the best a posteriori (...)
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  16. added 2019-06-06
    The Universe As We Find It. By John Heil. [REVIEW]Nicholas K. Jones - 2013 - Philosophical Quarterly 63 (253):839-841.
    This is a review of John Heil's "The Universe as We Find It".
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  17. added 2019-06-06
    I—Relations And Truthmaking.Peter Simons - 2010 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 84 (1):199-213.
    The metaphysics of relations is still in its infancy. We use the idea of truthmaking to gain purchase on this metaphysics. Assuming a modest supervenience conception of truthmaking, where true relational predications require multiply dependent truthmakers, these are indispensable relations. Though some such relations are required, none are needed for internal relatedness, nor for several other kinds of relational predication. Discerning the metaphysically basic kinds of relations is fraught with uncertainties, but must be tackled if progress is to be made.
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  18. added 2019-06-06
    Relations Without Polyadic Properties: Albert the Great On the Nature and Ontological Status of Relations.Jeffrey E. Brower - 2001 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 83 (3):225-257.
    I think it would be fair to say that, until about 1900, philosophers were generally reluctant to admit the existence of what are nowadays called polyadic properties.1 It is important to recognize, however, that this reluctance on the part of pre-twentieth-century philosophers did not prevent them from theorizing about relations. On the contrary, philosophers from the ancient through the modern period have had much to say about both the nature and the ontological status of relations. In this paper I examine (...)
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  19. added 2019-06-06
    Professor Blanshard, Causality, and Internal Relations: Some Perspectives.Robert A. Oakes - 1971 - Idealistic Studies 1 (2):172-178.
    Regardless of one’s philosophical sympathies, Professor Brand Blanshard is surely to be respected for the acuity with which he has resisted the onslaught of the “analytic” movement in America. As pointed out by Professor Bruce Aune, “For the past sixty years, the emphasis of Anglo-Saxon philosophy has been analytical rather than speculative. Mr. Blanshard has persistently opposed this emphasis….” Predictably, Aune goes on to convey his opposition to Blanshard’s speculative aim, indicating that he remains “unmoved by the doctrine of internal (...)
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  20. added 2019-06-06
    X.—Symposium: The Nature of the State in View of its External Relations.C. Delisle Burns, Bertrand Russell & G. D. H. Cole - 1915 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 16 (1):290-325.
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  21. added 2019-06-06
    Symposium: The Nature of the State in View of its External Relations.C. Delisle Burns - 1915 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 16:290.
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  22. added 2019-06-06
    The Principles of Mathematics.Bertrand Russell - 1903 - Allen & Unwin.
    Published in 1903, this book was the first comprehensive treatise on the logical foundations of mathematics written in English. It sets forth, as far as possible without mathematical and logical symbolism, the grounds in favour of the view that mathematics and logic are identical. It proposes simply that what is commonly called mathematics are merely later deductions from logical premises. It provided the thesis for which _Principia Mathematica_ provided the detailed proof, and introduced the work of Frege to a wider (...)
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  23. added 2019-05-07
    Estructura.Axel Barceló - 2018 - Enciclopedia de Filosofía SEFA.
    1. La estructura como problema filosófico 2. Teorías metafísicas de la estructura 2.1. La concepción intrínseca de la estructura 2.2. Como parte sui-generis 2.3. La concepción extrínseca de la estructura 3. Conclusiones Referencias.
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  24. added 2019-04-07
    Plural Slot Theory.T. Scott Dixon - 2018 - In Karen Bennett & Dean Zimmerman (eds.), Oxford Studies in Metaphysics Volume 11. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 193-223.
    Kit Fine (2000) breaks with tradition, arguing that, pace Russell (e.g., 1903: 228), relations have neither directions nor converses. He considers two ways to conceive of these new "neutral" relations, positionalism and anti-positionalism, and argues that the latter should be preferred to the former. Cody Gilmore (2013) argues for a generalization of positionalism, slot theory, the view that a property or relation is n-adic if and only if there are exactly n slots in it, and (very roughly) that each slot (...)
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  25. added 2019-03-25
    Les origines antiques de la relation: Naissance et développements de la notion chez Les philosophes anciens.Matthieu Raffray - 2012 - Revue Thomiste 112 (3):419-465.
    Origines antiques de la notion de relation : usages de la relation chez Platon, Aristote, les stoïciens. Le problème de la transmission des textes d'Aristote et de leur interprétation.
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  26. added 2019-03-20
    Kinds of Tropes Without Kinds.Markku Keinänen, Jani Hakkarainen & Antti Keskinen - 2018 - Dialectica 72 (4):571-596.
    In this article, we propose a new trope nominalist conception of determinate and determinable kinds of quantitative tropes. The conception is developed as follows. First, we formulate a new account of tropes falling under the same determinates and determinables in terms of internal relations of proportion and order. Our account is a considerable improvement on the current standard account (Campbell 1990; Maurin 2002; Simons 2003) because it does not rely on primitive internal relations of exact similarity or quantitative distance. The (...)
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  27. added 2019-03-07
    Ontological Emergence: How is That Possible? Towards a New Relational Ontology.Gil C. Santos - 2015 - Foundations of Science 20 (4):429-446.
    In this article I address the issue of the ontological conditions of possibility for a naturalistic notion of emergence, trying to determine its fundamental differences from the atomist, vitalist, preformationist and potentialist alternatives. I will argue that a naturalistic notion of ontological emergence can only succeed if we explicitly refuse the atomistic fundamental ontological postulate that asserts that every entity is endowed with a set of absolutely intrinsic properties, being qualitatively immutable through its extrinsic relations. Furthermore, it will be shown (...)
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  28. added 2019-03-07
    Upward and Downward Causation From a Relational-Horizontal Ontological Perspective.Gil Santos - 2015 - Axiomathes 25 (1):23-40.
    Downward causation exercised by emergent properties of wholes upon their lower-level constituents’ properties has been accused of conceptual and metaphysical incoherence. Only upward causation is usually peacefully accepted. The aim of this paper is to criticize and refuse the traditional hierarchical-vertical way of conceiving both types of causation, although preserving their deepest ontological significance, as well as the widespread acceptance of the traditional atomistic-combinatorial view of the entities and the relations that constitute the so-called ‘emergence base’. Assuming those two perspectives (...)
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  29. added 2019-03-07
    Philosophy and Complexity.Gil C. Santos - 2013 - Foundations of Science 18 (4):681-686.
    Some relevant distinctions between the notions of complexity, non-linearity, self-organization and emergence are addressed.
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  30. added 2019-03-01
    The Holy Trinity and the Ontology of Relations.Michele Paolini Paoletti - 2019 - Sophia:1-19.
    I reconsider in this article the problem of the Holy Trinity from the standpoint of some recent theories of the ontology of relations. After having presented the problem and after having introduced some basic ontological concepts (i.e., substance, modes, person), I shall briefly dwell on the ontology of non-symmetrical relations and on the O-Roles theory suggested by Francesco Orilia. Afterwards, I shall develop my own solution to the problem of the Holy Trinity by exploring the status of Intratrinitarian relations and (...)
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  31. added 2019-02-19
    Sobre a regressão infinita de Russell contra o nominalismo de semelhança.Lucas Miotto Lopes - 2012 - Critica (Misc) 2012.
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  32. added 2019-02-06
    What a Structuralist Theory of Properties Could Not Be.Nora Berenstain - 2016 - In Anna Marmodoro & David Yates (ed.), The Metaphysics of Relations. OUP. Oxford University Press.
    Causal structuralism is the view that, for each natural, non-mathematical, non-Cambridge property, there is a causal profile that exhausts its individual essence. On this view, having a property’s causal profile is both necessary and sufficient for being that property. It is generally contrasted with the Humean or quidditistic view of properties, which states that having a property’s causal profile is neither necessary nor sufficient for being that property, and with the double-aspect view, which states that causal profile is necessary but (...)
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  33. added 2018-12-30
    Relationships and Events: Towards a General Theory of Reification and Truthmaking.Nicola Guarino & Giancarlo Guizzardi - 2016 - In Advances in Artificial Intelligence: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence. pp. 237-249.
    We propose a novel ontological analysis of relations and relationships based on a re-visitation of a classic problem in the practice of knowledge repre- sentation and conceptual modeling, namely relationship reification. Our idea is that a relation holds in virtue of a relationship's existence. Relationships are therefore truthmakers of relations. In this paper we present a general theory or reification and truthmaking, and discuss the interplay between events and rela- tionships, suggesting that relationships are the focus of events, which emerge (...)
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  34. added 2018-12-08
    Mechanisms and Relations.Michele Paolini Paoletti - 2018 - Erkenntnis:1-17.
    Mechanisms are organized collections of objects and activities that underlie certain phenomena/behaviours. In this article, I shall argue that the organizations of mechanisms should be thought of as external relations, namely, as relations that do not entirely depend on their relata's existence, nor on their natures, nor on their intrinsic properties. After having introduced in the first two sections mechanisms and the ontology of relations, I shall analyse the organizations of mechanisms along four different dimensions: spatial, temporal, causal and hierarchical. (...)
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  35. added 2018-11-08
    A Trope Theoretical Analysis of Relational Inherence.Markku Keinänen - 2018 - In Jaakko Kuorikoski & Teemu Toppinen (eds.), Action, Value and Metaphysics - Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Finland Colloquium 2018, Acta Philosophica Fennica 94. Helsinki: Societas Philosophica Fennica. pp. 161-189.
    The trope bundle theories of objects are capable of analyzing monadic inherence (objects having tropes), which is one of their main advantage. However, the best current trope theoretical account of relational tropes, namely, the relata specific view leaves relational inherence (a relational trope relating two or more entities) primitive. This article presents the first trope theoretical analysis of relational inherence by generalizing the trope theoretical analysis of inherence to relational tropes. The analysis reduces the holding of relational inherence to the (...)
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  36. added 2018-10-16
    What Are Tropes, Fundamentally? A Formal Ontological Account.Jani Hakkarainen - 2018 - Acta Philosophica Fennica 94:129-159.
    In this paper, I elaborate on the Strong Nuclear Theory (SNT) of tropes and substances, which I have defended elsewhere, using my metatheory about formal ontology and especially fundamental ontological form. According to my metatheory, for an entity to have an ontological form is for it to be a relatum of a formal ontological relation or relations jointly in an order. The full fundamental ontological form is generically identical to a simple formal ontological relation or relations jointly in an order. (...)
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  37. added 2018-10-10
    Abstraction, Relation, and Induction: Three Essays in the History of Thought.Julius R. Weinberg - 1965 - University of Wisconsin Press.
  38. added 2018-10-10
    An Ontology of Concrete Connectors.Karl H. Potter - 1961 - Journal of Philosophy 58 (3):57-65.
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  39. added 2018-10-10
    Note on Reflexive Relations.A. Ushenko - 1934 - The Monist 44 (2):306-307.
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  40. added 2018-10-09
    Reflexive Relations: A Rejoinder.DeWitt H. Parker - 1934 - Philosophical Review 43 (3):295-300.
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  41. added 2018-10-09
    Reflexive Relations.DeWitt H. Parker - 1933 - Philosophical Review 42 (3):303-311.
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  42. added 2018-10-09
    The Relational Element in Monism.Edmund Noble - 1905 - The Monist 15 (3):321-337.
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  43. added 2018-10-08
    Relations in Lewis's Framework Without Atoms.A. P. Hazen - 1997 - Analysis 57 (4):243-248.
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  44. added 2018-10-08
    A Correlation Between Modal Reduction Principles and Properties of Relations.Frederic B. Fitch - 1973 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (1):97 - 101.
  45. added 2018-10-08
    Relativity, Causality and Weiss's Theory of Relations.Adolf Grünbaum - 1953 - Review of Metaphysics 7 (1):115 - 123.
    MR. WEISS'S recent article "The Contemporary World" is an attempt to outline nothing short of a general theory of the logic and ontology of relations. The theory of relativity avowedly has a far more narrow scope. The issue raised by Mr. Weiss's critique of the theory of relativity is therefore not whether that theory is an adequate general metaphysics of relations. What is at issue, however, is the philosophical adequacy of the relativistic assertions concerning the distinctly temporal and causal relations (...)
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  46. added 2018-09-19
    How to Unify.Nicholas K. Jones - 2018 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 5.
    This paper evaluates the argument for the contradictoriness of unity, that be- gins Priest’s recent book One. The argument is seen to fail because it does not adequately differentiate between different forms of unity. This diagnosis of the argument’s failure is used as a basis for two consistent accounts of unity. The paper concludes by arguing that reality contains two absolutely fundamental and unanalysable forms of unity, which are in principle presupposed by any theory of anything. These fundamental forms of (...)
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  47. added 2018-09-01
    Trooppiteoriat ja relaatiossa olemisen analyysi.Markku Keinänen - 2018 - Ajatus 75:121-150.
    Trope theories aim to eschew the primitive dichotomy between characterising (properties, relations) and characterized entities (objects). This article (in Finnish) presents a new trope theoretical analysis of relational inherence as the best way out of the impasse created by the alleged necessity to choose between an eliminativist and a primitivist ("relata-specific") view about relations in trope theory.
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  48. added 2018-08-16
    Structures as Relations.Michele Paolini Paoletti - 2018 - Synthese:1-20.
    I shall explore in this article the hypothesis that structures are relations between the components of complex entities. After having introduced hylomorphism, its major advantages and the major views of the nature of structures, I shall introduce the distinctions between external and internal relations and the one between symmetrical and non-symmetrical relations. I shall also describe the theory of non-symmetrical relations that I accept, i.e., the O-Roles theory, as most structures seem to be external and non-symmetrical relations. Later on, I (...)
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  49. added 2018-07-30
    Experience and Relations in the Metaphysics of A.N. Whitehead and F. H. Bradley.Leemon Benton McHenry - 1984 - Dissertation,
    This thesis examines the affinities and contracts between A. N. Whitehead's process metaphysics and F. H. Bradley's Absolute Idealism. Whitehead drew upon Bradley's notion of experience in formulating his ontology, but disagreed sharply with Bradley on the status of relations. Whereas Bradley argued that relations and temporal transition are riddled with contradictions and cannot adequately characterize the nature of reality, Whitehead's interpretation of experience as happening in atomic or epochal units commits him to the reality of asymmetrical, temporal relations. Whitehead (...)
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  50. added 2018-07-29
    Metaphysics of States of Affairs: Truthmaking, Universals, and a Farewell to Bradley’s Regress.Bo R. Meinertsen - 2018 - Springer Singapore.
    This book addresses the metaphysics of Armstrongian states of affairs, i.e. instantiations of naturalist universals by particulars. The author argues that states of affairs are the best candidate for truthmakers and, in the spirit of logical atomism, that we need no molecular truthmakers for positive truths. In the book's context, this has the pleasing result that there are no molecular states of affairs. Following this account of truthmaking, the author first shows that the particulars in (first-order) states of affairs are (...)
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