About this topic
Summary

Relevant logics are a group of logics which attempt to block irrelevant conclusions being drawn from a set of premises. The following inferences are all valid in classical logic, where A and B are any sentences whatsoever: from A to B → A, B → B and B ∨ ¬B; from ¬A to A→B; and from A ∧ ¬A to B. But if A and B are utterly irrelevant to one another, many feel reluctant to call these inferences acceptable. Similarly for the validity of the corresponding material implications, often called ‘paradoxes’ of material implication. Relevant logic can be seen as the attempt to avoid these ‘paradoxes’.

Key works Many trace the beginnings of relevant logic to Anderson & Belnap 1962Anderson & Belnap 1975 is a key early book-length exposition of relevant logics. Routley & Meyer 1972 and Routley & Meyer 1972 develop the relational ‘Routley-Meyer’ semantics for relevant implication, which has proved vital to the success of relevant logics. Read 1988 and Mares 2004 set out the philosophy of relevant logics. Brady 2006 contains much of Brady's work on relevant logics (which has been important throughout their development).  Restall 1995 explores using 4-valued semantics for relevant logics. 
Introductions Mares 2012 is a recent introduction to the area. Jago 2013 surveys some of the most important recent work (2003–13) in relevant logic. The chapter on relevant logic in Priest 2001 introduces the logical details in a concise way.
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  1. added 2020-09-16
    On Elimination of Quantifiers in Some Non-Classical Mathematical Theories.Guillermo Badia & Andrew Tedder - 2018 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 64 (3):140-154.
    Elimination of quantifiers is shown to fail dramatically for a group of well‐known mathematical theories (classically enjoying the property) against a wide range of relevant logical backgrounds. Furthermore, it is suggested that only by moving to more extensional underlying logics can we get the property back.
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  2. added 2020-09-14
    Putting the Stars in Their Places.Shay Allen Logan - 2020 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 9 (3):188-197.
    This paper presents a new semantics for the weak relevant logic DW that makes the role of the infamous Routley star more explicable. Central to this rewriting is combining aspects of both the American and Australian plan for understanding negations in relevance logics.
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  3. added 2020-09-12
    Exhaustively Axiomatizing S3°→ and S4°→.Gemma Robles, Francisco Salto & José M. Méndez - 2008 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 27 (2):79-89.
    S3o and S4o are the restrictions with the Converse Ackermann Property of the implicative fragments of Lewis' S3 and S4 respectively. The aim of this paper is to provide all possible axiomatizations with independent axioms of S3o and S4o that can be formulated with a modification of Anderson and Belnap's list of valid entailments.
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  4. added 2020-09-12
    El sistema Bp+ : una lógica positiva mínima para la negación mínima.José M. Méndez, Francisco Salto & Gemma Robles - 2007 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 22 (1):81-91.
    Entendemos el concepto de “negación mínima” en el sentido clásico definido por Johansson. El propósito de este artículo es definir la lógica positiva mínima Bp+, y probar que la negación mínima puede introducirse en ella. Además, comentaremos algunas de las múltiples extensiones negativas de Bp+.“Minimal negation” is classically understood in a Johansson sense. The aim of this paper is to define the minimal positive logic Bp+ and prove that a minimal negation can be inroduced in it. In addition, some of (...)
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  5. added 2020-09-12
    Minimal Negation in the Ternary Relational Semantics.G. Robles, J. Mendez & F. Salto - 2005 - Reports on Mathematical Logic:47-65.
    Minimal Negation is defined within the basic positive relevance logic in the relational ternary semantics: B+. Thus, by defining a number of subminimal negations in the B+ context, principles of weak negation are shown to be isolable. Complete ternary semantics are offered for minimal negation in B+. Certain forms of reductio are conjectured to be undefinable without extending the positive logic. Complete semantics for such kinds of reductio in a properly extended positive logic are offered.
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  6. added 2020-09-12
    Logical Consequence as Truth-Preservation.Stephen Read - 2003 - Logique and Analyse 183 (4):479-493.
    t is often suggested that truth-preservation is insufficient for logical consequence, and that consequence needs to satisfy a further condition of relevance. Premises and conclusion in a valid consequence must be relevant to one another, and truth-preservation is too coarse-grained a notion to guarantee that. Thus logical consequence is the intersection of truth-preservation and relevance. This situation has the absurd consequence that one might concede that the conclusion of an argument was true (since the argument had true premises and was (...)
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  7. added 2020-09-12
    Anderson And Belnap's Minimal Positive Logic With Minimal Negation.J. Mendez, F. Salto & G. Robles - 2002 - Reports on Mathematical Logic 36:117-130.
    Our question is: can we embed minimal negation in implicative logics weaker than I→? Previous results show how to define minimal negation in the positive fragment of the logic of relevance R and in contractionless intuitionistic logic. Is it possible to endow weaker positive logics with minimal negation? This paper prooves that minimal negation can be embedded in even such a weak system as Anderson and Belnap’s minimal positive logic.
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  8. added 2020-09-12
    A Natural Negation Completion of Urquhart's Many-Valued Logic C.José M. Mendez & Francisco Salto - 1998 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (1):75-84.
    Etude de l'extension par la negation semi-intuitionniste de la logique positive des propositions appelee logique C, developpee par A. Urquhart afin de definir une semantique relationnelle valable pour la logique des valeurs infinies de Lukasiewicz (Lw). Evitant les axiomes de contraction et de reduction propres a la logique classique de Dummett, l'A. propose une semantique de type Routley-Meyer pour le systeme d'Urquhart (CI) en tant que celle-la ne fournit que des theories consistantes pour la completude de celui-ci.
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  9. added 2020-09-09
    A Simple Logical Matrix and Sequent Calculus for Parry's Logic of Analytic Implication.Damian Szmuc - forthcoming - Studia Logica.
    We provide a logical matrix semantics and a Gentzen-style sequent calculus for the first-degree entailments valid in W. T. Parry's logic of Analytic Implication. We achieve the former by introducing a logical matrix closely related to that inducing paracomplete weak Kleene logic, and the latter by presenting a calculus where the initial sequents and the left and right rules for negation are subject to linguistic constraints.
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  10. added 2020-09-08
    The Logic of Questions and Answers By Nuel D. Belnap Jr and Thomas B. Steel Jr Yale University Press, 1976, Viii + 209 Pp., £9.00. [REVIEW]Jane Heal - 1978 - Philosophy 53 (204):276-277.
  11. added 2020-07-30
    Farewell to Suppression-Freedom.Tore Fjetland Øgaard - 2020 - Logica Universalis 14 (3):297-330.
    Val Plumwood and Richard Sylvan argued from their joint paper The Semantics of First Degree Entailment and onward that the variable sharing property is but a mere consequence of a good entailment relation, indeed they viewed it as a mere negative test of adequacy of such a relation, the property itself being a rather philosophically barren concept. Such a relation is rather to be analyzed as a sufficiency relation free of any form of premise suppression. Suppression of premises, therefore, gained (...)
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  12. added 2020-07-28
    Disjunctive Parts.Mark Jago - forthcoming - In Federico L. G. Faroldi & Frederik Van De Putte (eds.), Outstanding Contributions to Logic: Kit Fine. Springer.
    Fine (2017a) sets out a theory of content based on truthmaker semantics which distinguishes two kinds of consequence between contents. There is entailment, corresponding to the relationship between disjunct and disjunction, and there is containment, corresponding to the relationship between conjunctions and their conjuncts. Fine associates these with two notions of parthood: disjunctive and conjunctive. Conjunctive parthood is a very useful notion, allowing us to analyse partial content and partial truth. In this chapter, I extend the notion of disjunctive parthood (...)
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  13. added 2020-07-22
    Boolean Negation and Non-Conservativity II: The Variable-Sharing Property.Tore Fjetland Øgaard - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
    Many relevant logics are conservatively extended by Boolean negation. Not all, however. This paper shows an acute form of non-conservativeness, namely that the Boolean-free fragment of the Boolean extension of a relevant logic need not always satisfy the variable-sharing property. In fact, it is shown that such an extension can in fact yield classical logic. For a vast range of relevant logic, however, it is shown that the variable-sharing property, restricted to the Boolean-free fragment, still holds for the Boolean extended (...)
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  14. added 2020-07-22
    Boolean Negation and Non-Conservativity III: The Ackermann Constant.Tore Fjetland Øgaard - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
    It is known that many relevant logics can be conservatively extended by the truth constant known as the Ackermann constant. It is also known that many relevant logics can be conservatively extended by Boolean negation. This essay, however, shows that a range of relevant logics with the Ackermann constant cannot be conservatively extended by a Boolean negation.
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  15. added 2020-07-22
    Boolean Negation and Non-Conservativity I: Relevant Modal Logics.Tore Fjetland Øgaard - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
    Many relevant logics can be conservatively extended by Boolean negation. Mares showed, however, that E is a notable exception. Mares’ proof is by and large a rather involved model-theoretic one. This paper presents a much easier proof-theoretic proof which not only covers E but also generalizes so as to also cover relevant logics with a primitive modal operator added. It is shown that from even very weak relevant logics augmented by a weak K-ish modal operator, and up to the strong (...)
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  16. added 2020-06-16
    Alan Ross Anderson, Nuel D. BelnapJr., and J. Michael Dunn. Entailment. The Logic of Relevance and Necessity. Volume II. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford1992, Xxvii + 749 Pp. [REVIEW]Larisa Maksimova - 1996 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (1):338-341.
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  17. added 2020-06-16
    J. Michael Dunn. Relevance Logic and Entailment. Handbook of Philosophical Logic, Volume III, Alternatives to Classical Logic, Edited by D. Gabbay and F. Guenthner, Synthese Library, Vol. 166, D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht Etc. 1986, Pp. 117–224. [REVIEW]Harry Deutsch - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (2):752-753.
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  18. added 2020-06-16
    Richard Routley with Val Plumwood, Robert K. Meyer, and Ross T. Brady. Relevant Logics and Their Rivals. Part I. The Basic Philosophical and Semantical Theory. Ridgeview Publishing Company, Atascadero, Calif., 1982, Xv + 460 Pp. [REVIEW]Daniel H. Cohen - 1989 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 54 (1):293-296.
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  19. added 2020-06-16
    J. Michael Dunn. Relevant Predication I: The Formal Theory, Journal of Philosophical Logic, Vol. 16 , Pp. 347–381.Alasdair Urquhart - 1989 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 54 (2):615-616.
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  20. added 2020-06-16
    Leonard Goddard and Richard Routley. The Logic of Significance and Context. Volume 1. Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh and London1973, and Halsted Press, New York 1974, Xi + 641 Pp. [REVIEW]Nino B. Cocchiarella - 1984 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 49 (4):1413-1415.
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  21. added 2020-06-16
    Alan Ross Anderson and Nuel D. Belnap Jr. Entailment. The Logic of Relevance and Necessity. Volume I. Princeton University Press, Princeton and London1976 , Xxxii + 542 Pp. [REVIEW]Gordon Matthews - 1977 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 42 (2):311-313.
  22. added 2020-06-16
    Richard Routley and Robert K. Meyer. The Semantics of Entailment. Truth, Syntax and Modality, Proceedings of the Temple University Conference on Alternative Semantics, Edited by Hugues Leblanc, Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, Vol. 68, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam and London1973, Pp. 199–243. [REVIEW]Melvin Fitting - 1977 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 42 (2):315-316.
  23. added 2020-06-16
    Arthur Pap. Logic and the Concept of Entailment. The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 47 , Pp. 378–387.David Makinson - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (3):466.
    Review of the paper mentioned in the title.
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  24. added 2020-06-16
    Alan Ross Anderson, Nuel D. BelnapJr., and John R. Wallace. Independent Axiom Schemata for the Pure Theory of Entailment. Zeitschrift Für Mathemutische Logik Und Grundlagen der Mathematik, Vol. 6 , Pp. 93–95. [REVIEW]Donald Paul Snyder - 1973 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 38 (2):327-328.
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  25. added 2020-06-16
    R. W. Ashby. Entailment and Modality. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, N.S. Vol. 63 , Pp. 203–216. - John O. Nelson. A Question of Entailment. The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 18 , Pp. 364–377. - John Bacon. Entailment and the Modal Fallacy. The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 18 , Pp. 566–571. [REVIEW]Edward E. Dawson - 1973 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 38 (4):668-670.
  26. added 2020-06-16
    Nuel D. BelnapJr., An Analysis of Questions: Preliminary Report. Technical Memorandum 1287, System Development Corporation, Santa Monica1963, 160 Pp. [REVIEW]David Harrah - 1972 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (2):420-421.
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  27. added 2020-06-16
    Anderson Alan Ross. What Do Symbols Symbolize?: Platonism. Philosophy of Science, The Delaware Seminar, Volume 1, 1961–1962, Edited by Baumrin Bernard, Interscience Publishers, New York and London 1963, Pp. 137–151.Anderson A. R., Baumrin B., Busse W., Bynum T., Gray R. D., McCormack W., Reese W.. Discussion. Philosophy of Science, The Delaware Seminar, Volume 1, 1961–1962, Edited by Baumrin Bernard, Interscience Publishers, New York and London 1963, Pp. 151–158. [REVIEW]Joseph S. Ullian - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (2):323.
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  28. added 2020-06-16
    Anderson A. R. And Belnap N. D. Jr., First Degree Entailments. Mathematische Annalen, Vol. 149 , Pp. 302–319.Stig Kanger - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):520-521.
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  29. added 2020-06-16
    Hilary Putnam. Minds and Machines. Minds and Machines, Edited by Alan Ross Anderson, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1964, Pp. 72–97. [REVIEW]Joseph S. Ullian - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (1):177.
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  30. added 2020-06-16
    Von Wright G. H.. A Note on Entailment. The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 9 , Pp. 363–365.Timothy Smiley - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (3):462.
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  31. added 2020-06-16
    Alan Ross Anderson and Nuel D. BelnapJr., Modalities in Ackermann's “Rigorous Implication.”The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 24 No. 2 , Pp. 107–111. [REVIEW]A. Bayart - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (1):120.
  32. added 2020-06-16
    Alan Ross Anderson and Nuel D. BelnapJr., Tautological Entailments. Philosophical Studies , Vol. 13 , Pp. 9–24.David Makinson - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (4):608.
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  33. added 2020-06-16
    R. K. Meyer. Pure Denumerable Łukasiewiczian Implication. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 31 , Pp. 575–580.A. Rose - 1968 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (2):308.
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  34. added 2020-06-16
    Alan Ross Anderson and Nüel D. BelnapJr., A Simple Treatment of Truth Functions. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 24 No. 4 , Pp. 301–302.William T. Parry - 1963 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 28 (4):291.
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  35. added 2020-03-10
    Minimal Negation in the Ternary Relational Semantics.Gemma Robles, José M. Méndez & Francisco Salto - 2005 - Reports on Mathematical Logic 39:47-65.
    Minimal Negation is defined within the basic positive relevance logic in the relational ternary semantics: B+. Thus, by defining a number of subminimal negations in the B+ context, principles of weak negation are shown to be isolable. Complete ternary semantics are offered for minimal negation in B+. Certain forms of reductio are conjectured to be undefinable (in ternary frames) without extending the positive logic. Complete semantics for such kinds of reductio in a properly extended positive logic are offered.
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  36. added 2020-02-03
    Relevance in Structured Argumentation.AnneMarie Borg & Christian Straßer - 2018 - In Jérôme Lang (ed.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-18).
  37. added 2020-01-11
    Deep Fried Logic.Shay Allen Logan - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-30.
    There is a natural story about what logic is that sees it as tied up with two operations: a ‘throw things into a bag’ operation and a ‘closure’ operation. In a pair of recent papers, Jc Beall has fleshed out the account of logic this leaves us with in more detail. Using Beall’s exposition as a guide, this paper points out some problems with taking the second operation to be closure in the usual sense. After pointing out these problems, I (...)
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  38. added 2019-12-30
    Truthmaker Realism: Response to Gregory.Barry Smith - 2002 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80 (2):231-234.
    We take as our starting point a thesis to the effect that, at least for true judgments of many varieties, there are parts of reality which make such judgments are true. We argue that two distinct components are involved in this truthmaker relation. On the one hand is the relation of necessitation, which holds between an object x and a judgment p when the existence of x entails the truth of p. On the other hand is the dual notion of (...)
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  39. added 2019-12-20
    Negation on the Australian Plan.Francesco Berto & Greg Restall - 2019 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 48 (6):1119-1144.
    We present and defend the Australian Plan semantics for negation. This is a comprehensive account, suitable for a variety of different logics. It is based on two ideas. The first is that negation is an exclusion-expressing device: we utter negations to express incompatibilities. The second is that, because incompatibility is modal, negation is a modal operator as well. It can, then, be modelled as a quantifier over points in frames, restricted by accessibility relations representing compatibilities and incompatibilities between such points. (...)
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  40. added 2019-11-15
    Mathematical Explanation by Law.Sam Baron - 2019 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 70 (3):683-717.
    Call an explanation in which a non-mathematical fact is explained—in part or in whole—by mathematical facts: an extra-mathematical explanation. Such explanations have attracted a great deal of interest recently in arguments over mathematical realism. In this article, a theory of extra-mathematical explanation is developed. The theory is modelled on a deductive-nomological theory of scientific explanation. A basic DN account of extra-mathematical explanation is proposed and then redeveloped in the light of two difficulties that the basic theory faces. The final view (...)
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  41. added 2019-10-15
    A Note on the Relevance of Semilattice Relevance Logic.Yale Weiss - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Logic 16 (6):177-185.
    A propositional logic has the variable sharing property if φ → ψ is a theorem only if φ and ψ share some propositional variable. In this note, I prove that positive semilattice relevance logic and its extension with an involution negation have the variable sharing property. Typical proofs of the variable sharing property rely on ad hoc, if clever, matrices. However, in this note, I exploit the properties of rather more intuitive arithmetical structures to establish the variable sharing property for (...)
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  42. added 2019-09-28
    A Cognitive View of Relevant Implication.Daniele Porello & Claudio Masolo - 2015 - In Antonio Lieto, Cristina Battaglino, Daniele P. Radicioni & Manuela Sanguinietti (eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Cognition, Turin, Italy, September 28-29, 2015. pp. 40--53.
    Relevant logics provide an alternative to classical implication that is capable of accounting for the relationship between the antecedent and the consequence of a valid implication. Relevant implication is usually explained in terms of information required to assess a proposition. By doing so, relevant implication introduces a number of cognitively relevant aspects in the de nition of logical operators. In this paper, we aim to take a closer look at the cognitive feature of relevant implication. For this purpose, we develop (...)
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  43. added 2019-09-28
    Logical Operators for Ontological Modeling.Stefano Borgo, Daniele Porello & Nicolas Troquard - 2014 - In Pawel Garbacz & Oliver Kutz (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems - Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference, {FOIS} 2014, September, 22-25, 2014, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil}. pp. 23--36.
    We show that logic has more to offer to ontologists than standard first order and modal operators. We first describe some operators of linear logic which we believe are particularly suitable for ontological modeling, and suggest how to interpret them within an ontological framework. After showing how they can coexist with those of classical logic, we analyze three notions of artifact from the literature to conclude that these linear operators allow for reducing the ontological commitment needed for their formalization, and (...)
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  44. added 2019-09-28
    Modelling Multilateral Negotiation in Linear Logic.Daniele Porello & Ulle Endriss - 2010 - In {ECAI} 2010 - 19th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Lisbon, Portugal, August 16-20, 2010, Proceedings. pp. 381--386.
    We show how to embed a framework for multilateral negotiation, in which a group of agents implement a sequence of deals concerning the exchange of a number of resources, into linear logic. In this model, multisets of goods, allocations of resources, preferences of agents, and deals are all modelled as formulas of linear logic. Whether or not a proposed deal is rational, given the preferences of the agents concerned, reduces to a question of provability, as does the question of whether (...)
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  45. added 2019-09-28
    Modelling Combinatorial Auctions in Linear Logic.Daniele Porello & Ulle Endriss - 2010 - In Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference, {KR} 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 9-13, 2010.
    We show that linear logic can serve as an expressive framework in which to model a rich variety of combinatorial auction mechanisms. Due to its resource-sensitive nature, linear logic can easily represent bids in combinatorial auctions in which goods may be sold in multiple units, and we show how it naturally generalises several bidding languages familiar from the literature. Moreover, the winner determination problem, i.e., the problem of computing an allocation of goods to bidders producing a certain amount of revenue (...)
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  46. added 2019-09-19
    Substitution in Relevant Logics.Tore Fjetland Øgaard - 2019 - Review of Symbolic Logic (3):1-26.
    This essay discusses rules and semantic clauses relating to Substitution—Leibniz’s law in the conjunctive-implicational form s=t ∧ A(s) → A(t)—as these are put forward in Priest’s books "In Contradiction" and "An Introduction to Non-Classical Logic: From If to Is." The stated rules and clauses are shown to be too weak in some cases and too strong in others. New ones are presented and shown to be correct. Justification for the various rules are probed and it is argued that Substitution ought (...)
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  47. added 2019-09-12
    Sylvan's Jungle Volume 1: Exploring Meinong's Jungle and Beyond.Maureen Eckert - 2018 - International: Synthese Library.
    In this first volume of The Sylvan Jungle, the editors present a scholarly edition of the first chapter, "Exploring Meinong's Jungle," of Richard Routley's 1000-plus page book, Exploring Meinong's Jungle and Beyond. Going against the Quinean orthodoxy, Routley’s aim was to support Meinong’s idea that we can truthfully refer to non-existent and even impossible objects, like Superman, unicorns and the (infamous) round-square cupola on Berkeley College. The tools of non-classical logic at Routley’s disposal enabled him to update Meinong’s project for (...)
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  48. added 2019-08-06
    Truthmaker Semantics for Relevant Logic.Mark Jago - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (4):681-702.
    I develop and defend a truthmaker semantics for the relevant logic R. The approach begins with a simple philosophical idea and develops it in various directions, so as to build a technically adequate relevant semantics. The central philosophical idea is that truths are true in virtue of specific states. Developing the idea formally results in a semantics on which truthmakers are relevant to what they make true. A very natural notion of conditionality is added, giving us relevant implication. I then (...)
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  49. added 2019-06-08
    Notes on Stratified Semantics.Shay Logan - 2019 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 48 (4):749-786.
    In 1988, Kit Fine published a semantic theory for quantified relevant logics. He referred to this theory as stratified semantics. While it has received some attention in the literature, 1–20, 1992; Mares & Goldblatt, Journal of Symbolic Logic 71, 163–187, 2006), stratified semantics has overall received much less attention than it deserves. There are two plausible reasons for this. First, the only two dedicated treatments of stratified semantics available are, 27–59, 1988; Mares, Studia Logica 51, 1–20, 1992), both of which (...)
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  50. added 2019-06-07
    Classical relevant logics. I.R. K. Meyer - 1973 - Studia Logica 32:51.
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