Religious Experience

Edited by Guy Axtell (Radford University)
Assistant editor: Katelyn Dobbins (Radford University)
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Summary

     Religious experience is a very broad topic, understood in different ways by different persons and faith traditions. Each academic field that bears on religion and spirituality approaches it with distinct methods. Recognition of the diversity in reported religious experiences, values, and beliefs also informs work on religious freedom, tolerance, and the public role of religion in a pluralistic society.  

     The broadly epistemic issues include: the need to interpret one’s religious experiences; the cognitive value of religious experience; the proper role of evidence in the formation of religious belief; the epistemology of miracle claims; differences between “experience” as personal and primary, and "testimonial" belief in faith traditions centered on a special revelation; the nature and limits of religious language; feminist critique of androcentric and anthropocentric conceptions of godhead; positive theology in contrast with apophatic or mystically-oriented faith traditions; and process verses substantive conceptions of ultimate reality.

Key works Pamela Sue Anderson (1997), Richard Braithwaite (1955), John Caputo (2001), Evan Fales (2004), Jerome Gellman (2005), Paul Helm (1999), John Hick (1989), David Hume (1998), Alvin Plantinga (1981), Arvind Sharma (1991), William J. Wainwright (1984), Ludwig Wittgenstein (1966), Nicholas Wolterstorff (1984), Keith E. Yandell (1993), Linda Zagsebski (2004)
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1819 found
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1 — 50 / 1819
  1. Problems of Religious Luck, Chapter 1: Kinds of Religious Luck: A Working Taxonomy.Guy Axtell - manuscript
    Although there has been little written to date that speaks directly to problems of religious luck, described in other terms these problems have a long history. Contemporary contributors to the literature have referred to “soteriological luck” (Anderson 2011) “salvific luck” (Davidson 1999) and “religious luck” (Zagzebski 1994). Using “religious” as the unifying term, Part I of this monograph begins with the need a more comprehensive taxonomy. Serious philosophic interest in moral and epistemic luck took hold only after comprehensive taxonomies for (...)
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  2. Religious Experience.Amber L. Griffioen - manuscript
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  3. Is Religion What We Want? Motivation and the Cultural Transmission of Religious Representations.Shaun Nichols - manuscript
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  4. Factors Underlying the Development of the Issue of Religious Experience.Aynollāh Khademi - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 45.
    In the field of religious studies, like any other field, the development of each phenomenon is due to one or some causes. Scientific inquiries into the issue of religious experience, a relatively new phenomenon, are not exceptions in this regard, and various factors have played a role in their development. They include harsh attacks against natural theology, Protestants' views and their conflicts with Catholics, their critique of the Scripture, the influence of Lord Herbert and those who were of the same (...)
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  5. Wittgenstein and Contemporary Belief-Credence Dualism.Guy Axtell - forthcoming - In Wittgenstein and the Epistemology of Religion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    This paper examines religious epistemics in relationship to recent defenses of belief-credence dualism among analytic Christian philosophers, connecting what is most plausible and appealing in this proposal to Wittgenstein’s thought on the nature of religious praxis and affectively-engaged language-use. How close or far is Wittgenstein’s thought about faith to the analytic Christian philosophers’ thesis that “beliefs and credences are two epistemic tools used for different purposes”? While I find B-C dualism appealing for multiple reasons, the paper goes on to raise (...)
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  6. Transformative Experience and the Problem of Religious Disagreement.Joshua Blanchard & Laurie Paul - forthcoming - In Matthew A. Benton & Jonathan L. Kvanvig (eds.), Religious Disagreement and Pluralism. Oxford, UK:
    Peer disagreement presents religious believers, agnostics, and skeptics alike with an epistemological problem: how can confidence in any religious claims (including their negations) be epistemically justified? There seem to be rational, well-informed adherents among a variety of mutually incompatible religious and non-religious perspectives, and so the problem of disagreement arises acutely in the religious domain. In this paper, we show that the transformative nature of religious experience and identity poses more than just this traditional, epistemic problem of conflicting religious beliefs. (...)
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  7. Religious Conversion.Saju Chackalackal - forthcoming - Journal of Dharma.
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  8. Philosophy of Being and Non-Philosophy of The One.Ulrich de Balbian - forthcoming - Oxford: Academic Publishers.
    An exploration of the philosophical and mystical ideas of Plotinus. So as to show that underneath all traditional Western philosophy of being their lies a non-philosophy of 'the one'. The One with whom mystics seek unification or to be united with (also know as realization of the one real self, unity with the Sufi Beloved, buddha-mind, the absolute truth, the foundation or ground of all etc).
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  9. NON-PHILOSOPHY OF THE ONE Turning Away From Philosophy of Being.Ulrich de Balbian - forthcoming - Oxford: Academic Publishers.
    A study of the methods, approaches, prayers, etc to realize the 'unity experience' with THE ONE REAL SELF (Vedanta, Hinduism, ) God (Judaism), Gottheit (Christianity), Buddha mind (Buddhism), The Beloved (Sufism, Islam) of a number of mystics from several religious traditions. I wrote about this in a number of books and articles, for example about methods, techniques, practices and methodology here: as well as exploring and illustrating the subject-matter of philosophizing here: Explorations, questions and searches not put down on paper (...)
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  10. An Agnostic Defends God.Bryan Frances - forthcoming - Palgrave Macmillan.
    A book that more or less defends agnosticism, written primarily for students (undergraduate and graduate) and people outside of higher education.
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  11. Testimony, Faith and Humility.Finlay Malcolm - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    It is sometimes claimed that faith is a virtue. To what extent faith is a virtue depends on what faith is. One construal of faith, which has been popular in both recent and historical work on faith, is that faith is a matter of taking oneself to have been spoken to by God and of trusting this purported divine testimony. In this paper, I argue that when faith is understood in this way, for faith to be virtuous then it must (...)
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  12. N, N-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE AND BIOLOGICAL REDUCTIVE ACCOUNTS FOR RELIGIOUS AND SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCES.Shaun Smith - forthcoming - Liberty University Digital Commons.
    There is unquestionably a plethora of details and mysteries regarding the mind and the body. However, with the advent of psychopharmacology (the study of how psychedelics inform or alter brain states) there are more issues at hand. Do psychedelics allow us to access deeper areas of our consciousness? Are we having a spiritual experience under the influence of psychedelics? Dr. Rick Strassman does not want to continue asking these rather conspiratorial-like questions. Instead, Dr. Strassman believes that there is one special, (...)
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  13. Religious Disagreement Is Not Unique.Margaret Greta Turnbull - forthcoming - In Matthew A. Benton & Jonathan L. Kvanvig (eds.), Religious Disagreement and Pluralism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    In discussions of religious disagreement, some epistemologists have suggested that religious disagreement is distinctive. More specifically, they have argued that religious disagreement has certain features which make it possible for theists to resist conciliatory arguments that they must adjust their religious beliefs in response to finding that peers disagree with them. I consider what I take to be the two most prominent features which are claimed to make religious disagreement distinct: religious evidence and evaluative standards in religious contexts. I argue (...)
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  14. Religious Experience.Mark Webb - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  15. James B.-** Ro* K in Context.Paul D. Maclean Women, A. More Balanced Brain & Rodney Holmes - forthcoming - Zygon.
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  16. Mysticism Without Concepts.Sebastian Gäb - 2021 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 89.
    It has often been claimed, e.g. by William James or Aldous Huxley, that mystical experiences across times and cultures exhibit a striking similarity. Even though the words and images we use to describe them are different, underneath the surface we find a common experiential core. Others have rejected this claim and argued that all experiences are intrinsically shaped by the mystics’ pre-existing religious concepts. Against these constructivist objections, I defend the idea of a common core by arguing that even if (...)
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  17. The Fellowship of the Ninth Hour: Christian Reflections on the Nature and Value of Faith.Daniel Howard-Snyder & Daniel J. McKaughan - 2021 - In James Arcadi & James T. Turner Jr (eds.), The T&T Clark Companion to Analytic Theology. New York, NY, USA: T&T Clark/Bloomsbury. pp. 69-82.
    It is common for young Christians to go off to college assured in their beliefs but, in the course of their first year or two, they meet what appears to them to be powerful defenses of scientific naturalism and crushing critiques of the basic Christian story (BCS), and many are thrown into doubt. They think to themselves something like this: "To be honest, I am troubled about the BCS. While the problem of evil, the apparent cultural basis for the diversity (...)
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  18. Whiteness and Religious Experience.Jack Mulder - 2021 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 89 (1):67-89.
    In this paper I argue that racism’s subtle and insidious reach should lead us to prefer an account of religious experience that is capable of reckoning with that reach, an account that, I shall argue, appears in the work of St. John of the Cross. The paper begins with an analysis of race and racism and the way in which the latter can have existential and even spiritual effects. The argument is then applied particularly to white people and the deleterious (...)
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  19. Ecclesial Belonging in a World of Pure Experience: William James, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Religious Rationality in Crisis.Walter Scott Stepanenko - 2021 - Open Theology 7 (1):111-128.
    The global COVID-19 pandemic has spotlighted several instances of churches violating state issued and scientifically recommended guidelines designed to keep populations healthy and to prevent the further spread of the disease. While these instances are minority responses to these orders, they nonetheless raise questions about the rationality of ecclesial belonging in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, I draw on the work of William James and W. E. B. Du Bois to articulate a conception of ecclesial belonging as (...)
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  20. Immediacy.Jason W. Alvis - 2020 - PhaenEx 13 (2):11-37.
    At least for Schleiermacher, religion is life in immediate feeling. Whether or not we agree with him, immediacy can be understood as one essential aspect of feeling that makes feeling congenial as the means by which we tend to express the source of religious experience. Yet in general, immediacy is difficult to define and qualify. Is there a hope for immediacy in seeking “to be delivered from contingency”? Is immediacy expressed in the instantaneity of how qualities of things are given (...)
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  21. Tagore on Religious Consciousness: A Study Based on the Letters Written to Indira Devi and Hemantabala Devi.Rachana Basu - 2020 - Journal of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research 37 (1):3-17.
    The most of Tagore’s ideas expressed in his books and usual writings that draw attention by the Tagore’s scholars, a layman/woman cannot connect easily. The letters focused in this article are written in a simple language, though personal, rooted in daily experiences of Tagore himself—he shares in a very simple and lucid language. Often, the charges against Tagore’s philosophy are made that he is too idealistic and beyond realization. The paper attempts to argue based on these letters that his ideas (...)
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  22. "Can Faith Be Empirical?".Mark J. Boone - 2020 - Science and Christian Belief 32 (1):63-82.
    THIS IS A PRE-PUBLICATION VERSION OF THE PAPER and does not have the same pagination as the published version. -/- It is sometimes said that religious belief and empiricism are different or even incompatible ways of believing. However, William James and notable twentieth-century philosophers representing Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Christianity have argued that there is a high degree of compatibility between religious faith and empiricism. Their analyses suggest that there are three characteristics of empiricism—that an empiricist bases his beliefs (...)
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  23. William James and Allama Iqbal on Empirical Faith.Mark J. Boone - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (5):775-787.
    American Pragmatist philosopher William James and subcontinent Islamic philosopher Allama Iqbal both believe that religious experiences are an important class of those experiences with which empiricism is concerned. They both explain and defend religious belief on empirical grounds and argue that the ultimate empirical justification of a religious belief must come by looking at its fruits. This is no accident, for James influenced Iqbal on this very point. -/- However, they diverge in some matters. James defends the right to diverse (...)
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  24. Guy Axtell. Problems of Religious Luck: Assessing the Limits of Reasonable Religious Disagreement.Sawyer Bullock - 2020 - Philosophia Christi 22 (1):172-175.
  25. Debating Christian Religious Epistemology: An Introduction to Five Views on the Knowledge of God.John M. DePoe & Tyler McNabb (eds.) - 2020 - Bloomsbury Academic.
  26. Phenomenological Spirituality and its Relationship to Religion.Neal DeRoo - 2020 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 25 (1):53-70.
    This paper develops a phenomenological account of spirituality that can help us think more broadly and deeply about religion and its role in our lives. It begins by explaining spirituality as a supra-subjective force that shapes a sub­ject’s intuitive engagement with the world. Then, it shows that such a spirituality is affective in cultural expression, by way of historically situated institutions or traditions [Stiftungen]. The last step of the paper will be to connect this account of spirituality to our understanding (...)
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  27. Désacralisation et « tournant théologique » : résurgence du sacré entre XIXe et XXe siècles.Jean-Baptiste Dussert - 2020 - In Guerric Meylan (ed.), Sacré – Responsabilité, actes du colloque des 21 et 22 novembre 2014. Mare & Martin. pp. 157-165.
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  28. Ernst Cassirers Phänomenologie der Wahrnehmung.Tobias Endres - 2020 - Hamburg, Deutschland: Felix Meiner Verlag.
    Auf die Frage „Was ist Wahrnehmung und welche Rolle spielt sie für die Objektivität der Erfahrung?“ hätte Ernst Cassirer vermutlich schlicht geantwortet: „Wahrnehmung ist eine erste Form objektiver Erfahrung.“ Tobias Endres macht es sich zur Aufgabe, Cassirers „Philosophie der symbolischen Formen“ einer Neu- und Gesamtinterpretation zu unterziehen und sie als eine „Phänomenologie der Wahrnehmung“ auszulegen. In Auseinandersetzung mit klassischen und gegenwärtigen Wahrnehmungstheorien wie der Sinnesdatentheorie, dem Disjunktivismus oder dem Enaktivismus gelingt es dem Autor, die Aktualität und Originalität solch einer phänomenologischen (...)
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  29. Phenomenology of Interior Life and the Trinity.Robert Farrugia - 2020 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 25 (1):71-88.
    Michel Henry radicalises phenomenology by putting forward the idea of a double manifestation: the “Truth of Life” and “truth of the world.” For Henry, the world turns out to be empty of Life. To find its essence, the self must dive completely inward, away from the exterior movements of intentionality. Hence, Life, or God, for Henry, lies in non-intentional, immanent self-experience, which is felt and yet remains invisible, in an absolutist sense, as an a priori condition of all conscious experience. (...)
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  30. The Epistemology of Theistic Philosophers’ Reactions to the Problem of Evil.Bryan Frances - 2020 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 94 (4):547-572.
    I first argue that, contrary to many atheistic philosophers, there is good reason to think the typical theistic philosopher’s retaining of her theism when faced with the Problem of Evil is comparatively epistemically upstanding even if both atheism is true and the typical theistic philosopher has no serious criticism of the atheist’s premises in the PoE argument. However, I then argue that, contrary to many theistic philosophers, even if theism is true, the typical theistic philosopher has no good non-theistic reasons (...)
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  31. Phenomenal Conservatism.Logan Paul Gage & Blake McAllister - 2020 - In John M. DePoe & Tyler McNabb (eds.), Debating Christian Religious Epistemology: An Introduction to Five Views on the Knowledge of God. New York: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 61-81.
    In this chapter, we argue for a phenomenal conservative perspective on religious epistemology and attempt to answer some common criticisms of this perspective.
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  32. Habermas, Vattimo and Feedback: ‘Learning Gap’ or ‘Learning Journey’?Matthew Edward Harris - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (5):842-851.
  33. Identifying the Conflict Between Religion and Science.David Kyle Johnson - 2020 - Socio-Historical Examination of Religion and Ministry 2 (1):122-148.
    Inspired by Stephen J. Gould’s NOMA thesis, it is commonly maintained among academic theists that religion and science are not in conflict. This essay will argue, by analogy, that science and religion undeniably are in conflict. It will begin by quickly defining religion and science and then present multiple examples that are unquestionable instances of unscientific reasoning and beliefs and show how they precisely parallel common mainstream orthodox religious reasoning and doctrines. It will then consider objections. In essence, this article (...)
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  34. Seeing God: The Beatific Vision in Christian Tradition. By Hans Boersma. Foreward by Andrew Louth. Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 2018, $55.00. [REVIEW]Terrance Klein - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (4):713-715.
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  35. Review of James Kellenberger’s Religious Epiphanies Across Traditions and Cultures. [REVIEW]Kai Man Kwan - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (1):196.
  36. Religious Disagreement, Religious Experience, and the Evil God Hypothesis.Kirk Lougheed - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (1):173-190.
    Conciliationism is the view that says when an agent who believes P becomes aware of an epistemic peer who believes not-P, that she encounters a defeater for her belief that P. Strong versions of conciliationism pose a sceptical threat to many, if not most, religious beliefs since religion is rife with peer disagreement. Elsewhere I argue that one way for a religious believer to avoid sceptical challenges posed by strong conciliationism is by appealing to the evidential import of religious experience. (...)
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  37. Recent Trends in the Cognitive Science of Religion: Neuroscience, Religious Experience, and the Confluence of Cognitive and Evolutionary Research.Robert N. McCauley - 2020 - Zygon 55 (1):97-124.
  38. Entropy, Eternity, and Unheimlichkeit in William James's Philosophy.Romain Mollard - 2020 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 41 (1):32.
    For naturalism, fed on recent cosmological speculations, mankind is in a position similar to that of a set of people living on a frozen lake, surrounded by cliffs over which there is no escape, yet knowing that little by little the ice is melting, and the inevitable day drawing near when the last film of it will disappear, and to be drowned ignominiously will be the human creature’s portion. The merrier the skating, the warmer and more sparkling the sun by (...)
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  39. The Unrealized Eschatology of Michel Henry: Theological Gestures From His Phenomenological Aesthetics.Christopher C. Rios - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (4):843-864.
  40. A Modern Polytheism? Nietzsche and James.Jordan Rodgers - 2020 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 34 (1):69-96.
    Polytheism is a strange view to hold in modernity. Connected as it is in the popular imagination with archaic, animistic, magical, prescientific systems of thought, we don’t hesitate much before casting it into the dustbin of history. Even if we are not monotheists, we are likely to think of monotheism as the obviously more plausible position. The traditional arguments for the existence of God, which have been enormously influential in Western philosophy of religion, do not necessarily rule out polytheism but (...)
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  41. Pourquoi Accepter des Contenus Religieux Sans y Croire?Yann Schmitt - 2020 - Philosophie 2:146.
    Pour penser philosophiquement les attitudes religieuses, le concept de croyance est parfois considéré comme inadéquat. Un des reproches souvent développés est qu’une croyance propositionnelle, croire que p, est une attitude trop théorique qui ne peut rendre compte de la foi et de la vie religieuse en général. Il est possible de répondre à ces objections mais cet article évalue la pertinence d’un concept apparemment plus fructueux : l’acceptation. Ce concept permet de rendre compte de certaines attitudes et pratiques religieuses mais (...)
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  42. Le credenziali: parole, disegni e poteri deontici.Barry Smith - 2020 - Teoria E Critica Della Regolazione Sociale 1 (20):59-73..
    Driving licenses, identity cards, passports, boarding passes, credit cards, ATM cards – all of these are examples of credentials. Credentials are documents that play a fundamental role in all modern societies. However, philosophers and social ontologists have not yet addressed the analysis of their nature and function. This paper aims to fill this gap through a review of the essential characteristics of credentials, as documents whose primary purpose is to certify the identity and institutional status of the bearer, for example (...)
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  43. On Credentials.Barry Smith, Olimpia Giuliana Loddo & Giuseppe Lorini - 2020 - Journal of Social Ontology 6 (1):47-67.
    Credentials play an important role in all modern societies, but the analysis of their nature and function has thus far been neglected by social philosophers. We present a view according to which the function of credentials is certify the identity and the institutional status (including the rights) of individuals. More importantly, credentials enable rights-holders to exercise their rights, so that for a particular right to be exercisable the right-holder should possess, carry and sometimes show to an authority (or QR code (...)
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  44. 성, 생태, 영성 검토 (Sex, Ecology, Spirituality) Ken Wilber 2 nd ed 851p (2001).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 지구상의 지옥에 오신 것을 환영합니다 : 아기, 기후 변화, 비트 코인, 카르텔, 중국, 민주주의, 다양성, 역학, 평등, 해커, 인권, 이슬람, 자유주의, 번영, 웹, 혼돈, 기아, 질병, 폭력, 인공 지능, 전쟁. Las Vegas, NV USA: RealityPress. pp. 245-264.
    이 거대한 전문 용어가 가득한 (이 책은 정말 용어집을 필요로합니다!), 무겁게 학문적 인 작업이 교육의 세계에서 베스트 셀러가되었다는 것은 놀랍고 적합합니다. 하나는 전문 용어를 배우고 텍스트의 551 페이지와 노트의 238 페이지를 통해 쟁기 전념해야합니다. 그 동안에, 우리는 이것이 올 것의 단지 개요라고 몇 번이고 들었습니다! 그는 세 운동의 과잉을 심각하게 비판하지만, 이것은 매우 자유롭고 영적 관점에서 종교, 철학 및 행동 과학의 해체및 새로운 시대 신비주의와 포스트 모더니즘 해석이다- 즉, 최악의 데카곤없이, PM과 NAM 전문 용어, 맹렬한 평등주의와 반 과학적 반 지적. (...)
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  45. L'autobiographie spirituelle la plus profonde de tous les temps ? -une critique de « Le Genou de l'Ecoute » (The Knee of Listening) par Adi Da (Franklin Jones) (1995) (revue révisée 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Bienvenue en Enfer sur Terre : Bébés, Changement climatique, Bitcoin, Cartels, Chine, Démocratie, Diversité, Dysgénique, Égalité, Pirates informatiques, Droits de l'homme, Islam, Libéralisme, Prospérité, Le Web, Chaos, Famine, Maladie, Violence, Intellige. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 238-241.
    Une brève revue de la vie et de l’autobiographie spirituelle du mystique américain unique Adi Da (Franklin Jones). L’autocollant sur la couverture de certaines éditions dit «L’autobiographie spirituelle la plus profonde de tous les temps» et cela pourrait bien être vrai. Je suis dans mes 70 ans et j’ai lu de nombreux livres de professeurs spirituels et de spiritualité, et c’est l’un des plus grands. Certes, il est by loin le compte le plus complet et le plus clair du processus (...)
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  46. Обзор религии Разъяснения - Эволюционное происхождение религиозной мысли (Religion Explained-- The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Thought) by Pascal Boyer (2002) (обзор пересмотрен 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In ДОБРО ПОЖАЛОВАТЬ В АД НА НАШЕМ МИРЕ : Дети, Изменение климата, Биткойн, Картели, Китай, Демократия, Разнообразие, Диссигеника, Равенство, Хакеры, Права человека, Ислам, Либерализм, Процветание, Сеть, Хаос, Голод, Болезнь, Насилие, Искусственный интелле. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 211-224.
    Вы можете получить краткое резюме этой книги на р 135 или 326. Если вы не до скорости, на эволюционной психологии, вы должны сначала прочитать один из многочисленных последних текстов с этим термином в названии. Один из лучших является "Справочник эволюционной психологии" 22-й ed Buss. Примерно 15 лет назад, «объяснение» поведения на самом деле не были объясненияпсихических процессов на всех, но довольно расплывчатые и в значительной степени бесполезные описания того, что люди сделали и что они сказали, без понимания, почему. Мы могли (...)
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  47. 宗教の説明:宗教思想の進化的起源」のレビュー(Religion Explained: the evolutionary origins of religious thought) by Pascal Boyer (2002) (2019年のレビュー改訂).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 地獄へようこそ 赤ちゃん、気候変動、ビットコイン、カルテル、中国、民主主義、多様性、ディスジェニックス、平等、ハッカー、人権、イスラム教、自由主義、繁栄、ウェブ、カオス、飢餓、病気、暴力、人工知能、戦争. Las Vegas, NV, USA: Reality Press. pp. 194-207.
    p 135 または 326 に関するこの本の簡単な要約を取得できます。進化心理学をスピードアップしていない場合は、まずタイトルにこの用語を持つ数多くの最近のテキストのいずれかを読む必要があります。最高の一つは、バスによって「進化 心理学のハンドブック」第2回 ed です。約15年前まで、行動の説明は、実際には精神的なプロセスの説明ではなく、人々が何をしたのか、何を言ったかについてのあいまいでほとんど役に立たない記述であり、その理由を洞察していません。私たちは、人 々がイベントを記念して集まり、神を賞賛し、彼の(または彼女または彼らの)祝福を受け取ると言うかもしれません。しかし、これはいずれも関連する精神的プロセスを記述していないので、リンゴをリリースしたために リンゴが地面に落ちる理由を説明するのとほぼ同じ方法で説明していると言えるかもしれません,。この本は、アカデミア、宗教、政治、一般の人々によってほとんど普遍的に無視され、否定されてきた人間の行動の遺伝的 基盤の解明を続けています(ピンカーの優れた本「ブランクスラテ」を参照)。彼の声明(p3)は、宗教が遺伝的であるかどうかを尋ねるのは無意味であり、あらゆる行動の 遺伝子や環境に起因する行動の変動の割合が、他のすべての行動(例えば、ピンカーを参照)と同様に研究することができると誤解されている。彼は,、最も興味深い現象であり、知的で教育を受けた人々にとって個人的な 関心の宗教の唯一の部分である、より高い意識(例えば、サトリ、啓蒙など)を全く扱わないので、タイトルは「原始宗教のいくつかの側面を説明する予備的な試み」であるべきです。この本全体を読んで、あなたはそのよ うなことが存在するとは決して推測しないでしょう。同様に、麻薬と宗教の巨大な分野のために。それは合理性のための枠組みを欠き、今とても生産的である思考ビューの二重システムについては言及していません。thは 私自身の最近の論文を提案しています。それにもかかわらず、その本は興味を,持っており、日付が付いているにもかかわらず、まだ読む価値がある。 現代の2つのシス・エムスの見解から人間の行動のための包括的な最新の枠組みを望む人は、私の著書「ルートヴィヒ・ヴィトゲンシュタインとジョン・サールの第2回(2019)における哲学、心理学、ミンと言語の論 理的構造」を参照することができます。私の著作の多くにご興味がある人は、運命の惑星における「話す猿--哲学、心理学、科学、宗教、政治―記事とレビュー2006-2019 第3回(2019)」と21世紀4日(2019年)の自殺ユートピア妄想st 世紀 4th ed (2019)などを見ることができます。 .
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  48. 有史以来最深刻的精神自传?- 阿迪达(弗兰克林·琼斯)的《倾听的膝盖》评论(1995年)(2019年修订版) (The most profound spiritual autobiography of all time? - a review of "The Knee of Listening" by Adi Da (Franklin Jones) (1995)).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 欢迎来到地球上的地狱: 婴儿,气候变化,比特币,卡特尔,中国,民主,多样性,养成基因,平等,黑客,人权,伊斯兰教,自由主义,繁荣,网络,混乱。饥饿,疾病,暴力,人工智能,战争. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 221-224.
    简要回顾独特的美国神秘阿迪达(弗兰克林·琼斯)的生活和精神自传。一些版本封面上的贴纸上写着"有史以来最深刻的精神自传",这很可能是真的。我70多岁,读过许多由精神导师和灵性的书,这 是最伟大的之一。当然,这是迄今为止我所见过的启蒙过程最全面、最清晰的描述。即使你对人类最迷人的心理过程毫无兴趣,它还是一个惊人的文件,揭示了很多关于宗教、瑜伽和人类心理学的信息,并探讨了人类可能性的深 度和局限性。我详细地描述了它,并将他的教学与当代印度神秘奥修的教导进行比较。 那些希望从现代两个系统的观点来看为人类行为建立一个全面的最新框架的人,可以查阅我的书《路德维希的哲学、心理学、Min d和语言的逻辑结构》维特根斯坦和约翰·西尔的《第二部》(2019年)。那些对我更多的作品感兴趣的人可能会看到《会说话的猴子——一个末日星球上的哲学、心理学、科学、宗教和政治——文章和评论2006-20 19年第3次(2019年)和自杀乌托邦幻想21篇世纪4日 (2019).
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  49. Выявить ли наше автоматизированное бессознательное поведение на наше настоящее «я» и скрытые истины о Вселенной? -- Обзор " "Сила против силы - скрытые детерминанты человеческого поведения - официальное авторитетное издание автора:” )Power vs Force--the hidden determinants of human behavior) by David Hawkins 412p (2012) (оригинальное издание 1995)(обзор пересмотрен 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In ДОБРО ПОЖАЛОВАТЬ В АД НА НАШЕМ МИРЕ : Дети, Изменение климата, Биткойн, Картели, Китай, Демократия, Разнообразие, Диссигеника, Равенство, Хакеры, Права человека, Ислам, Либерализм, Процветание, Сеть, Хаос, Голод, Болезнь, Насилие, Искусственный интелле. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 247-250.
    Я очень привык к странным книгам и специальныхлюдей, но Хокинс выделяется из-за его использования простой техники для тестирования мышечного напряжения в качестве ключа к "истине" любого заявления бы то ни было, т.е., не только ли человек проходит тестирование верит, но действительно ли это так! Что хорошо известно, что люди будут показывать автоматические, бессознательные физиологические и психологические реакции на все, что они подвергаются-изображения, звуки, прикосновения, запахи, идеи, люди. Таким образом,, мышечное чтение, чтобы узнать их истинные чувства не является радикальным на всех, (...)
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  50. 性别,生态,精神审查由肯·威尔伯第2版851便士(2001)(2019年审查修订版) (Review of Sex, Ecology, Spirituality by Ken Wilber 2nd ed 851p (2001)).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 欢迎来到地球上的地狱: 婴儿,气候变化,比特币,卡特尔,中国,民主,多样性,养成基因,平等,黑客,人权,伊斯兰教,自由主义,繁荣,网络,混乱。饥饿,疾病,暴力,人工智能,战争. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 205-220.
    这是既惊人的,适合这个巨大的,行话满载(这本书真的需要一个词汇表!),大量的学术工作已成为畅销书在世界上的教育。一个人必须专心学习行话,然后翻阅551页的文本和238页的笔记。M,我们一次又一次地被告 知,这只是一个即将发生的事情的轮廓! 虽然他严厉批评了三个运动的过激行为,但从非常自由的精神观点来看,这是一种解构的、新时代神秘主义和后现代对宗教、哲学和行为科学的解释,没有最坏的德顿,下午和不结盟运动的行话,狂热的平均主义和反科学的反知 识主义。 他详细分析了哲学、心理学、社会学和宗教的各种世界观,揭露了哲学、心理学、社会学和宗教等不同世界观的致命减少缺陷,但如今他分析的大部分来源几乎毫无关系。 他们使用的术语和概念,已经过时的,当他研究和写作20年前。人们不得不浏览无数页的行话——关于哈贝马斯、康德、爱默生、荣格et.al。去珍珠 你得到一个了不起的样本,糟糕的写作,混乱和过时的想法和过时的行话。 如果一个人有一个良好的当前教育,读这本书(和大多数关于人类行为的写作)是双重痛苦的。 痛苦,因为它是如此的折磨和困惑,然后再次当你意识到它是多么简单与现代心理学和哲学。术语和想法是可怕的混乱和过时的(但在威尔伯自己的分析比在他的来源更不然)。 这本书和它的大部分来源是可能的心理文本,虽然大多数作者没有意识到这一点。它是关于人类行为和推理的,关于我们为什么以我们的方式思考和行动,以及将来我们如何改变。但是(就像直到最近所有的这类讨论一样),没 有一个解释是真正的解释,因此它们不能洞察人类的行为。没有人讨论所涉及的心理机制。这就像描述汽车是如何工作的by讨论方向盘和金属和油漆没有任何了解的发动机,燃料或传动系。事实上,像大多数老人们的行为解释 一样,这里引用的文字和威尔伯的文法通常更有趣,因为他们接受(和忽略!)作为解释,以及推理的种类,而不是实际内容。 如果一个人对哲学、认知和进化心理学有一套,大部分都是古老的。像几乎每个人都一样(学者和公众一样。g g.,看看我对丹奈特的自由进化和其他书籍的评论,他不明白宗教和伦理的基本知识——事实上所有的人类行为,都是被编程到我们的基因中。当他写许多书时,一场了解自己的革命正在发生,它经过他。 那些希望从现代两个系统的观点来看为人类行为建立一个全面的最新框架的人,可以查阅我的书《路德维希的哲学、心理学、Min d和语言的逻辑结构》维特根斯坦和约翰·西尔的《第二部》(2019年)。那些对我更多的作品感兴趣的人可能会看到《会说话的猴子——一个末日星球上的哲学、心理学、科学、宗教和政治——文章和评论2006-20 19年第3次(2019年)和自杀乌托邦幻想21篇世纪4日 (2019).
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