About this topic
Summary

There is great religious diversity in the world—both of religious traditions (e.g. Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, etc.) and of traditions within religions (e.g. Protestantism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, etc. within Christianity). This religious diversity raises a number of pressing philosophical questions; in particular, questions regarding the epistemic and soteriological import of such diversity. Some epistemic questions include: What epistemic obligations does religious diversity impose on us, given that this diversity highlights substantial religious disagreement—indeed, disagreement amongst interlocutors who are, at least prima facie, intellectual peers? Are we permitted to be dogmatic about our own religious convictions? Or should such diversity cause us to question the veracity of any one tradition? Soteriological questions include: What does this diversity amongst sincere and pious religious practitioners suggest about the soteriological value of any one of the religious traditions? Assuming that there is at least one god, can any one religious tradition lay sole claim to garnering divine favor? Or does every religious tradition offer its own, viable path to divine favor? While the term “religious pluralism” sometimes simply designates the phenomenon of religious diversity, in the context of philosophy of religion it designates a specific philosophical view that aims to answer questions like those above.  

What is the view? In response to epistemic questions from religious diversity, the religious pluralist claims (roughly), for any given area of religious diversity—especially areas where there is substantial disagreement amongst intellectual peers—that “no specific religious perspective is [epistemically] superior” and, what is more, that “the religious perspectives of more than one basic theistic system or variant thereof are equally close to the truth” (Basinger §2, 2014). And in response to the soteriological questions, the religious pluralist claims (roughly) that “there is no one true religion, and therefore, no one and only path to eternal existence with God” or divine favor (Basinger §7, 2014).

Key works

John Hick is one of the leading proponents for religious pluralism, and his 1989 book, An Interpretation of Religion (Hick 1989), is broadly considered to be the seminal case for the view. An excellent collection on the philosophical import of religious diversity—including cases both for and against religious pluralism—is The Philosophical Challenge of Religious Diversity by Quinn & Meeker 2000

Introductions

Encyclopedia articles include http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/religious-pluralism/

Related

Contents
225 found
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1 — 50 / 225
  1. Personal or Non-Personal Divinity: A New Pluralist Approach.Julian Perlmutter - manuscript
    Religious disagreement – the existence of inconsistent religious views – is familiar and widespread. Among the most fundamental issues of such disagreement is whether to characterise the divine as personal or non-personal. On most other religious issues, the diverse views seem to presuppose some view on the personal/non-personal issue. In this essay, I address a particular question arising from disagreement over this issue. Let an exclusivist belief be a belief that a doctrine d on an issue is true, and that (...)
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  2. Introduction to the Non-dualism Approach in Hinduism and its Connection to Other Religions and Philosophies.Sriram Ganapathi Subramanian & Benyamin Ghojogh - manuscript
    In this paper, we introduce the Hinduism religion and philosophy. We start with introducing the holy books in Hinduism including Vedas and Upanishads. Then, we explain the simplistic Hinduism, Brahman, gods and their incarnations, stories of apocalypse, karma, reincarnation, heavens and hells, vegetarianism, and sanctity of cows. Then, we switch to the profound Hinduism which is the main core of Hinduism and is monotheistic. In profound Hinduism, we focus on the non-dualism or Advaita Vedanta approach in Hinduism. We discuss consciousness, (...)
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  3. The Verifiability of Daoist Somatic Mystical Experience.Wen Chen & Xiaoxing Zhang - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    Mystical religious experiences typically purport to engage with the transcendent and often claim to involve encounters with spiritual entities or a detachment from the material world. Daoism diverges from this paradigm. This paper examines Daoist mystical experiences of bodily transformations and explores their epistemological implications. Specifically, we defend the justificatory power of Daoist somatic experiences against the disanalogy objection. The disanalogy objection posits that mystical experiences, in contrast to sense perceptions, are not socially verifiable and thereby lack prima facie epistemic (...)
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  4. Conceptual engineering for analytic theology.Patrick Greenough, Jean Gové & Ian Church - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-34.
    Conceptual engineering is the method (or methods) via which we can assess and improve our concepts. Can conceptual engineering be usefully employed within analytic theology? Given that analytic theology and analytic philosophy effectively share the same philosophical toolkit then if conceptual engineering works well in philosophy then it ought to work well in analytic theology too. This will be our working hypothesis. To make good on this hypothesis, we first address two challenges. The first challenge makes conceptual engineering look to (...)
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  5. Understanding Religious Pluralism through Existential Phenomenology and Historical Contexts. Phenomenological Pluralism – an alternative to Hick and Eck’s theories.Tudor-Cosmin Ciocan - 2024 - Dialogo 10 (2):68-102.
    Phenomenological Pluralism (PP), grounded in the existential phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, offers a novel approach to religious pluralism by emphasizing the unique and irreducible experiences individuals and communities have with the divine. Central to PP is the concept of "My (personal) God," which acknowledges that each person's encounter with the divine is uniquely personal and contextually grounded without a genuinely polytheistic implication. Unlike Universalist Pluralism (UP), which seeks common theological ground, and Particularist Pluralism (PaP), which focuses on cultural context, PP (...)
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  6. The demonstrative use of names, and the divine-name co-reference debate.Berman Chan - 2023 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 93 (2):107-120.
    Could Christians and Muslims be referring to the same God? Consider Gareth Evans’s causal theory of reference, on which a name refers to the dominant source of information in the name’s “dossier”. I argue that information about experiences, in which God is simply the object of acquaintance, can dominate the dossier. Thus, this "demonstrative" use of names offers a promising alternative avenue by which users of the divine names can refer to the same referent despite having different conceptions of God.
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  7. Religious pluralism in India: ethnographic and philosophic evidence, 1886-1936.Subhadra Channa & Lancy Lobo (eds.) - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    This volume explores the inherent pluralism of Hinduism through ethnographic and philosophical evidence as presented in the Journal of Anthropological Society of Bombay. The essays dated 1886-1936, represent a period that marked the emergence of a European-educated native intelligentsia with a rationalist outlook. The essays cover a wide range of topics from Tree Worship in Mohenjo Daro, the origin of the Hindu Trimurti, interpretation of Avestic and Vedic Texts; to a second set of more localized papers that cover the Muhammadan (...)
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  8. Interrogating Hick’s View of Religious Pluralism.Kavita Chauhan & Venusa Tinyi - 2023 - Tattva - Journal of Philosophy 15 (2):77-97.
    A philosopher whose name has become almost synonymous with religious pluralism is John Hick. He justifies his position by borrowing insights and concepts from Immanuel Kant and Ludwig Wittgenstein. We argue that Kantian and Wittgensteinian frameworks are inadequate to explain and defend religious pluralism of the kind he advocates. We critically analyze the concepts of religious experience and religious language and then proceed to discuss Yoga school of Indian philosophy as a limiting case against his enterprise.
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  9. Drew Collins. The Unique and Universal Christ: Refiguring the Theology of Religions. [REVIEW]Aaron Brian Davis - 2023 - Journal of Analytic Theology 11:710-715.
  10. Religious Pluralism: Towards a Comparative Metaphysics of Religion.Matthew Shelton Lopresti - 2023 - Lanham: Lexington Books.
    Ultimate reality is often characterized in terms of a variety of what are thought to be incompatible concepts, like God, Dao, Brahman, etc. This book examines the plausibility of a genuine religious pluralism, arguing against relativism but in favor of the authenticity of a plurality of the world's major religious traditions.
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  11. Epistemology of religion of Alvin Plantinga - The problem of religious pluralism.Petar Nurkić - 2023 - Church Studies 20 (1):227-240.
    Alvin Plantinga is an American-born philosopher of religion and one of the leading advocates of contemporary Christian philosophy. Plantinga deals with numerous problems of the monotheistic Christian religion, including the problem of religious pluralism. One of the most common questions an atheist asks a believer is, "Why your God and not someone else's?" Therefore, this paper aims to present Plantinga's answer to the question of religious pluralism. We will achieve this goal by developing Plantinga's theory of "proper functioning", a thesis (...)
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  12. Against Illiberalism: a critique of illiberal trends in liberal institutions, with a focus on neoracist ideology in Unitarian Universalism.David Cycleback - 2022 - Fifth Principle Project.
    This text examines recent illiberal trends in traditionally liberal institutions. Specifically, it critiques radical “anti-racism” approaches based on critical race theory (CRT) and the ideas of academics such as Ibram X. Kendi and Robin DiAngelo. It also focuses on Unitarian Universalism, a historically liberal church whose national leadership has adopted an extreme version of critical race theory. -/- Racial and other inequities are problems in all societies and all of human history, and there are no simple, easy or objectively correct (...)
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  13. El Cristianismo no‑religioso de Gianni Vattimo. Debilitamiento del ser, secularización y kénosis divina.Francisco Fernández Labastida - 2022 - In L. Bastos Andrade & Roberto Casales García (eds.), Dios y la filosofía. Una aproximación histórica al problema de la trascendencia. Tirant Humanidades. pp. 503-528.
    Gianni Vattimo's Non-religious Christianity. Weakening of being, secularization and divine kenosis.
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  14. Japanese Responses to Hick’s Religious Pluralism: Hick’s Liberalism Inherited from British Idealism.Naoki Kitta - 2022 - In Sharada Sugirtharajah (ed.), John Hick’s Religious Pluralism in Global Perspective. Springer Verlag. pp. 287-309.
    In Japan, there have been various responses to John Hick’s religious pluralism. This chapter categorizes these responses into two groups: positive response and critical response. Hiromasa Mase, Emi Mase-Hasegawa, and others positively responded to Hick’s religious pluralism and developed Hick’s religious pluralism from within Japanese situation. Anri Morimoto, Kousuke Nishitani, and others critically responded to Hick’s religious pluralism and warned against easy assimilation between Hick’s religious pluralism and Japanese religious situation. Among these responses, this chapter pays attention to Morimoto’s argument (...)
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  15. Eating Sugar, Becoming Sugar, Both, or Neither? Eschatology and Religious Pluralism in the Thought of John Hick, Sri Ramakrishna, and S. Mark Heim.Swami Medhananda - 2022 - In Sharada Sugirtharajah (ed.), John Hick’s Religious Pluralism in Global Perspective. Springer Verlag. pp. 157-178.
    This chapter explores the interrelation of religious pluralism and eschatology in the thought of John Hick and brings him into dialogue with the nineteenth-century Hindu mystic Sri Ramakrishna. According to Hick’s mature position, various world religions are equally capable of leading to salvation, since all the various religious conceptions of ultimate reality are different culturally conditioned ways of conceiving one and the same unknowable “Real an sich.” The contemporary Christian theologian S. Mark Heim convincingly argues that Hick’s theory of religious (...)
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  16. Hick’s Religious Pluralism and Korean Theology of Indigenization.Iljoon Park - 2022 - In Sharada Sugirtharajah (ed.), John Hick’s Religious Pluralism in Global Perspective. Springer Verlag. pp. 263-285.
    This chapter explores interactions between John Hick’s religious pluralism and Korean theology. Hick’s idea of religious pluralism awakened Korean theologians of indigenization about the necessity for interreligious dialogue. Although Korean society has been multi-religious, different religions have worked for people to build up the Way (Dao, 道) and to nurture Virtue (De, 德). Due to the fact that many imported religious traditions have become our cultural traditions, encounter with different religions for Koreans has been an internal dialogue or monologue for (...)
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  17. Universality and Particularity of Religions: Lessons of Shinran and Shin Buddhism for Catholic Theology of Religious Pluralism.Peter C. Phan - 2022 - Buddhist-Christian Studies 42 (1):241-261.
    Abstractabstract:What lessons can Catholic theology learn from Shinran (1173–1263), one of the leading Japanese proponents of Pure Land Buddhism, in matters regarding the universality and particularity of religions? How can Catholic theology move from Christological and ecclesiological exclusivism to a position that acknowledges religious pluralism? This essay attempts an answer to these questions by comparing the shift in Catholic pre-Vatican II theology of religion from exclusivism to pluralistic inclusivism to Shinran's abandonment of his monastic life and its practices at the (...)
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  18. World Religions and The Christ Event.Louis Roy - 2022 - Heythrop Journal 63 (5):977-983.
    The Heythrop Journal, Volume 63, Issue 5, Page 977-983, September 2022.
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  19. Religious Pluralism and Critical Realism.Perry Schmidt-Leukel - 2022 - In Sharada Sugirtharajah (ed.), John Hick’s Religious Pluralism in Global Perspective. Springer Verlag. pp. 67-89.
    This chapter discusses Hick’s pluralism in the overall context of his critical realist interpretation of religion and his defence of a religious worldview as rooted in religious experience. The distinction between the “Real an sich” and “the Real as humanly thought of and experienced”, which is central for his version of pluralism, is analysed in light of his understanding of the Ultimate’s ineffable unlimitedness (as a teaching found in many religious traditions) on the one hand, and his epistemology on the (...)
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  20. John Hick’s Religious Pluralism in Global Perspective.Sharada Sugirtharajah (ed.) - 2022 - Springer Verlag.
    This volume contains fresh scholarly contributions to mark the birth centenary of John Hick, the internationally well-known philosopher of religion, whose works continue to have significant global relevance in today’s religiously diverse and conflict-ridden world. His writings have reset the parameters of religious pluralism. Up till now, Hick’s religious pluralism has been mainly seen in relation to the Western context where Christianity is the predominant religion. This volume includes both Western and non-Western engagement with his thinking in contexts such as (...)
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  21. John Hick’s Religious Pluralism: Home and Abroad.Sharada Sugirtharajah - 2022 - In John Hick’s Religious Pluralism in Global Perspective. Springer Verlag. pp. 1-37.
    The volume represents a global response to Hick's philosophy of religious pluralism. Setting out the historical and theological background against which Hick’s religious pluralism emerged, it examines some of the contentious issues that resurface in the pluralism debate, ranging from his concept of divine ineffability to Kant to the noumenal Real to the ethical-soteriological criterion, and the reception of his version of religious pluralism both within and outside the Western hemisphere. It widens the discourse by bringing Hick’s pluralistic hypothesis into (...)
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  22. Chinese Daoism and Ultimate Reality: An Interpretation Based on John Hick’s Religious Pluralism.Zhicheng Wang - 2022 - In Sharada Sugirtharajah (ed.), John Hick’s Religious Pluralism in Global Perspective. Springer Verlag. pp. 243-262.
    John Hick has made significant contributions to the contemporary philosophy of religion and theology, particularly in the field of theodicy, religious pluralism and eschatology. In religious pluralism, Hick reviews the “invisible harmony” among world religions and avers that they are valid responses to the same Ultimate Reality. In light of this, this chapter seeks to examine the doctrine of Dao in Dao De Jing, and interpret it as a significant dimension of a multifaceted response to the Ultimate Reality. This analysis (...)
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  23. Nurcholish Madjid and Religious Pluralism in Indonesian Islam.M. Amin Abdullah - 2021 - In Mohammed Hashas (ed.), Pluralism in Islamic Contexts - Ethics, Politics and Modern Challenges. Springer Verlag. pp. 189-199.
    This chapter attempts to showcase the legacy of Nurcholish Madjid, an influential Muslim intellectual who championed religious pluralism in Indonesian Islam in the early post-independence era. Madjid argued for a rational and dynamic interpretation of Islam by promoting the use of Western social theory to reform the way traditionalist minds interpret Islam. With this approach, by the late 1980s, Madjid managed to build the basis for moderate views of Muslims, especially of those who come from the middle class background. The (...)
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  24. Disagreement and Religion.Matthew A. Benton - 2021 - In Matthew A. Benton & Jonathan L. Kvanvig (eds.), Religious Disagreement and Pluralism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1-40.
    This chapter covers contemporary work on disagreement, detailing both the conceptual and normative issues in play in the debates in mainstream analytic epistemology, and how these relate to religious diversity and disagreement. §1 examines several sorts of disagreement, and considers several epistemological issues: in particular, what range of attitudes a body of evidence can support, how to understand higher-order evidence, and who counts as an epistemic “peer”. §2 considers how these questions surface when considering disagreements over religion, including debates over (...)
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  25. Religious Disagreement and Pluralism.Matthew A. Benton & Jonathan L. Kvanvig (eds.) - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Epistemological questions about the significance of disagreement have advanced in concert with broader developments in social epistemology concerning testimony, the nature of expertise and epistemic authority, the role of institutions, group belief, and epistemic injustice (among others). During this period, related issues in the epistemology of religion have reemerged as worthy of new consideration, and available to be situated with new conceptual tools. This volume explores many of the issues at the intersection of the epistemology of disagreement and religious epistemology: (...)
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  26. How Confident Should the Religious Believer Be in the Face of Religious Pluralism?Sanford C. Goldberg - 2021 - In Matthew A. Benton & Jonathan L. Kvanvig (eds.), Religious Disagreement and Pluralism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 65-90.
  27. Introduction: Islam, Muslims, and Religious Pluralism: Concepts, Scope and Limits.Mohammed Hashas - 2021 - In Pluralism in Islamic Contexts - Ethics, Politics and Modern Challenges. Springer Verlag. pp. 1-32.
    This paper overviews the meanings of especially religious pluralism in the Islamic intellectual and political tradition, past and present, with reference to some major scholarly works in tafsīr, theology, and philosophy. First, before highlighting the importance of pluralism in modern studies of religion, from both historical and theological perspectives, brief reference to some classical “Islamic” texts on inter-and-intra comparative religions will be mentioned, not only to show that comparative religions and religious pluralism as scholarly disciplines are not inexistent in the (...)
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  28. The Apologist's Dilemma.Nathan L. King - 2021 - In Matthew A. Benton & Jonathan L. Kvanvig (eds.), Religious Disagreement and Pluralism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 142-179.
  29. How to Be an Inclusivist.Jonathan L. Kvanvig - 2021 - In Matthew A. Benton & Jonathan L. Kvanvig (eds.), Religious Disagreement and Pluralism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 217-237.
  30. RJan-Olav Henriksen, "Religious Pluralism and Pragmatist Theology: Openness and Resistance.".Mark Porrovecchio - 2021 - Philosophy in Review 41 (1):19-21.
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  31. Islamic Theology of Religious Pluralism: Building Islam-Buddhism Understanding.Imtiyaz Yusuf - 2021 - In Mohammed Hashas (ed.), Pluralism in Islamic Contexts - Ethics, Politics and Modern Challenges. Springer Verlag. pp. 201-219.
    Drawing from the teachings of the Qur’an about human unity and religious diversity and also the history of Islam-Buddhism coexistence, this chapter looks at the chances, challenges and opportunities for building Islam-Buddhism understanding in the age of rising Asian Islamophobia and Muslim-Buddhist conflicts in Asia. The chapter draws its content from the teachings of the Qur’an regarding how it views the role of religion in human history and its attitudes towards different religions. It also highlights that the distortion of the (...)
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  32. Religious pluralism and its implications for church development.George C. Asadu, Benjamin C. Diara & Nicholas Asogwa - 2020 - HTS Theological Studies 76 (3).
    Religious pluralism model holds the belief that there is virtue in every religion, just as all religions are good and are of equal value. It does not consider religion’s particularity but is interested in the ideas that have not favoured any religion. The issue with this concept is not its assertion of the validity of all religions. It is rather with its denial of the finality of any religion as the way by which people could come to God. Hence, it (...)
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  33. Religious Pluralisms: From Homogenization to Radicality.Mikel Burley - 2020 - Sophia 59 (2):311-331.
    Among the philosophical and theological responses to the phenomenon of religious diversity, religious pluralism has been both prominent and influential. Of its various proponents, John Hick and John Cobb represent two important figures whose respective positions, especially that of Hick, have done much to shape the debate over religious pluralism. This article critically analyses their positions, arguing that, by unhelpfully homogenizing religious perspectives, each of them fails to do justice to the radical diversity that exists. As an alternative to these (...)
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  34. Pluralism and Ineffability.David Cheetham - 2020 - Religious Studies 56 (1):95-110.
    In a tribute to the work of Alvin Plantinga, Nicholas Wolterstorff characterizes a form of the analytic tradition in philosophy of religion, which neither he nor Plantinga endorses, as a brand ofKant-rationality. What such rationality aims to achieve is, above all, auniversalityof rational agreement, or rather ‘a foundation that is acceptable to all rational reflective human-beings’, something that could be acknowledged by ‘all cognitively competent adult human beings’ who had access to the same relevant information or facts.
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  35. Religious Diversity and the Concept of Religion: Theology and Religious Pluralism.Christian Danz - 2020 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 62 (1):101-113.
    Summary The article deals with the concept of religion in the contemporary theology of religions. Many theologians in the current debate work with a general concept of religion. Such a conception of religion unifies the distinctive religious diversities. This article argues that against the background of the previous debate, a theology of religions must proceed from a concept of religion as communication. This concept emerges out of the Christian religious tradition: it carries a particular meaning and hence should not be (...)
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  36. Religion und Pluralität.Sebastian Gäb (ed.) - 2020 - Kohlhammer.
    Das Themenfeld "Religion und Pluralismus" hat sich in den letzten Jahren bedeutend weiterentwickelt. Der Band führt deutschsprachige LeserInnen in die bislang vorwiegend auf Englisch geführte Debatte ein und entwickelt grundlegende Fragen und Impulse für die weitere Forschung. Internationale ForscherInnen beleuchten zentrale Fragestellungen der Debatte über Pluralismus und Religion: z.B. die epistemischen Herausforderungen des peer-disagreement, neurotheologische und religionspsychologische Argumente für einen kulturübergreifenden Kern religiöser Erfahrung, oder das Potenzial des religiösen Fiktionalismus als Antwort auf die Unvereinbarkeit religiöser Wahrheitsansprüche und um die Anforderungen (...)
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  37. Daoism, Humanity, and the Way of Heaven.Ian James Kidd - 2020 - Religious Studies 56:111-126.
    I argue that Zhuangist Daoism manifests what I label the spiritual aspiration to emulation, and then use this to challenge some of John Cottingham's attempts to confine authentic spiritual experience to theistic traditions.
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  38. Religious Pluralism Concept of M. Mendelssohn and Its Theoretical Foundation.L. E. Kryshtop - 2020 - RUDN Journal of Philosophy 24 (3):328-341.
    The article consider the concept of religious pluralism by M. Mendelssohn and some aspects of his theory of knowledge and linguistic theory, lying in the foundation of the pluralism concept. The article shows that Mendelssohn expressed views that are far ahead of his time. His theory of knowledge repeats some lines of Hume's philosophy, which he praised highly, what was not characteristic of the German Enlightenment as a whole. By virtue of this, Mendelssohn can be considered as Kant's predecessor in (...)
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  39. Weber and Coyote: Polytheism as a Practical Attitude.Brendan Larvor - 2020 - Sophia 59 (2):211-228.
    Hyde claims that the trickster spirit is necessary for the renewal of culture, and that he lives only in the ‘complex terrain of polytheism’. Fortunately for those of us in monotheistic cultures, Weber gives reasons for thinking that polytheism is making a return, albeit in a new, disenchanted form. The plan of this paper is to elaborate some basic notions from Weber, to explore Hyde’s thesis in more detail and then to take up the question of the plurality of spirits (...)
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  40. Religious Diversity and Religious Progress by Robert McKim. [REVIEW]Jonathan Reibsamen - 2020 - Religious Studies Review 46 (3):391-391.
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  41. Religious Pluralism Between Normativity and Practical Implementation.Beatrice Tramontano - 2020 - Religious dialogue and cooperation 1:145-155.
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  42. The New Problem of Religious Luck.Guy Axtell - 2019 - In Ian M. Church & Robert J. Hartman (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy and Psychology of Luck. New York: Routledge. pp. 436-450.
    The study of problems of religious luck, I hope to convince the reader, is a needed focus today, in that this study promotes useful dialogue among theologians, philosophers, and researchers in the cognitive science of religions. There is a strong tendency among faith traditions to invoke asymmetric explanations of the religious value or salvific status of the home religion vis-à-vis all others. Philosophy of luck will be presented in this chapter as aiding our understanding of what is going on when (...)
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  43. Religious Diversity and Disagreement.Matthew A. Benton - 2019 - In Miranda Fricker, Peter Graham, David Henderson & Nikolaj Jang Pedersen (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Social Epistemology. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 185-195.
    Epistemologists have shown increased interest in the epistemic significance of disagreement, and in particular, in whether there is a rational requirement concerning belief revision in the face of peer disagreement. This article examines some of the general issues discussed by epistemologists, and then considers how they may or may not apply to the case of religious disagreement, both within religious traditions and between religious (and non-religious) views.
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  44. A Critique of Victoria S. Harrison’s Internal Realist Approach to Pluralism.Daniele Bertini - 2019 - Philosophia 47 (4):1053-1068.
    Victoria S. Harrison’s theory of internal pluralism approaches religious beliefs in terms of conceptual schemes. To her, this approach has the advantage of preserving core pluralist intuitions without being challenged by the usual difficulties. My claim is that this is not the case. After providing a succinct presentation of internal pluralism, I show that the critique of traditional pluralist views such as Hick’s may also be addressed to Harrison. There are two main reasons in support of my claim. Firstly, a (...)
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  45. Religious Diversity and Conceptual Schemes: Critically Appraising Internalist Pluralism.Mikel Burley - 2019 - Sophia 58 (2):283-299.
    Is a philosophical theory needed to ‘underwrite’ attitudes of toleration and respect in a multicultural and religiously diverse world? Many philosophers of religion have thought so, including Victoria Harrison. This article interrogates Harrison’s theory of internalist pluralism, which, though offering a welcome alternative to other theories, such as John Hick’s ‘pluralistic hypothesis’, nevertheless faces problems. Questioning the coherence of the theory’s account of how the existence of objects of worship can avoid being fully conceptual-scheme dependent, and raising doubts about its (...)
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  46. Farabi'de Dini Çoğulculuğun Temelleri ve Sınırları.Adem Çelik & Metehan Karakurt - 2019 - In Zuhra Kalakhanova & Ali Söylemez (eds.), IV. International European Conference on Social Sciences. Ispec Publishing House.
    Dini çoğulculuk, dini dışlayıcılık ve kapsayıcılıktan farklı olarak, her dinsel inanış taraftarlarının kendi dinleri içinde kalarak ilahi selamete erişeceğini söyler. Temelde, teolojik ve felsefi boyutları olan dini çoğulculuk tartışmasının siyasete bakan bir yönü de vardır. İslam tarihinde Meşşâî felsefenin kurucusu ve mutluluk filozofu olarak bilinen Farabi, bir taraftan hakikate nasıl ulaşılacağı diğer taraftan ise “âlem” adını verdiği kozmopolitanizm nasıl inşa edileceği ile ilgilenmektedir. Siyasal toplumun amacının, insanların uygun ölçekte, en yüce iyi için yardımlaşmalarını sağlamak olduğunu savunan Farabi’ye göre, erdemli bir (...)
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  47. Cognitive science of religion and the nature of the divine: A pluralist non-confessional approach.Johan De Smedt & Helen De Cruz - 2019 - In Jerry L. Martin (ed.), Theology without walls: The transreligious imperative. Taylor and Francis. pp. 128-137.
    According to cognitive science of religion (CSR) people naturally veer toward beliefs that are quite divergent from Anselmian monotheism or Christian theism. Some authors have taken this view as a starting point for a debunking argument against religion, while others have tried to vindicate Christian theism by appeal to the noetic effects of sin or the Fall. In this paper, we ask what theologians can learn from CSR about the nature of the divine, by looking at the CSR literature and (...)
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  48. In Spirit and Truth: Toward a Theology Without Walls.Richard Oxenberg - 2019 - In Jerry L. Martin (ed.), Theology without walls: The transreligious imperative. Taylor and Francis. pp. 14-24.
    Theology Without Walls is a project that seeks to understand the nature of divine reality through an exploration of all the world's religious traditions, without confining itself to any one in particular. In this essay, I discuss why theology has traditionally been done within the boundaries of specific traditions and suggest that, in our time, we are called to a new, more comprehensive, approach to theology.
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  49. Francisco Suárez on religion and religious pluralism.S. J. Aaron Pidel - 2019 - In Robert A. Maryks, Senent de Frutos & Juan Antonio (eds.), Francisco Suárez (1548-1617): Jesuits and the complexities of modernity. Boston: Brill.
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  50. Religious pluralism and interreligious dialogue.Manas Kumar Sahu - 2019 - IOSR 24 (7):57-62.
    Religious exclusivism is the biggest threat for multi-religious society at the same time, ambivalent thoughts among religion in religious pluralism due to religious diversity often yields religious violence. In both of the extreme, (religious exclusivism and religious pluralism) there is the possibility of religious violence, i.e., religious riots, terrorism, mob lynching, and communalism. The objective of this paper is to discuss the significance of interreligious dialogue (IRD), its basic principle, how IRD will help us for addressing the problems of humanity (...)
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