Many theistic religions place a high value on faith in God and some traditions regard it as a virtue. However, philosophers commonly assign either very little value to faith in God or significant negative value, or even view it as a vice. Progress in assessing whether and when faith in God can be valuable or disvaluable, virtuous or vicious, rational or irrational, or otherwise apt or inapt requires understanding what faith in God is. This Special Issue on the normative appraisal (...) of faith in God for Religious Studies includes nine articles, from a diverse range of perspectives, which explore issues related to the core questions ‘What is faith in God?’ and ‘What normative questions about faith in God need to be addressed?’ In this Introduction, we briefly introduce each article. (shrink)
In this chapter, we explore some ways in which reasoning based on mysticism can be rational, focusing on the episode “The Fortuneteller,” in which Aang, Katara, and Sokka save a village from a volcanic eruption. Throughout this episode, Sokka advocates a purely empirical approach to reasoning. The villagers, however, believe that no source of knowledge is more reliable than Aunt Wu, the local fortuneteller. At several points in the episode, Sokka claims that the villagers’ reliance on Aunt Wu is irrational. (...) The villagers claim otherwise: since Aunt Wu has never led them astray, it is rational to rely on her. As we will see, the villagers are right. Their approach to reasoning – based on Aunt Wu’s fortunetelling – is more rational than it initially seems to be. Roughly put, despite their belief in the mystical, the villagers behave in accord with a standard philosophical theory of rational decision-making, a theory of what makes some decisions rational and other decisions not. So Sokka is wrong to claim that the villagers’ reliance on Aunt Wu is irrational. The villagers behave quite rationally. (shrink)
For the purposes of this paper, I attempt to wrestle with the question of whether or not it is a requisite for a “believer” (which turns out to be a loaded and ambiguous term) to be a part of a formal/institutional Christian Church. This is a difficult task to accomplish, and this, I admit. There is no way to answer this, truly with certainty. But Metaphysics are rarely grounded in “certainty.” This is true for many Christian Theological tasks as well. (...) Nevertheless, this argument will be attempted by working with and off of the Black liberation theologian and philosopher, James H. Cone's basic structured argument found in "Black Theology & Black Power." It's important to note that Cone is a systematic theologian writing in 1969, a time where White America (and its "Christians") helped contribute to the assassination of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. Not to mention, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover was on a hunt for the next “Black Messiah,” had already infiltrated the Black Power movement, and that same year was making serious moves in undermining the Black Panther Party. Whereas White “Christian” America largely had his full support. After all the atrocities Black people in America have gone through, especially by its "Christians," many Black people had lost hope; they were broken, tired, many were angry—and righteously so. Cone’s 1969 argument reflects these Black sensibilities, a righteously angry theological and philosophical argument. I am attempting to wrestle with whether the basic structure of his argument is still applicable in contemporary America during the modern Black Lives Matter Movement. Thus, after rendering Cone’s argument from 1969, we imaginatively bend space and time to fast forward to the modern era 2020 and on, where we see if, by implication, Cone's argument is still relevant to the majority ("white") "Christian" Institutional/Formal Church. For the purposes of this paper, I will attempt to argue that Cone’s basic argument structure is still applicable, and that it is not a requisite for a Christian “believer” to be a part of a formal/institutional church. In this paper, I look at the ramifications of the Black Lives Matter movement in relation to the Christian formal institutional Church. (shrink)
Lines of argument taken from Cavendish’s Observations and Letters are used to support the notion that her innovative metaphysics was designed to counter the thinking of the new science and Descartes’s own arguments. The work of Broad, Atherton and Lichtenstein is cited, and it is concluded that Cavendish deserves close reading. In addition, although Cavendish does not address notions having to do with Christianity as directly as we might wish, it is clear that these concepts are crucially related to her (...) work. (shrink)
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin loved the world, but, theologically and spiritually, he often tried to leave it behind. This essay shows that from the 1920s until his death in 1955, Teilhard de Chardin unequivocally supported racist eugenic practices, praised the possibilities of the Nazi experiments, and looked down upon those who he deemed "imperfect" humans. These ideas explicitly lay the groundwork for Teilhard’s famous cosmological theology, a link which has been largely ignored in Teilhardian research until now. This study concludes (...) that such support requires a reconsideration of how Teilhard is used in twenty-first century theology. (shrink)
The task of this article is to propose an alternative method for adjudicating truth claims between various paradigms. Informed by sources such as Augustine, Aquinas, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Kuhn, I argue for a form of reasoning which aspires to credibility, plausibility, and explanatory capacity, rather than absolute proof. Instead of representing a flight from scientific standards, I argue that such an approach ultimately represents the best hope of safeguarding the essence of science and rationality as such.
This article seeks explore the complex relations between Beauty and the Sublime. The exploration is guided by two very powerful, but very different, thinkers: Swiss Catholic metaphysical theologian Hans Urs von Balthasat and American naturalist metaphysician Robert S. Corrington. Through reflection upon von Balthasar’s themes of Beauty, Splendor and Being and Corrington’s themes of the Sublime and the Encompassing it is hoped implications of the complex relations between Beauty and the Sublime might be evoked and engaged.
In the wake of the humanism in the early sixteenth century, Erasmus of Rotterdam was often taxed with the “sin of journalism” as having little to contribute to the then--current obsolete Latinism. Despite much of the false accusation against his scholarship and erudition, one of Erasmus’s inaugural works, whose impact reverberates to this day, was the Novum Instrumentum (1516). Many of Erasmus’s contemporaries misunderstood this “new” Latin edition to be just “another” Greek edition of the New Testament. This article seeks (...) to explore the background of Erasmus’s desire and struggle which led to the composition and publication of this Novum Instrumentum, on the one hand, and caused much confusion among his contemporaries, on the other. (shrink)
This article discusses whether animal rights may be defended from a natural rights or an ethical perspective. Both options fail. The same analysis applies in the case of humankind. ‘Humankind’ does not bring with it the acknowledgement of rights, nor does a focus on what is arguably characteristic of humankind, reason. Reason is decisive, though, in another respect: the fact that reasonable beings can claim and lay down rights. It does not follow from this that animals should have no rights, (...) since human beings may be motivated to constitute such rights, while this provides the most solid basis for them. (shrink)
Peter Furlong has recently raised an objection to my defense of Aquinas’s approach to explaining how God could cause all creaturely actions without causing sin. In this short paper, I argue that the objection fails.
The term "Ta'ziyeh" implies an Iranian dramatic genre and is the original drama of the entire Islamic world. This ritual drama has both Islamic and Persian heritage, with the tragic and heroic martyrdom of Imam Husayn as a central theme.
This study aims to evaluate whether the idea of ultimate reality in world religions contributes to the characteristics of the world religion paradigm, which is hierarchical cosmology or “subject-object cosmology.” Several research on this topic claims that one of the characteristics of the world religion paradigm is its hierarchical perspective. Discussing this issue is important to distinguish the world religions as the paradigm and the world religions as the most widely embraced religion. This study argues that the hierarchical perspective of (...) the world religion paradigm can be rooted in the idea of ultimate reality, that there is a supreme, foremost, and most principal reality in the continuity of this universe, namely the supernatural or God. The hierarchical cosmology consists of three main domains: supernatural/God, culture/human, and nature. This study uses a literature study methodology, relying on books, journals, and texts related to research questions. This study finds that the world religion paradigm or hierarchical cosmology or “subject-object cosmology” is prominent, especially in Abrahamic religions such as Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, even though the concept of ultimate reality in these three religions is different. (shrink)
I apply the Buddhist and Chinese religious understandings of miracles as natural events to a contemporary Chinese American religious healer who employs Buddhist spells, qigong, and a range of Chinese medical arts to successfully treat conditions such as a golf-ball-sized cancerous tumor, a balance and memory disorder, and stroke-induced facial hemiparesis. In doing so, I build upon the work of anthropologists and historians to do comparative philosophy on the theoretical categories of and boundaries among miracles, the natural, the supernatural, healing, (...) and religion. I engage with Morton Klass’ point on the ethnocentric presuppositions of such categories; Susan Sered’s attention to the political nature of strict binaries as opposed to more flexible continuums; Robert Campany’s distinction between ontological and epistemological miracles, where the latter uncovers the hidden wonders in the natural world; and Helen Tilley’s polyglot therapeutics, which are marked by oscillation between, and the simultaneous holding of, contradictory or incommensurable ontologies. I argue that the category of natural miracle allows reimagining of the above categories and their neat delineations. (shrink)
Realization of God is very important aspect and indeed the building blocks of Islamic religion, many Islamic realization of God was Scholars likes; Maulana Sheikh been discussed by Ibrahim Niasse (RTA) , and indeed taught by many others prominent Islamic scholars like; Maulana Wahidudd in Khan (RTA) in all their tireless efforts to call in to the way of ALLAH. As been ordered in a sound Hadith 1 , The prophet (SAW) Said: Allah (SWT) said "Know Me before you worship (...) Me, if you do not know Me, how would you worship Me?". From this p articular quoted Hadith we can easily come to the conclusion of the fact that Realization of God is the first and foundation of Islam, for it’s only by Realizing him (SWT) you can come to the answers of the following questions;. (shrink)
In this article, I examine a critical issue that is central to the Christian faith; one that has divided Western Christendom ever since. I will explore Martin Luther's and Jacques Maritain's positions on justification by faith. First, I will outline Luther's view which is more accurately known as sola fide, that is, justification by faith alone. Second, I will outline Maritain's understanding of faith and examine his criticism of Martin Luther in his Three Reformers (1925) which analyzes the coherence of (...) Luther's position. The introduction of Luther's 95 theses is recognized by many as the incipient moment of the reformation. One may ask a practical question: where in our present context, can Catholics and Protestants situate themselves in this wider dialogue regarding justification? I will conclude with a brief reflection on this question. (shrink)
The Institutional Dictionary of Astronism is the cumulation of receptions between Cometan and the astronomical world during the Founding era (2013-2021). The publication of this very first full-length Institutional Dictionary of Astronism represents eight years of the development of Astronism from its inception to how it stands today in 2021. The publication of this dictionary also encapsulates Astronism exactly as it exists now and how Cometan conceives it by the end of the Founding era. This dictionary and its contents capture (...) what Astronism is now for posterity to look back on how this astronomical belief system will change as time progresses. Many of the words and definitions of this dictionary will alter as we enter the Establishment era and Astronism continues its progression in becoming world religion. However, what will not ever change is Cometan’s absolute devotion to the stars of the night sky and his discovery of their secrets through his receptions, personal inspirations, and his overall relationship with The Great Cosmos. -/- Covering all the major Astronist beliefs, practices, cultural elements, theories, branches of study, and historical events, A Dictionary of Astronism, also known as the Institutional Dictionary of Astronism, is published by the Astronist Institution through its subsidiary, Astral Publishing, to commemorate the end of the era of The Founding of Astronism. -/- The Founding of Astronism began exactly eight years on 1st July 2013 which sparked Cometan's ideations and indrucies and which afforded him the insight, knowledge, and vision to found a new religious movement, philosophy, spirituality and political ideology. As The Founding of Astronism, also simply known as the Founding era, comes to an end, the Astronist Institution wants to acknowledge the fundamental importance of this year period of the history of Astronism and to the wider history of religion, philosophy and spirituality as a whole. -/- The Dictionary of Astronism immortalises that commemorative spirit by providing thousands of definition entries of Astronist terms that have been authorised by Astronist Institution scholars for dissemination worldwide. This dictionary captures the most up-to-date understanding of what Astronism is and how it as a whole and its component parts should be defined. Enjoy this dictionary that emblematises Astronism and how this new religion has so far developed. (shrink)
Religions seem to merge over time in order to achieve political and cultural stability; In the context of the modern-day, as the rate of globalization continues to increase, a greater understanding of syncretism is needed.
Detendo-se na pregação ético-escatológica de Jesus, que anuncia o reino de Deus e o tempo da decisão e o chamado à decisão, o Prof. Luiz Carlos Mariano Da Rosa assinala que, escapando à condição de um dever que pressupõe a formação do caráter e o princípio de determinação da comunhão humana, é a exigência do amor que se impõe à pregação escatológica de Jesus e a sua pregação ética e ao conhecimento da vontade de Deus, que implica o dever-ser e (...) o poder-fazer envolvendo o bem incondicional em face da consciência da situação-limite da existência e da necessidade de uma decisão existencial. Dessa forma, baseada em Bultmann, a pesquisa se detém na justificação e na sua relação com a fé enquanto obediência e decisão fundada no ato da Graça de Deus segundo o Apóstolo Paulo, assinalando que, diante do caráter absoluto do domínio exercido pelo poder do pecado em um processo que subjuga todos os seres humanos à escravidão e implica a impossibilidade de justificação diante de Deus por intermédio das obras da Lei, a fé enquanto obediência e decisão constitui o evento escatológico: o novo caminho salvífico que se opõe à lei das obras, convergindo para a justificação enquanto justiça de Deus. (shrink)
Jamie is a young man who finds himself unemployed and living in poverty. He struggles to come out of this poverty the best way he knows how: by educating himself. Little did he know that his opportunity to educate himself would come in the form of the Priesthood. Jamie struggles to discern Gods will in his life, thus in following this opportunity for the priesthood, Jamie finds himself torn between actually becoming a priest or leaving and following his dream career.
An analysis of Scripture uncovers a new model of God’s election and predestination of souls, which fits under the umbrella of the Calvinist theologies, but where this model involves an answer to the long-standing question of why God chose some, rather than all. It will be explored how before souls were elected (or condemned), God looked at them and knew them in a pre-election state, which God used to predestine each soul in physical reality. This analysis reveals why it could (...) be no other way but where God only would choose some, rather than all souls during the physical embodiment stage of the soul, and the vexing centuries-old Calvinist question of why God elected some not all has an answer. (shrink)
Al correlacionar el aspecto histórico de la Escritura y su estatus como logos, Rudolf Bultmann introduce un procedimiento exegético-hermenéutico basado en la investigación histórico-crítica de la Escritura e impone, a su vez, la interpretación del logos como kerigma en un proceso que involucra las posibilidades de conocimiento presentes en un determinado contexto histórico-cultural y que conduce a la necesidad de corresponder a la cosmovisión de la época actual. Así, a partir del análisis crítico de Paul Ricoeur, el artículo se centra (...) en la desmitologización como distinción entre kerigma y mito en un movimiento que se solapa con el artificio mitológico y converge en el cuestionamiento de su significado original a través de un proceso que, al fin y al cabo, requiere su permanencia bajo el horizonte de la interpretación. El artículo señala que Ricoeur muestra que Bultmann prescinde de la reflexión que involucra al lenguaje lato sensu como objeto, superponiendo el lenguaje de la fe al lenguaje del mito en un movimiento que, aunque pretendiendo suplantar al sacrificium intellectus, finalmente converge hacia un construcción que tiende a exigir el sacrificium intellectus en las fronteras de la desmitologización y en el lenguaje de la fe que interviene en su proceso. (shrink)
Atribuindo à ironia a possibilidade de exercício da liberdade subjetiva, Kierkegaard sublinha a negatividade absoluta de tal processo em Sócrates, convergindo para assinalar o absoluto e irredutível valor do indivíduo em um movimento que envolve o início absoluto da vida pessoal entre criar-se e deixar-se criar (poeticamente), cuja construção encerra a tensão inaplacável entre existência e transcendência e implica a necessidade de tornar-se subjetivo, haja vista que a verdade consiste na transformação do sujeito em si mesmo entre a vertigem da (...) liberdade e o paradoxo da fé. Dessa forma, o prof. Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa mostra que, baseado na ordem de Deus para sacrificar o seu filho, Isaque, Abraão instaura uma nova experiência existencial, segundo o referencial teórico de Mircea Eliade, pois pelo ato de fé supera a condição mítico-religiosa e institui uma relação absoluta com o Absoluto, conforme a leitura teológico-filosófica de Kierkegaard, o que implica a intervenção do Eterno no temporal, a manifestação do Deus-Homem Jesus Cristo que, de acordo com a perspectiva teológico-bíblica católico-protestante, possibilita a realização de um novo ser e de um novo modo de existência. (shrink)
"Chegaram ao lugar que Deus lhe havia designado; ali edificou Abraão um altar, sobre ele dispôs a lenha, amarrou Isaque, seu filho, e o deitou no altar, em cima da lenha; e, estendendo a mão, tomou o cutelo para imolar o filho. Mas do céu lhe bradou o Anjo do SENHOR: Abraão! Abraão! Ele respondeu: Eis-me aqui! Então, lhe disse: Não estendas a mão sobre o rapaz e nada lhe faças; pois agora sei que temes a Deus, porquanto não me (...) negaste o filho, o teu único filho. Tendo Abraão erguido os olhos, viu atrás de si um carneiro preso pelos chifres entre os arbustos; tomou Abraão o carneiro e o ofereceu em holocausto, em lugar de seu filho. E pôs Abraão por nome àquele lugar - O SENHOR Proverá. Daí dizer-se até ao dia de hoje: No monte do SENHOR se proverá." (Gn 22.9-14). Atribuindo à ironia a possibilidade de exercício da liberdade subjetiva, Kierkegaard sublinha a negatividade absoluta de tal processo em Sócrates, convergindo para assinalar o absoluto e irredutível valor do indivíduo em um movimento que envolve o início absoluto da vida pessoal entre criar-se e deixar-se criar (poeticamente), cuja construção encerra a tensão inaplacável entre existência e transcendência e implica a necessidade de tornar-se subjetivo, haja vista que a verdade consiste na transformação do sujeito em si mesmo entre a vertigem da liberdade e o paradoxo da fé. Dessa forma, o Prof. Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa mostra que, baseado na ordem de Deus para sacrificar o seu filho, Isaque, Abraão instaura uma nova experiência existencial, segundo o referencial teórico de Mircea Eliade, pois pelo ato de fé supera a condição mítico-religiosa e institui uma relação absoluta com o Absoluto, conforme a leitura teológico-filosófica de Kierkegaard, o que implica a intervenção do Eterno no temporal, a manifestação do Deus-Homem Jesus Cristo que, de acordo com a perspectiva teológico-bíblica católico-protestante, possibilita a realização de um novo ser e de um novo modo de existência. "A fé é a mais alta paixão de todo homem." (Kierkegaard). (shrink)
Consistindo em diferentes possibilidades diante da condição trágica da existência, o estético, o ético e o religioso são os modos existenciais em Kierkegaard que trazem como personagens o Poeta, o Herói Trágico e o Cavaleiro da Fé. Se o que perfaz o estético é a fruição do prazer em uma relação baseada na pura imediatez e sedução como esforço de conquista de si mesmo, o ético encerra a harmonização da subjetividade com a generalidade do bem e do mal, convergindo ambos (...) para reduzir a busca do Absoluto à imanência. Dessa forma, baseado no princípio hermenêutico-existencial de Kierkegaard, o Prof. Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa investiga o dever ético do Herói Trágico e a sua virtude moral, detendo-se na distinção entre Agamêmnon e Abraão, o Cavaleiro da Fé e a sua relação absoluta com o Absoluto. Assim sendo, a pesquisa assinala que Abraão inaugura uma experiência existencial que encerra a fé como relação absoluta com o Absoluto e converge para a superação do determinismo natural e do terror da história através de uma liberdade absoluta, que pressupõe um novo ser e um novo modo de existência e implica a manifestação do Eterno no temporal, a encarnação do Lógos, Deus-Homem Jesus Cristo. (shrink)
Se a pregação de Jesus consiste no pressuposto da teologia neotestamentária, segundo o pensamento de Bultmann, a análise do seu conteúdo emerge como fundamental para a compreensão do querigma cristão e da construção literário-teológica da comunidade primitiva. Dessa forma, o artigo se detém na pregação ético-escatológica de Jesus, que anuncia o reino de Deus e o tempo da decisão e o chamado à decisão, que converge para a radicalidade e exige a obediência escatológica enquanto realização da vontade de Deus. Assim, (...) escapando à condição de um dever que converge para a formação do caráter e ao princípio de determinação da comunhão humana, o artigo assinala que é a exigência do amor que se impõe à pregação escatológica de Jesus e a sua pregação ética e ao conhecimento da vontade de Deus, que implica o dever-ser e o poder-fazer envolvendo o bem incondicional em uma construção teórico-conceitual e subjetivo-existencial que envolve a consciência da situação-limite da existência e a necessidade de uma decisão existencial. (shrink)
Sublinhando que a evocação dos acontecimentos que tiveram lugar ab origine convergir, segundo a perspectiva mítico-religiosa, para a manifestação das sagradas, o Prof. Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa, baseado no método histórico-comparativo de Mircea Eliade, atribui à prece a condição de suscitar o poder sagrado em um processo capaz de exercer influência sobrenatural e alcançar os recônditos da consciência, como afirma Marcel Mauss. Dessa forma, sobrepondo-se às práticas mágico-religiosas e aos processos litúrgico-rituais do politeísmo, a oração característica do monoteísmo de (...) Israel, segundo a perspectiva bíblico-teológica veterotestamentária, assinala um relacionamento pactual e uma aliança que envolve Yahveh e como morais implicadas em seus atributos, a sabre, justiça, fidelidade e bondade, convergindo para a vida em sua plenitude histórica. Finalizando, o Prof. Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa mostra que a oração, segundo a perspectiva bíblico-teológica neotestamentária, implica a expressão da existência escatológica entre a contingência e a transcendência em Bultmann, encerrando a criatividade diretiva de Deus em Tillich e a superação do estado de alienação existencial. (shrink)
Soulignant que l'évocation des événements qui ont eu lieu ab origine converge, selon la perspective mythique-religieuse, pour la manifestation des forces sacrées, le professeur Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa, s'appuyant sur la méthode historico-comparative de Mircea Eliade, attribue à la prière la condition d'éveiller le pouvoir sacré dans un processus capable d'exercer une influence surnaturelle et d'atteindre les recoins de la conscience, comme l'affirme Marcel Mauss. Ainsi, en superposant les pratiques magico-religieuses et les processus liturgiques-rituels du polythéisme, la prière caractéristique (...) du monothéisme d'Israël, selon la perspective des vétérans de la théologie biblique, marque une relation pacifique et une alliance qui implique Yahveh et les exigences morales qu'impliquent ses attributs, à savoir la justice, la fidélité et la bonté, convergeant pour la vie dans sa plénitude historique. Enfin, le professeur Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa montre que la prière, selon la perspective néo-théologique biblique, implique l'expression de l'existence eschatologique entre contingence et transcendance chez Bultmann, fermant la créativité directive de Dieu à Tillich et le dépassement de l'état d' aliénation existentielle. (shrink)
Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa, opierając się na historiaczno-komparatywnej metodzie Mircea Eliade, przypisuje modlitwie warunek wzbudzenia świętej mocy w procesie zdolnym do wywierania śdwierania nadnaturalnego zakówierania twiero marciano marciano zakówiwieria marciano zakówieria marciano marciano marciano wpływieria marciano mar zdociwier do marciano marciadoci docciwier do mar. W sposób dez, nakładając nd siebie praktyki magiczno-religijne i procesy liturgiczno-krytyczne politeizmu, charakterystyczna dla monoteizmu Izraela Modlitwa, według biblijno-teologicznej perspektywy kombatanckiej, oznacza pokojowy Związek i Sojusz, który angażuje Yahvé i moralne postulaty zawarte w jego atrybutach, (...) czyli SPRAWIEDLIWOŚCI , wierności i dobroci, zbiegające się do życia w jego historycznej pełni. Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa pokazuje wreszcie, że modlitwa, zgodnie z biblijno-teologiczną perspektywą neotesteologiczną. (shrink)
De evocatie van de gebeurtenissen die plaatsvonden ab origine convergeert, volgens het mythisch-religieuze perspectief, voor de manifestatie van de heilige krachten, schrijft Prof. Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa, gebaseerd op de historisch-vergelijkende methode van Mircea Eliade, aan het gebed de voorwaarde toe van het opwekken van de heilige kracht in een proces dat in staat is om bovennatuurlijke invloed uit te oefenen en de uitsparingen van het bewustzijn te bereiken, zoals Marcel Mauss stelt. Door de magisch-religieuze praktijken en liturgisch-rituele processen (...) van het polytheïsme, het kenmerkende gebed van het monotheïsme van Israël, volgens het bijbelse-theologische veteranenperspectief, over elkaar heen te leggen, wordt een vreedzame relatie en een bondgenootschap getekend waarbij Jahve en de morele eisen die in zijn attributen worden geïmpliceerd, namelijk rechtvaardigheid, trouw en goedheid, samenkomen voor het leven in zijn historische volheid. Tot slot laat Prof. Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa zien dat het gebed, volgens het bijbels-theologische neotestheologische perspectief, de uitdrukking van het eschatologische bestaan tussen contingentie en transcendentie in Bultmann impliceert, waardoor de richtlijncreativiteit van God in Tillich wordt afgesloten en de staat van existentiële vervreemding wordt overwonnen. (shrink)
Richard Swinburne is one of the best-known names in the international philosophical scene. His apologetic project is considered one of the largest and most impactful and profound of the last century. The interview conducted here explores many biographical and theoretical issues (Omniscience, Eternity, God’s existence, Free will, Analogy, Relational ontology and Powers ontology, Soul-Body relation, Trinity, Evil) and it aims to trace a broad (albeit necessarily partial) path through his numerous works. The interview took place in 2016, in Oxford, at (...) Swinburne’s home. Today, Swinburne’s thought is discussed in monographs and doctoral theses, witnessing to an influence that will undoubtedly be lasting. (shrink)
This paper provides an account on how to understand “emotional depth” and applies it to the particular case of religious experiences. After motivating the topic (section 1), I turn to classical and contemporary approaches to “emotional depth”. I divide these accounts into two main groups depending on whether they interpret depth as a constitutive or a momentary feature of the affective experience. I argue that despite their descriptive power, none of the existing accounts adequately captures the depth of affective religious (...) experiences (section 2). Next, I present and critically assess Kurt Stavenhagen’s neglected account of the depth of religious feelings. In particular, I explore his concept of “specific depth”. In my reading, this notion conveys the momentary structure of a feeling (section 3). I then proceed to develop my own account according to which emotional depth is a phenomenal quality which depends on the intentional structure of a feeling. In particular, I argue that the feature of depth is explainable in terms of the specific ways in which a feeling is directed toward an object (directedness) and evaluatively presents it (evaluative presentation). Drawing on this idea, I examine three varieties of affective intentionality and distinguish between emotions, sentiments, and moods (section 4). I then apply my model to explain the depth of affective religious experiences (section 5). The main findings are summarized in the conclusion (section 6). (shrink)
Christianity 101 is a book that provides foundational knowledge about the Christian faith. When learning any new subject, there is a learning curve that can sometimes feel like you are in a maze. Questions arise like, What does that term mean? How does that subject relate to the others, and where do I start in this learning process? Christianity 101 provides a starting place that provides knowledge about terminology and how to understand the foundational teachings of faith in Jesus Christ. (...) If you are new or someone seeking to know more about the Christian faith in general, then this book will be a good start. It will provide you an organized approach to the key elements of the faith and how it all works together, moving you out of the maze and onto a path that is much less confusing to travel on. (shrink)
Prof. Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa unterstreicht, dass die Evokation der Ereignisse, die ab origine stattgefunden haben, gemäß der mythisch-religiösen Perspektive für die Manifestation der heiligen Kräfte konvergiert. Auf der Grundlage der historisch-komparativen Methode von Mircea Eliade schreibt Prof. Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa dem Gebet die Bedingung zu, die heilige Kraft in einem Prozess zu erwecken, der in der Lage ist, einen übernatürlichen Einfluss auszuüben und die Vertiefungen des Bewusstseins zu erreichen, wie Marcel Mauss feststellt. Auf diese Weise überlagert (...) das charakteristische Gebet des Monotheismus Israels die magisch-religiösen Praktiken und liturgisch-rituellen Abläufe des Polytheismus und markiert nach der biblisch-theologischen Veteranenperspektive eine friedliche Beziehung und ein Bündnis, das Jahwe und die in seinen Attributen implizierten moralischen Forderungen, nämlich Gerechtigkeit, Treue und Güte, für das Leben in seiner historischen Fülle zusammenführt. Schließlich zeigt Prof. Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa, dass das Gebet nach der biblisch-theologischen neotestheologischen Perspektive den Ausdruck der eschatologischen Existenz zwischen Kontingenz und Transzendenz bei Bultmann, die Schließung der direktiven Kreativität Gottes bei Tillich und die Überwindung des Zustands der existentiellen Entfremdung impliziert. (shrink)
Democracy was never praised in unanimity. Nor was it praised by everybody. Its greatest supporters were usually its greatest critics. Alexis de Tocqueville, the author of famous Democracy in America, used to call political parties an „evil inherent in free governments". Being so impressed by the enthusiasm of Americans for joining associations, probably he would never expect that some generations later Jonathan Rauch will call the same genuine American spirit „demosclerotical" and „hyperpluralistic". Stanislaw Kowalczyk writes about democracy from a far (...) different prospective. He completely ignores all factual data and tries to convince the reader that democracy is predominantly a philosophical quest. And Kowalczyk is right. He is right at least to the extent that he discusses several political ideas and popular Ideologies always underlying all the controversies of our modern society. Since he does it very carefully and accurately, Kowalczyk reveals them very effectively. (shrink)
This paper was made as part of a wider research I made about rituals and their meaning and roles they are playing in the religious system of thinking. The way they are thought, displayed, precisely followed as instructed and believed, makes them a powerful social act that has been always provided by any religion, and also a tool for religion to make the human society what it is today. After I speak about what is a ritual and its religious content (...) in general, I am enumerating roles and functions of play and theatre in particular have, both for profane and religious purpose. Do we still use play/games as adults because they are rewarding, they give us pleasure? They are used as means of relaxation, or for continuing the age of childhood; or it is in our nature to play games in everything we do? In this paper I have emphasized play as adaptive potentiation or adaptive variability useful both in therapy, as in religious ceremony. The relation and comparison of rituals with play is due to the fact that playing is the most engaging behavior performed by man and animals, and it can be found as foundation of almost any ritualist activity. (shrink)
The purpose of this chapter is to unearth the cultural conditionals that silently buttress the recurrence of one of the most violent crimes of our times, namely mass shootings. These conditionals are rooted in a religious discourse that thrives on the notions of sacred and sacrifice as a violent act par excellence, yet of inaugural value for the constitution of a community and its symbolic order. The offered analysis draws on Kristeva’s semanalytic perspective, in an interdisciplinary dialogue with sociological strands.
We present a simple model to show the compossibility of middle knowledge, grounded truth, libertarian free will, predestination, evil, hell, a sin-free heaven, God being perfectly just, free, praiseworthy, and necessarily omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent, this world being both replete with injustice and the best of all possible worlds, heinous suffering, no-one unjustly suffering, God’s grace for the godly, the prospering of the godless, original sin, human responsibility, transworld depravity, irresistible grace, and Arminian human choice. The model is not intended (...) to be realistic, but its possibility argues for the possibility that a realistic model containing such compossibles could exist – and even be actual. (shrink)
This essay demonstrates the prominence of imitation in Kierkegaard’s ethics. I move beyond his idea of authentic existence modeled on Christ and explore the secular dimension of Kierkegaard’s insights about human nature and imitation. I start with presenting imitation as key to understanding the ethical dimension of the relationship between the universal and individual aspects of the human self in Kierkegaard. I then show that Kierkegaard’s moral concepts of “primitivity” and “comparison” are a response to his sociological and psychological observations (...) about imitation from an ethical point of view. In the final section of this paper, I briefly engage Friedrich Schleiermacher’s “ethics of individuality” and Gabriel Tarde’s “laws of imitation” to explore Kierkegaard’s consideration of ethics and imitation as situated within the context of a broader conversation on imitation. (shrink)
For a century the Bahá’í Faith has been classified, within the German academy, as a world religion. This article highlights the major historical milestones in this process of recognition. The process was initiated on the eve of the First World War by the two Jewish Germanophone orientalists Goldziher and Vambery. In the inter-war period, the categorization of this faith as a world religion – rather than a sect of Islam, as it had once been viewed – was further propelled by (...) academics outside the field of theology and religious studies, such as the natural scientist Auguste Forel. It was only after the catastrophic experience of World War II, a period when the German Bahá’í community evinced a spirit of resilience in the face of Nazi oppression, that scholars in the field of Christian theology and religious studies, such as Heiler, Mensching and Benz, who represented the school of Religionswissenschaft des Verstehens, began to adopt the classification of the Bahá’ís as new world religion. (shrink)
The article reviews the book Śmierć, nieśmiertelność, sens życia. Egzystencjalny wymiar filozofii Ludwiga Wittgensteina [Death, Immortality, the Meaning of Life: The Existential Dimension of Ludwig Wittgenstein's Philosophy], by Ireneusz Ziemiński.
After the episode of the golden calf, in his anger Moses had smashed and broken the tablets inscribed with the Ten Commandments. Despite the shameful apostasy of the people, they were given another opportunity to enter into a covenant relationship with the living God. The first set of tablets God had given to Moses, and now it is Moses who must bring new tablets that God will inscribe. It is symbolic of the fact of the covenant relationship that humanity must (...) do its part and not leave it all to God as passive recipients; no, we must become active participants. Centuries later, the prophet Jeremiah will speak of the law being written on our hearts. All of us are invited to bring our hearts into God's presence so that the process of conversion may continue. Moses' proclamation of the tenderness, compassion and kindness of God in the face of human frailty should never be forgotten. (shrink)