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Subcategories:History/traditions: Reproductive Ethics

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  1. Contraception in Research: A Policy Suggestion.Toby L. Schonfeld & Bruce G. Gordon - 2005 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 27 (2):15.
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  2. Misunderstanding in Clinical Research: Distinguishing Therapeutic Misconception, Therapeutic Misestimation, & Therapeutic Optimism.Sam Horng & Christine Grady - 2003 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 25 (1):11.
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  3. Abortion and Fetal Tissue Transplantation.Douglas K. Martin - 1993 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 15 (3):1.
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  4. Bill to Resume Federal Funding of Fetal Tissue Transplantation Is Damaging to Women.Dorothy E. Vawter, Karen G. Gervais & Warren Kearney - 1991 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 13 (5):11.
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  5. The Use of Aborted Fetal Tissue in Research: A Rebuttal.James Tunstead Burtchaell - 1989 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 11 (2):9.
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  6. A Response to Burtchaell: I: The Ethics of Using Human Fetal Tissue.Benjamin Freedman - 1988 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 10 (6):1.
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  7. University Policy on Experimental Use of Aborted Fetal Tissue.James Tunstead Burtchaell - 1988 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 10 (4):7.
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  8. University Policy on Experimental Use of Aborted Fetal Tissue.Burtchaell James Tunstead - 1988 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 10 (4):7.
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  9. Choice in Fertility Preservation in Girls and Adolescent Women with Cancer.Jeff Nisker, Françoise Baylis & Carolyn McLeod - 2006 - Cancer 107 (S7):1686-1689.
    With the cure rate for many pediatric malignancies now between 70% and 90%, infertility becomes an increasingly important issue. Strategies for preserving fertility in girls and adolescent women occur in two distinct phases. The first phase includes oophorectomy and cryopreservation of ovarian cortex slices or individual oocytes; ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of oocytes, with or without in vitro maturation, followed by cryopreservation; and ovarian autografting to a distant site. The second phase occurs if the woman chooses to pursue pregnancy, and includes (...)
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  10. Affecting Future Individuals: Why and When Germline Genome Editing Entails a Greater Moral Obligation Towards Progeny.Davide Battisti - 2021 - Bioethics:1-9.
    Assisted reproductive technologies have greatly increased our control over reproductive choices, leading some bioethicists to argue that we face unprecedented moral obligations towards progeny. Several models attempting to balance the principle of procreative autonomy with these obligations have been proposed. The least demanding is the minimal threshold model (MTM), according to which every reproductive choice is permissible, except creating children whose lives will not be worth living. Hence, as long as the future child is likely to have a life worth (...)
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  11. The Defective Character Solution to the Non-Identity Problem.Ben Bramble - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    (*Available on request*. Just email me to receive a copy.) -/- The non-identity problem is that some actions seem morally wrong even though, by affecting future people’s identities, they are worse for nobody. In this paper, I further develop and defend a lesser known solution to the problem, one according to which when such actions are wrong, it is not because of what they do or produce, but rather just because of why they were performed. In particular, I argue that (...)
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  12. If Fetuses Are Persons, Abortion is a Public Health Crisis.Bruce Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2021 - Bioethics 1:1-14.
    Pro-life advocates commonly argue that fetuses have the moral status of persons, and an accompanying right to life, a view most pro-choice advocates deny. A difficulty for this pro-life position has been Judith Jarvis Thomson’s violinist analogy, in which she argues that even if the fetus is a person, abortion is often permissible because a pregnant woman is not obliged to continue to offer her body as life support. Here, we outline the moral theories underlying public health ethics, and examine (...)
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  13. Gamete Donation, the Responsibility Objection, and Procreative Responsibilities.Reuven Brandt - 2021 - Wiley: Journal of Applied Philosophy 38 (1):88-103.
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  14. The Environmental Impact of Overpopulation: The Ethics of Procreation.Trevor Hedberg - 2020 - London, UK: Routledge.
    This book examines the link between population growth and environmental impact and explores the implications of this connection for the ethics of procreation. In light of climate change, species extinctions, and other looming environmental crises, Trevor Hedberg argues that we have a collective moral duty to halt population growth to prevent environmental harms from escalating. This book assesses a variety of policies that could help us meet this moral duty, confronts the conflict between protecting the welfare of future people and (...)
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  15. Is Pregnancy Really a Good Samaritan Act?Bruce P. Blackshaw - forthcoming - Christian Bioethics.
    One of the most influential philosophical arguments in favour of the permissibility of abortion is Judith Jarvis Thomson’s violinist analogy, presented in ‘A Defense of Abortion’. Its appeal for pro-choice advocates lies in Thomson’s granting that the fetus is a person with equivalent moral status to any other human being, and yet demonstrating—to those who accept her reasoning—that abortion is still permissible. In her argument, Thomson draws heavily on the parable of the Good Samaritan, arguing that gestating a fetus in (...)
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  16. Bacterial Baptism: Scientific, Medical, and Regulatory Issues Raised by Vaginal Seeding of C-Section-Born Babies.Noel T. Mueller, Suchitra K. Hourigan, Diane E. Hoffmann, Lauren Levy, Erik C. von Rosenvinge, Betty Chou & Maria-Gloria Dominguez-Bello - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (4):568-578.
    Several lines of evidence suggest that children born via Cesarean section are at greater risk for adverse health outcomes including allergies, asthma and obesity. Vaginal seeding is a medical procedure in which infants born by C-section are swabbed immediately after birth with vaginal secretions from the mother. This procedure has been proposed as a way to transfer the mother's vaginal microbiome to the child, thereby restoring the natural exposure that occurs during vaginal birth that is interrupted in the case of (...)
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  17. New Zealand Policy on Frozen Embryo Disputes.Carolyn Mason - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (1):121-131.
    Disputes between separated couples over whether frozen embryos can be used in an attempt to create a child create a moral dilemma for public policy. When a couple create embryos intending to parent any resulting children, New Zealand’s current policy requires the consent of both people at every stage of the ART process. New Zealand’s Advisory Committee on Assisted Reproductive Technology has proposed a policy change that would give ex-partners involved in an embryo dispute twelve months to come to an (...)
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  18. Do Mothers of Extremely Preterm Babies Have a Duty to Express Breastmilk?Fiona Woollard - forthcoming - Acta Paediatrica 1 (00).
    Infant feeding decisions are highly emotionally charged. I argue elsewhere that many problems surrounding infant feeding decisions result from a moralized context created by mistakes in our assumptions about maternal duties including the mistaken assumption that mothers have a defeasible moral duty to breastfeed. Mothers have a reason, but not a moral duty to breastfeed. Even those who are convinced by my argument in the case of full-term babies, might find it harder to accept in the case of premature babies. (...)
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  19. Genetic Selective Abortion: Still a Matter of Choice.Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 23 (2):445-455.
    Jeremy Williams has argued that if we are committed to a liberal pro-choice stance with regard to selective abortion for disability, we will be unable to justify the prohibition of sex selective abortion. Here, I apply his reasoning to selective abortion based on other traits pregnant women may decide are undesirable. These include susceptibility to disease, level of intelligence, physical appearance, sexual orientation, religious belief and criminality—in fact any traits attributable to some degree to a genetic component. Firstly, I review (...)
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  20. Legal But Rare.Andrew Fiala - 2019 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):203-220.
    This paper argues that it is not incoherent to think that abortion should be “legal but rare.” The argument draws upon virtue ethics, feminism, critical theory, and the theory of biopolitics to argue that the idea that abortion should be legal but rare is best understood as aiming at the elimination of unwanted pregnancies. Some pro-choice defenders of abortion rights worry that the “legal but rare” idea stigmatizes women who choose abortion. But when this idea is unpacked using the tools (...)
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  21. Legal Punishment, Abortion and the Substance View.Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2019 - The New Bioethics (3):1-3.
    A response to Henrik Friberg-Fernros' commentary on ‘The Ethics of Killing: Strengthening the Substance View with Time-relative Interests’.
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  22. From Dusk Till Dawn: Bioethical Insights Into the Beginning and the End of Life.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2019 - Berlin, Germany: Logos Verlag.
    From Dawn till Dusk embraces the conceptual challenges often associated with Bioethics by taking the reader on a journey that embodies the circle of life and what it means to be human. The beginning and the end of life have always been an impossible riddle to humans. Bioethics does not aspire to unveil utter truths regarding the purpose of our existence; on the contrary, its task is to settle controversial issues that arise within this finite, very fragile and vulnerable life, (...)
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  23. Eugenics Undefended.Robert A. Wilson - 2019 - Monash Bioethics Review 37 (1-2):68-75.
    This is a critical response to "Defending Eugenics", published in MBR in 2018.
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  24. Double Effect & Ectopic Pregnancy – Some Problems.Michal Pruski - 2019 - Catholic Medical Quarterly 69 (2):17-20.
    This paper looks at the Catholic justification of medical interventions in ectopic pregnancies. The paper first shows that the way how Double Effect Reasoning is often applied to ectopic pregnancies is not consistent with the way Aquinas introduces this mode of reasoning. The paper then shows certain problems in common defences of the use of salpingectomies. The paper then re-evaluates the medical interventions used in the management of ectopic pregnancies, with both a focus on the aim of the treatment and (...)
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  25. The Relationship of Gametes to Those Who Procreate and Its Impact on Artificially Generated Gamete Technologies.Michal Pruski - 2017 - Ethics and Medicine 33 (1):27-41.
    Current developments in reproductive technology forecast that in the foreseeable future artificially generated gametes might be presented as a possible fertility treatment for infertile couples and for homosexual couples desiring to have children genetically originating from both partners. It is important to evaluate the ethical issues connected to this technology before its emergence. This article first reviews the meaning that gametes (sperm and eggs) might have to those who procreate, as well as their ontology. From this, suggestions are made as (...)
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  26. Genetic Parenthood and Causation: An Objection to Douglas and Devolder’s Modified Direct Proportionate Genetic Descent Account.César Palacios-González - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (9):1085-1090.
    In a recent publication Tom Douglas and Katrien Devolder have proposed a new account of genetic parenthood, building on the work of Heidi Mertes. Douglas and Devolder’s account aims to solve, among other things, the question of who are the genetic parents of an individual created through somatic cell nuclear transfer (i.e. cloning): (a) the nuclear DNA provider or (b) the progenitors of the nuclear DNA provider. Such a question cannot be answered by simply appealing to the folk account of (...)
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  27. Obscene Division: Feminist Liberal Assessments of Prostitution Versus Feminist Liberal Defenses of Pornography.Jessica Spector - 2006 - In Prostitution and Pornograph. Stanford, CA, USA: Stanford University Press. pp. 419-444.
    In assessing ethical issues concerning the sex-industry, feminist liberalism ought to combine the concern for the worker that is central to its treatment of prostitution, with sensitivity to the social and cultural embeddedness of self that is central to its treatment of pornography. That would enable us to then look at live-actor pornography as a form of prostitution that raises additional questions about third party consumption — and analysis both more theoretically coherent and practically useful.
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  28. Conscience in Reproductive Health Care: Prioritizing Patient Interests.Carolyn McLeod - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Conscience in Reproductive Health Care responds to the growing worldwide trend of health care professionals conscientiously refusing to provide abortions and similar reproductive health services in countries where these services are legal and professionally accepted. Carolyn McLeod argues that conscientious objectors in health care should prioritize the interests of patients in receiving care over their own interest in acting on their conscience. She defends this "prioritizing approach" to conscientious objection over the more popular "compromise approach" without downplaying the importance of (...)
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  29. Prenatal Care for Undocumented Immigrants: Professional Norms, Ethical Tensions, and Practical Workarounds.Rachel E. Fabi & Holly A. Taylor - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (3):398-408.
    This paper examines the practice implications of various state policies that provide publicly funded prenatal care to undocumented immigrants for health care workers who see undocumented patients. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with purposively sampled health care workers at safety net clinics in California, Maryland, Nebraska, and New York. Health care workers were asked about the process through which undocumented patients receive prenatal care in their health center and the ethical tensions and frustrations they encounter when providing or facilitating (...)
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  30. Is It Ever Morally Permissible to Select for Deafness in One’s Child?Jacqueline Mae Wallis - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):3-15.
    As reproductive genetic technologies advance, families have more options to choose what sort of child they want to have. Using preimplantation genetic diagnosis, for example, allows parents to evaluate several existing embryos before selecting which to implant via in vitro fertilization. One of the traits PGD can identify is genetic deafness, and hearing embryos are now preferentially selected around the globe using this method. Importantly, some Deaf families desire a deaf child, and PGD–IVF is also an option for them. Selection (...)
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  31. Meeting the Epicurean Challenge: A Reply to Christensen.Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):478-479.
    In ’Abortion and deprivation: a reply to Marquis’, Anna Christensen contends that Don Marquis’ influential ’future like ours’ argument for the immorality of abortion faces a significant challenge from the Epicurean claim that human beings cannot be harmed by their death. If deprivation requires a subject, then abortion cannot deprive a fetus of a future of value, as no individual exists to be deprived once death has occurred. However, the Epicurean account also implies that the wrongness of murder is also (...)
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  32. Nobody Puts Baby in the Container: The Foetal Container Model at Work in Medicine and Commercial Surrogacy.Teresa Baron - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 36 (3):491-505.
    This article argues that a particular metaphysical model permeates cultural practices surrounding pregnancy: the foetal container model. Widespread uncritical reliance on this view of pregnancy has been highly detrimental to women's liberty and reproductive autonomy. In this article, I extend existing critiques of the medical treatment of pregnant women to the context of the burgeoning commercial surrogacy industry. In doing so, I aim to show that our philosophical analysis in both spheres is constrained by the presupposition that the foetus and (...)
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  33. The Subjects of Ectogenesis: Are “Gestatelings” Fetuses, Newborns, or Neither?Nick Colgrove - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (11):723-726.
    Subjects of ectogenesis—human beings that are developing in artificial wombs (AWs)—share the same moral status as newborns. To demonstrate this, I defend two claims. First, subjects of partial ectogenesis—those that develop in utero for a time before being transferred to AWs—are newborns (in the full sense of the word). Second, subjects of complete ectogenesis—those who develop in AWs entirely—share the same moral status as newborns. To defend the first claim, I rely on Elizabeth Chloe Romanis’s distinctions between fetuses, newborns and (...)
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  34. Looking Into the Shadow: The Eugenics Argument in Debates on Reproductive Technologies and Practices.Giulia Cavaliere - 2018 - Monash Bioethics Review 36 (1-4):1-22.
    Eugenics is often referred to in debates on the ethics of reproductive technologies and practices, in relation to the creation of moral boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable technologies, and acceptable and unacceptable uses of these technologies. Historians have argued that twentieth century eugenics cannot be reduced to a uniform set of practices, and that no simple lessons can be drawn from this complex history. Some authors stress the similarities between past eugenics and present reproductive technologies and practices (what I define (...)
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  35. Direct and Indirect Abortion in the Roman Catholic Tradition: A Review of the Phoenix Case. [REVIEW]Gerald D. Coleman S. S. - 2013 - HEC Forum 25 (2):127-143.
    In Roman Catholic Moral Theology, a direct abortion is never permitted. An indirect abortion, in which a life threatening pathology is treated, and the treatment inadvertently leads to the death of the fetus, may be permissible in proportionately grave situations. In situations in which a mother’s life is endangered by the pregnancy before the fetus is viable, there is some debate about whether the termination of the pregnancy is a direct or indirect abortion. In this essay a recent case from (...)
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  36. Das Verhältnis von Abtreibung Und Transplantation Fetalen Hirngewebes: Eine Mittel-Zweck-Beziehung?The Relation Between Abortion and Transplantation of Fetal Tissue: A Means to an End?Matthias Kliegel - 1999 - Ethik in der Medizin 11 (3):162-168.
    Definition of the Problem: One of the main ethical arguments against the therapeutic transplantation of fetal tissue in severe cases of Parkinson’s disease is the allegation that the relationship between the abortion and the transplantation is a (bad)-means-to-a-(good)-end-relation.Arguments: This paper differentiates between the actual experimental single-case treatment and a potential mass treatment. In the former case, ethical guidelines seem to guarantee that abortion and transplantation are two distinct actions and therefore abortion is not a means to the end transplantation on (...)
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  37. Abortion Practice in Britain and the United States. By Francome. Colin £18·00 , £7·95.Peter Diggory - 1987 - Journal of Biosocial Science 19 (2):251-251.
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  38. Nonideal Theory, Self-Respect, and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies.Clair Morrissey & Elena Neale - 2019 - In E. Sills & Gianpiero Palermo (eds.), Human Embryos and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies. pp. 67-74.
    We suggest a fuller understanding of the obligation to respect patient autonomy can be gained by recognizing patients as historically and socially situated agents, whose values are developed, challenged, and changed, rather than merely applied, in their decision-making about their use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis or preimplantation genetic screening (PGD/PGS). We ground this discussion in empirical research on the patients experiences with PGD/PGS, and conclude by suggesting that promoting patients’ self-respect is a useful ethical standard for providers and practices to (...)
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  39. Educational Inequalities in Repeat Abortion: A Longitudinal Register Study in Finland 1975–2010.Heini Väisänen - 2016 - Journal of Biosocial Science 48 (6):820-832.
    SummaryThe proportion of repeat abortions among all abortions has increased over the last decades in Finland. This study examined the association of education with the likelihood of repeat abortion, and the change in this association over time using reliable longitudinal data. A unique set of register data from three birth cohorts were followed from age 20 to 45, including about 22,000 cases of repeat abortion, and analysed using discrete-time event-history models. Low education was found to be associated with a higher (...)
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  40. The Ethics of Breastfeeding by Women Living with HIV/AIDS: A Concrete Proposal for Reforming Department of Health and Human Services Recommendations.Lawrence O. Gostin & Matthew M. Kavanagh - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (1):161-164.
  41. Breastfeeding with HIV: An Evidence-Based Case for New Policy.Marielle S. Gross, Holly A. Taylor, Cecilia Tomori & Jenell S. Coleman - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (1):152-160.
    To help eliminate perinatal HIV transmission, the US Department of Health and Human Services recommends against breastfeeding for women living with HIV, regardless of viral load or combined antiretroviral therapy status. However, cART radically improves HIV prognosis and virtually eliminates perinatal transmission, and breastfeeding's health benefits are well-established. In this setting, pregnancy is increasing among American women with HIV, and a harm reduction approach to those who breastfeed despite extensive counseling is suggested. We assess the evidence and ethical justification for (...)
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  42. Gradualistische Konzepte Und Alternativen in der Embryonendebatte *Gradualistic Concepts and Their Alternatives in the Debate on Embryos.Katja Wagner-Westerhausen - 2008 - Ethik in der Medizin 20 (1):6-16.
    Dem Personbegriff wird als Grundlage zur Bewertung bioethischer Konfliktfälle wie der Frage nach dem moralischen Status menschlicher Embryonen eine Schlüsselfunktion zugewiesen. Zugleich ist seine Verwendungsweise stark umstritten. Ein Konsens ist angesichts der hitzig geführten Debatten nicht in Aussicht. Die Wertepluralität spiegelt sich nicht zuletzt in der uneinheitlichen – und damit unbefriedigenden – deutschen Rechtslage wider. Angesichts der Dringlichkeit, die bioethische Debatte nach dem vorläufigen Scheitern des Personbegriffs intern aufzubrechen, diskutiert der vorliegende Beitrag, in wie fern Argumenttypen, die nicht unmittelbar bei (...)
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  43. Book Review: Women and Prenatal Testing, Women and Prenatal Testing: Facing the Challenges of Genetic Technology. [REVIEW]Bethany Spielman - 1995 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23 (2):199-201.
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  44. Book Review: Feminism & Bioethics: Beyond Reproduction. [REVIEW]Leslie Bender - 1997 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 25 (1):58-61.
  45. Very low birth weight, short and long term neuropsychological repercussions.Anai Guerra Labrada, Héctor Juan Pelayo González & Luis F. Herrera Jiménez - 2018 - Humanidades Médicas 18 (3):718-733.
    RESUMEN La problemática del muy bajo peso al nacer ha sido abordada desde hace varios años, sin embargo, las investigaciones están enfocadas desde diferentes perspectivas y contextos, no siempre se ha considerado su repercusión a corto y a largo plazo, así como la interacción de los diferentes factores que se relacionan con este riesgo biológico. Por ello en esta revisión bibliográfica se realiza una valoración de estudios ejecutados a nivel internacional y en Cuba dedicados al desarrollo neuropsicológico de niños con (...)
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  46. In Vitro Gametogenesis: The End of Egg Donation?Sarah Carter‐Walshaw - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (1):60-67.
    This paper explores whether egg donation could still be ethically justified if in vitro gametogenesis (IVG) became reliable and safe. In order to do this, issues and concerns that might inform a patient’s reasoning in choosing to use donor eggs instead of IVG are explored and assessed. It is concluded that egg donation would only be ethically justified in a narrow range of special cases given the (hypothetical) availability of IVG treatment and, further, that egg donation could itself be replaced (...)
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  47. The Need for Donor Consent in Mitochondrial Replacement.G. Owen Schaefer - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):825-829.
    Mitochondrial replacement therapy requires oocytes of women whose mitochondrial DNA will be transmitted to resultant children. These techniques are scientifically, ethically and socially controversial; it is likely that some women who donate their oocytes for general in vitro fertilisation usage would nevertheless oppose their genetic material being used in MRT. The possibility of oocytes being used in MRT is therefore relevant to oocyte donation and should be included in the consent process when applicable. In present circumstances, specific consent should be (...)
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  48. Justicia Intergeneracional: ensayos desde el pensamiento de Lukas H. Meyer.Santiago Truccone Borgogno (ed.) - 2017 - Córdoba, Cordoba, Argentina: Editorial Universidad Nacional de Cordoba.
    Hasta hace no mucho tiempo, la mayor parte de nuestras discusiones sobre derechos y obligaciones giraba en relación a lo que le debemos a nuestros contemporáneos, sean estos conciudadanos o habitantes de otras partes del mundo. Este libro intenta adentrarse en el estudio de la cuestión intergeneracional e incluye, por un lado, las discusiones referidas a nuestras obligaciones para con las personas futuras; y, por el otro, a aquellas derivadas de la comisión de actos de injusticia por parte de determinados (...)
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  49. ‘Women-Protective’ Language as a Tool of Exclusion: Debates on Oocyte Donation in Latvia.Signe Mezinska & Ilze Mileiko - 2018 - European Journal of Women's Studies:1-14.
    ‘Women-protective’ language is broadly used as a frame in political discussions on women’s reproductive healthcare and labour rights. This article addresses the use of ‘women-protective’ language in online news articles in the Latvian media about the proposed prohibition of oocyte donation for nulliparous women. The main focus of the recent Latvian debate has not been on the technology itself, but rather on the female body and women’s rationality and decision-making capacity. The results of the analysis show that use of the (...)
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  50. Motherhood, Abortion, and the Medicalization of Poverty.Michelle Oberman - 2018 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 46 (3):665-671.
    This article considers the impact of laws and policies that determine who experiences unplanned pregnancy, who has abortions, and how economic status shapes one's response to unplanned pregnancy. There is a well-documented correlation between abortion and poverty: poor women have more abortions than do their richer sisters. Equally well-documented is the correlation between unplanned pregnancy and poverty. Finally, the high cost of motherhood for poor women and their offspring manifests in disproportionately high lifelong rates of poverty, ill-health and mortality for (...)
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