About this topic
Summary In the fairly strict sense understood here, the idea of a research program(me) was introduced and developed by Imre Lakatos in a number of papers in the late 1960's and early 1970's.  Lakatos may be seen as seeking some sort of reconciliation of the views of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn.  Lakatos characterized research programs as consisting of a hard core of central theoretical principles or laws, surrounded by a protective belt of auxiliary hypotheses.  Research programs are series or sequences of theories which are connected by the hard core of the program which all members of the program share.  The hard core of a research program is not open to modification.  However, the protective belt may be altered, and changes to the protective belt constitute shifts between different phases of the research program.  Research programs are capable of making progress in a theoretical sense when they make predictions, as well as in an empirical sense when the predictions are confirmed.  Programs are evaluated in terms of their progressiveness, and a rational choice between competing programs is made on the basis of comparative judgements of progress. In some respects, Lakatos's idea of a research programme is intended as a refinement of Kuhn's idea of a paradigm.  Larry Laudan later developed a related proposal with his notion of a research tradition.
Key works The classic reference for Lakatos is his paper  (see Imre 1970).  Lakatos addresses the question of how to evaluate competing theories of scientific method in his Lakatos 1971.  These and other papers are reprinted in his collected papers (see Lakatos 1978 and Lakatos 1978).  An important text relevant to the issue of research programs is Lakatos & Musgrave 1970, which contains contributions by Popper, Kuhn, Feyerabend, among others, in addition to Lakatos's 'Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes'.  Laudan 1977 contains good discussion of the idea of a research program, as well as related discussion of Kuhn, and Laudan's own idea of a research tradition.  An interesting discussion of Lakatos may be found in Ian Hacking's review of the collected papers (see Hacking 1979).
Introductions Chalmers 1982
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  1. Imre Lakatos: A Critical Appraisal.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    Imre Lakatos holds a well-deserved primary place in current philosophy of science. In this essay, Leslie Allan critically examines Lakatos' theory of knowledge in two key areas. The first area of consideration is Lakatos' notion that knowledge is gained through a process of competition between rival scientific research programmes. Allan identifies and discusses four problems with Lakatos' characterization of a research programme. Next, Allan considers Lakatos' proposed test of adequacy for theories of rationality using his methodology of historiographical research programmes. (...)
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  2. Towards an Objective Theory of Rationality.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    Drawing on insights from Imre Lakatos' seminal work on theories of rationality, Leslie Allan develops seven criteria for rational theory choice that avoid presuming the rationality of the scientific enterprise. He shows how his axioms of rationality follow from the general demands of an objectivist epistemology. Allan concludes by considering two weighty objections to his framework.
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  3. El sentido lógico de la refutabilidad.Luis Felipe Bartolo Alegre - manuscript
    According to falsificationism, a theory is scientific if it can be incompatible with some empirically testable statements. This epistemological approach has been criticized because, in practice, it is impossible to decide when a particular fact should be considered incompatible with a theory. These criticisms, however, neglect the fact that the Popperian sense of falsification is a “logical sense.” Thus, the Popperian criterion of falsifiability only requires that, assuming certain auxiliary hypotheses, the theory in question be logically incompatible with some empirically (...)
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  4. The Evolution of the Individual.Peter Godfrey-Smith - manuscript
    Sometimes themes can be found in common across very different systems in which change occurs. Imre Lakatos developed a theory of change in science, and one involving entities visible at different levels. There are theories defended at a particular time, and there are also research programs, larger units that bundle together a sequence of related theories and within which many scientists may work. Research programs are competing higher-level units within a scientific field. Scientific change involves change within research programs, and (...)
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  5. A Methodological Note on Proving Agreement Between the Elementary Process Theory and Modern Interaction Theories.Cabbolet Marcoen - manuscript
    The Elementary Process Theory (EPT) is a collection of seven elementary process-physical principles that describe the individual processes by which interactions have to take place for repulsive gravity to exist. One of the two main problems of the EPT is that there is no proof that the four fundamental interactions (gravitational, electromagnetic, strong, and weak) as we know them can take place in the elementary processes described by the EPT. This paper sets forth the method by which it can be (...)
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  6. Other Stars, Other Planets, and Other Life: A Primer That Goes Two-Thirds of the Way: Niall Deacon: Twenty Worlds: The Extraordinary Story of Planets Around Other Stars. London: Reaktion Books, 2020, 216 Pp, $22.50.Marc Champagne - 2021 - Metascience 30 (1):153-156.
  7. (Mis)Understanding Scientific Disagreement: Success Versus Pursuit-Worthiness in Theory Choice.Eli I. Lichtenstein - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 85:166-175.
    Scientists often diverge widely when choosing between research programs. This can seem to be rooted in disagreements about which of several theories, competing to address shared questions or phenomena, is currently the most epistemically or explanatorily valuable—i.e. most successful. But many such cases are actually more directly rooted in differing judgments of pursuit-worthiness, concerning which theory will be best down the line, or which addresses the most significant data or questions. Using case studies from 16th-century astronomy and 20th-century geology and (...)
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  8. Model-Groups as Scientific Research Programmes.Cristin Chall - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (1):1-24.
    Lakatos’s methodology of scientific research programmes centres around series of theories, with little regard to the role of models in theory construction. Modifying it to incorporate model-groups, clusters of developmental models that are intended to become new theories, provides a description of the model dynamics within the search for physics beyond the standard model. At the moment, there is no evidence for BSM physics, despite a concerted search effort especially focused around the standard model account of electroweak symmetry breaking. Using (...)
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  9. The Aims and Structures of Ecological Research Programs.William Bausman - 2019 - Philosophical Topics 47 (1):1-20.
    Neutral Theory is controversial in ecology. Ecologists and philosophers have diagnosed the source of the controversy as: its false assumption that individuals in different species within the same trophic level are ecologically equivalent, its conflict with Competition Theory and the adaptation of species, its role as a null hypothesis, and as a Lakatosian research programme. In this paper, I show why we should instead understand the conflict at the level of research programs which involve more than theory. The Neutralist and (...)
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  10. Epistemic Diversity and Editor Decisions: A Statistical Matthew Effect.Remco Heesen & Jan-Willem Romeijn - 2019 - Philosophers' Imprint 19.
    This paper offers a new angle on the common idea that the process of science does not support epistemic diversity. Under minimal assumptions on the nature of journal editing, we prove that editorial procedures, even when impartial in themselves, disadvantage less prominent research programs. This purely statistical bias in article selection further skews existing differences in the success rate and hence attractiveness of research programs, and exacerbates the reputation difference between the programs. After a discussion of the modeling assumptions, the (...)
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  11. Beyond Kuhn: Methodological Contextualism and Partial Paradigms.Darrell P. Rowbottom - 2018 - In Moti Mizrahi (ed.), The Kuhnian Image of Science: Time for a Decisive Transformation? London: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 191-208.
  12. Lakatosian Particularism.Howard Sankey - 2018 - Logos and Episteme (1):49-59.
    This paper explores a particularist element in the theory of method of Imre Lakatos, who appealed to the value-judgements of élite scientists in the appraisal of competing theories of method. The role played by such value-judgements is strongly reminiscent of the epistemological particularism of Roderick Chisholm. Despite the existence of a clear parallel between the particularist approaches of both authors, it is argued that Lakatos’s approach is subject to a weakness that does not affect the approach of Chisholm.
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  13. The Methodological Problems of Theory Unification (in the context of Maxwell's fusion of optics and electrodynamics).Rinat M. Nugayev - 2016 - Philosophy of Science and Technology (Moscow) 21 (2).
    It is discerned what light can bring the recent historical reconstructions of maxwellian optics and electromagnetism unification on the following philosophical/methodological questions. I. Why should one believe that Nature is ultimately simple and that unified theories are more likely to be true? II. What does it mean to say that a theory is unified? III. Why theory unification should be an epistemic virtue? To answer the questions posed genesis and development of Maxwellian electrodynamics are elucidated. It is enunciated that the (...)
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  14. Prediction and Novel Facts in the Methodology of Scientific Research Programs.Wenceslao J. Gonzalez - 2015 - In Philosophico-Methodological Analysis of Prediction and its Role in Economics. Springer Verlag. pp. 103-124.
    In the methodology of scientific research programs (MSRP) there are important features on the problem of prediction, especially regarding novel facts. In his approach, Imre Lakatos proposed three different levels on prediction: aim, process, and assessment. Chapter 5 pays attention to the characterization of prediction in the methodology of research programs. Thus, it takes into account several features: (1) its pragmatic characterization, (2) the logical perspective as a proposition, (3) the epistemological component, (4) its role in the appraisal of research (...)
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  15. Explaining Same-Sex Sexual Behavior: The Stagnation of the Genetic and Evolutionary Research Programs.Karori Mbugua - 2015 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (1):23-43.
    This paper is an attempt to reconstruct the history of genetic and evolutionary theories of same-sex sexual behavior using Imre Lakatos’ methodology of scientific research programs . Although distinct, those two programs are complementary. Whereas the genetic program maintains that homosexuality is genetically inherited, the evolutionary program attempts to explain how such a gene, which apparently reduces the reproductive fitness of its homozygous carrier, is maintained in the population. This appraisal reveals that the two research programs have not been empirically (...)
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  16. The Semantics of Scientific Theories.Sebastian Lutz - 2014 - In Anna Brożek & Jacek Jadacki (eds.), Księga pamiątkowa Marianowi Przełęckiemu w darze na 90-lecie urodzin. pp. 33-67.
    Marian Przełęcki’s semantics for the Received View is a good explication of Carnap’s position on the subject, anticipates many discussions and results from both proponents and opponents of the Received View, and can be the basis for a thriving research program.
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  17. The Ptolemy-Copernicus Transition: Intertheoretic Contexy.Nugayev Rinat M. - 2013 - Almagest (1):96-119.
    The Ptolemy-Copernicus transition is analyzed in the interdisciplinary context. It is argued that in Ptolemaic programme mathematical exactness diverged from the principles of Aristotelian physics well-grounded empirically. The Copernican revolution can be considered as a realization of the dualism between mathematical astronomy and Aristotelian qualitative physics and the corresponding gradual efforts to eliminate it. The works of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton were all the stages of the mathematics descendance from skies to earth and reciprocal extrapolation of earth physics on (...)
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  18. String Theory and General Methodology: A Mutual Evaluation.Lars-Göran Johansson & Keizo Matsubara - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 42 (3):199-210.
    String theory has been the dominating research field in theoretical physics during the last decades. Despite the considerable time elapse, no new testable predictions have been derived by string theorists and it is understandable that doubts have been voiced. Some people have argued that it is time to give up since testability is wanting. But the majority has not been convinced and they continue to believe that string theory is the right way to go. This situation is interesting for philosophy (...)
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  19. Defeasible Reasoning + Partial Models: A Formal Framework for the Methodology of Research Programs. [REVIEW]Fernando Tohmé, Claudio Delrieux & Otávio Bueno - 2011 - Foundations of Science 16 (1):47-65.
    In this paper we show that any reasoning process in which conclusions can be both fallible and corrigible can be formalized in terms of two approaches: (i) syntactically, with the use of defeasible reasoning, according to which reasoning consists in the construction and assessment of arguments for and against a given claim, and (ii) semantically, with the use of partial structures, which allow for the representation of less than conclusive information. We are particularly interested in the formalization of scientific reasoning, (...)
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  20. Rational Reconstruction Reconsidered.Bence Nanay - 2010 - The Monist 93 (4):598-617.
    Here is a dilemma concerning the history of science. Can the history of scientific thought be reduced to the history of the beliefs, motives and actions of scientists? Or should we think of the history of scientific thought as in some sense independent from the history of scientists? The aim of this paper is to carve out an intermediate position between these two. I will argue that the history of scientific thought supervenes on, but not reducible to, the history of (...)
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  21. Lakatosian Methodology of Rival Research Programmes in Economics.Rinat M. Nugayev - 2010 - In Ildar Talip-Uli Nasretdinoff (ed.), The Problems of Cooperation.Moscow: Russian University of Cooperation. pp. 332-336.
    Pros and contras of Lakatosian epistemological theory-change model in respect to economics are considered. It is argued that one of the main shortcomings of the model is connected in its inability to treat the social factors.
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  22. Review of Stefano Gattei, Thomas Kuhn's 'Linguistic Turn' and the Legacy of Logical Empiricism. [REVIEW]Francis Remedios - 2010 - Philosophy in Review (3):189-191.
  23. Why the 'Hopeless War'?: Approaching Intelligent Design.Jeremy Shearmur - 2010 - Sophia 49 (4):475-488.
    This paper addresses the intellectual motivation of some of those involved in the intelligent design movement. It identifies their concerns with the critique of the claim that Darwinism offers an adequate explanation of prima facie teleological features in biology, a critique of naturalism, and the concern on the part of some of these authors including Dembski, with the revival of 'Old Princeton' apologetics. It is argued that their work is interesting and is in principle intellectually legitimate. It is also suggested, (...)
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  24. The Methodology of Hermeneutical Research Programmes in Biblical Studies: Some Insights From the Work of Imre Lakatos.Richard S. Briggs - 2009 - Heythrop Journal 50 (1):109-115.
  25. A Rationale for Mixed Methods (Integrative) Research Programmes in Education.Mansoor Niaz - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 42 (2):287-305.
    Recent research shows that research programmes (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) in education are not displaced (as suggested by Kuhn) but rather lead to integration. The objective of this study is to present a rationale for mixed methods (integrative) research programs based on contemporary philosophy of science (Lakatos, Giere, Cartwright, Holton, Laudan). This historical reconstruction of episodes from physical science (spanning a period of almost 300 years, 17 th to 20 th century) does not agree with the positivist image of science. (...)
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  26. Is Quantum Chemistry a Degenerating Research Programme?Hinne Hettema - 2007 - Logic and Philosophy of Science 6 (1):3-23.
    This note is intended to address one particular issue in the relative status of Quantum Chemistry in comparison to both Chemistry and Physics. It has been suggested, in the context of the question of the reduction relations between Chemistry and Physics that Quantum Chemistry as a research programme is incapable of furnishing useful guidance to practising chemists. If true, this claim will let us qualify Quantum Chemistry as a degenerating research programme, which, due to its complexity has difficulty to be (...)
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  27. Arven efter Kuhn.Hanne Andersen & Jan Faye - 2006 - København, Danmark: Samfundslitteratur.
    With the main work The Revolutions of Science, Thomas S. Kuhn became one of the most read and influential science theorists of the 20th century, and today Kuhn's mindset is part of the majority of science theory courses mandatory at any university course. Kuhn's concepts of paradigms, scientific revolutions and incommensurability have not only changed our view of science but have almost become part of the everyday language and are used far outside the world of science. The legacy of Kuhn (...)
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  28. Cognitive Architectures as Lakatosian Research Programs: Two Case Studies.Richard P. Cooper - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (2):199-220.
    Cognitive architectures - task-general theories of the structure and function of the complete cognitive system - are sometimes argued to be more akin to frameworks or belief systems than scientific theories. The argument stems from the apparent non-falsifiability of existing cognitive architectures. Newell was aware of this criticism and argued that architectures should be viewed not as theories subject to Popperian falsification, but rather as Lakatosian research programs based on cumulative growth. Newell's argument is undermined because he failed to demonstrate (...)
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  29. Introduction to the Archives of Imre Lakatos, 1922–1974.Sue Donnelly - 2006 - Perspectives on Science 14 (3):347-353.
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  30. Philosophy, Science, and (Anti-) Communism: The Two Lives of Imre Lakatos.Roberto Festa - 2006 - Logic and Philosophy of Science 4 (1):247-253.
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  31. Heuristic, Methodology or Logic of Discovery? Lakatos on Patterns of Thinking.Olga Kiss - 2006 - Perspectives on Science 14 (3):302-317.
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  32. The Growth of Knowledge as a Problem of Philosophy of Science.Rinat M. Nugayev - 2006 - Filosofia Nauki (Philosophy of Science, Novosibirsk) 4 (31):3-19.
    The host of the growth of knowledge hallmarks, concocted by various philosophy of science models , is contemplated. It is enunciated that the most appropriate one is provided by methodology of scientific research programmes. Some salient drawbacks of the model, caused by the ambivalence of its basic notions, e.g. of the notions of ‘empirical content of a theory’, ‘progressive’ and ‘regressive’ ‘problemshifts’ can be mitigated by enriching the Lakatosian model with Nancy Cartwright’s results. To recapitulate: the genuine growth of knowledge (...)
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  33. Lakatos’s Challenge? Auxiliary Hypotheses and Non-Monotonous Inference.Frank Zenker - 2006 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 37 (2):405-415.
    Gerhard Schurz [2001, Journal for General Philosophy of Science, 32, 65-107] has proposed to reconstruct auxiliary hypothesis addition, e.g., postulation of Neptune to immunize Newtonian mechanics, with concepts from non-monotonous inference to avoid the retention of false predictions that are among the consequence-set of the deductive model. However, the non-monotonous reconstruction retains the observational premise that is indeed rejected in the deductive model. Hence, his proposal fails to do justice to Lakatos' core-belt model, therefore fails to meet what Schurz coined (...)
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  34. Structures in Scientific Cognition: A Synopsis of Structures in Science. Heuristic Patterns Based on Cognitive Structures. An Advanced Textbook in Neo-Classical Philosophy of Science.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2005 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 84 (1):23-92.
    The philosophy of science has lost its self-confidence. Structures in Science (2001) is an advanced textbook that explicates, updates and integrates the best insights of logical empiricism and its main critics. This "neo-classical approach" aims at providing heuristic patterns for research.The book introduces four ideal types of research programs (descriptive, explanatory, design and explicative) and reanimates the distinction between observational laws and proper theories without assuming a theory-free language. It explicates various patterns of explanation by subsumption and specification as well (...)
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  35. Lakatos' Modification of Popper's Falsificationism.Mo Liu - 2005 - Dissertation, University of Edinburgh
    This thesis aims to understand Popper’s falsificationism and Lakatos’ methodology of scientific research programmes right and to grasp why and how Lakatos modifies Popper’s falsificationism to be the methodology of scientific research programmes. Firstly, it sets forth a background in which Lakatos makes the modification. The background is a basis on which we study why Lakatos modifies Popper’s falsificationism. In order to understand Lakatos’ motivation for making the modification better, the section will be described according to Lakatos’ view. It briefly (...)
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  36. A Response to the Critique of Rational Choice Theory: Lakatos' and Laudan's Conceptions Applied.Kaisa Herne & Maija Setälä - 2004 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 47 (1):67 – 85.
    This paper analyzes the main features of rational choice theory and evaluates it with respect to the conceptions of Lakatos' research program and Laudan's research tradition. The analysis reveals that the thin rationality assumption, the axiomatic method and the reduction to the micro level are the only features shared by all rational choice models. On these grounds, it is argued that rational choice theory cannot be characterized as a research program. This is due to the fact that the thin rationality (...)
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  37. Searching for the Holy in the Ascent of Imre Lakatos.John Wettersten - 2004 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (1):84-150.
    Bernard Lavor and John Kadvany argue that Lakatos’s Hegelian approach to the philosophy of mathematics and science enabled him to overcome all competing philosophies. His use of the approach Hegel developed in his Phenomenology enabled him to show how mathematics and science develop, how they are open-ended, and that they are not subject to rules, even though their rationality may be understood after the fact. Hegel showed Lakatos how to falsify the past to make progress in the present. A critique (...)
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  38. Verisimilitude and the Dynamics of Scientific Research Programmes.Jesús Bonilla - 2002 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 33 (2):349-368.
    Some peculiarities of the evaluation of theories within scientific research programmes and of the assessing of rival SRPs are described assuming that scientists try to maximise an ‘epistemic utility function’ under economic and institutional constraints. Special attention is given to Lakatos' concepts of ‘empirical progress’ and ‘theoretical progress’. A notion of ‘empirical verisimilitude’ is defended as an appropriate utility function. The neologism ‘methodonomics’ is applied to this kind of studies.
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  39. Is Folk Psychology a Lakatosian Research Program?Bill Wringe - 2002 - Philosophical Psychology 15 (3):343-358.
    It has often been argued, by philosophers and more recently by developmental psychologists, that our common-sense conception of the mind should be regarded as a scientific theory. However, those who advance this view rarely say much about what they take a scientific theory to be. In this paper, I look at one specific proposal as to how we should interpret the theory view of folk psychology--namely, by seeing it as having a structure analogous to that of a Lakatosian research program. (...)
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  40. The Interdependence of the Core, the Heuristic and the Novelty of Facts in Lakanto's MSRP.G. Zahar Elie - 2001 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 16 (3):415-435.
    In this paper I try to explain why Lakatos’s conventionalist view must be replaced by a phenomenological conception of the empirical basis; for only in this way can one make sense of the theses that the hard core of an RP can be shielded against refutations; that this metaphysical hard core can be turned into a set of guidelines or, alternatively, into a set of heuristic metaprinciples governing the development of an RP; and that a distinction can legitimately be made (...)
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  41. The ‘Popperian Programme’ And Mathematics: Part II: From Quasi-Empiricism to Mathematical Research Programmes.Eduard Glas - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (2):355-376.
    In the first part of this article I investigated the Popperian roots of Lakatos's Proofs and Refutations, which was an attempt to apply, and thereby to test, Popper's theory of knowledge in a field—mathematics—to which it had not primarily been intended to apply. While Popper's theory of knowledge stood up gloriously to this test, the new application gave rise to new insights into the heuristic of mathematical development, which necessitated further clarification and improvement of some Popperian methodological maxims. In the (...)
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  42. Lakatos’s Approach on Prediction and Novel Facts.Wenceslao J. Gonzalez - 2001 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 16 (3):499-518.
    Lakatos’s approach to prediction and novel facts is of considerable interest. Prediction appears in his conception in at least three different levels: a) as an important aim of the research programs; b) as a procedure -a key method- for increasing our scientific knowledge both theoretically and empirically; and c) as the way to assess the scientific character of knowledge claims -means for evaluating results-. At all these levels he envisions a close connection between prediction and novel facts. The paper has (...)
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  43. Lakatos's Philosophy Today.Wenceslao J. González - 2001 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 16 (3):409-413.
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  44. Lakatos's Approach on Prediction and Novel Facts.Wenceslao J. Gonzalez - 2001 - Theoria 16 (3):499-518.
    Lakatos’s approach to prediction and novel facts is of considerable interest. Prediction appears in his conception in at least three different levels: a) as an important aim of the research programs; b) as a procedure -a key method- for increasing our scientific knowledge both theoretically and empirically; and c) as the way to assess the scientific character of knowledge claims -means for evaluating results-. At all these levels he envisions a close connection between prediction and novel facts. The paper has (...)
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  45. Imre Lakatos and the Guises of Reason.John Kadvany - 2001 - Duke University Press.
    The Hungarian émigré Imre Lakatos earned a worldwide reputation through the influential philosophy of science debates involving Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend, and Sir Karl Popper. In _Imre Lakatos and the Guises of Reason_ John Kadvany shows that embedded in Lakatos’s English-language work is a remarkable historical philosophy rooted in his Hungarian past. Below the surface of his life as an Anglo-American philosopher of science and mathematics, Lakatos covertly introduced novel transformations of Hegelian and Marxist ideas about historiography, skepticism, criticism, and (...)
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  46. Rational Reconstructions Revised.Peter Machamer & Franccsca Di Poppa - 2001 - Theoria 16 (3):461-480.
    Imre Lakatos’ idea that history of science without philosophy of science is blind may still be given a plausible interpretation today, even though his theory of the methodology of scientific research programmes has been rejected. The latter theory captures neither rationality in science nor the sense in which history must be told in a rational fashion. Nonetheless, Lakatos was right in insisting that the discipline of history consists of written rational reconstructions. In this paper, we will examine possible ways to (...)
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  47. The Interdependence of the Core, the Heuristic and the Novelty of Facts in Lakatos's MSRP.Elie G. Zahar - 2001 - Theoria 16 (3):415-435.
    In this paper I try to explain why Lakatos’s (and Popper’s) conventionalist view must be replaced by a phenomenological conception of the empirical basis; for only in this way can one make sense of the theses that the hard core of an RP (Research Programme) can be shielded against refutations; that this metaphysical hard core can be turned into a set of guidelines or, alternatively, into a set of heuristic metaprinciples governing the development of an RP; and that a distinction (...)
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  48. The Assembly of Geophysics: Scientific Disciplines as Frameworks of Consensus.Gregory A. Good - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 31 (3):259-292.
    What makes any investigative field a scientific discipline? This article argues that disciplines are ever-changing frameworks within which scientific activity is organised. Moreover, disciplinarity is not a yes or no proposition: scientific activities may achieve degrees of identity development. Degree of consensus is the key, and consensus on many questions (conceptual, methodological, institutional, and social) varies among sciences. Lastly, disciplinary development is non-teleological. Disciplines pass through no regular stages on their way from immature to mature status, designations articulated within the (...)
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  49. The "Revolution in Chemistry and Physics": Overthrow of a Reigning Paradigm or Competition Between Contemporary Research Programs?Frederic Holmes - 2000 - Isis 91:735-753.
  50. Beyond the Methodology of Mathematics Research Programmes.Corfield David - 1998 - Philosophia Mathematica 6 (3):272-301.
    In this paper I assess the obstacles to a transfer of Lakatos's methodology of scientific research programmes to mathematics. I argue that, if we are to use something akin to this methodology to discuss modern mathematics with its interweaving theoretical development, we shall require a more intricate construction and we shall have to move still further away from seeing mathematical knowledge as a collection of statements. I also examine the notion of rivalry within mathematics and claim that this appears to (...)
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