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  1. Empiricism and tensions with Chris Daly.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    In his review of Chris Daly’s book Philosophical Methods, Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa debates with Daly over the value of using the word “tension,” which Daly describes as a weasel word. Ichikawa disagrees. I raise a worry that Ichikawa’s response will not convince Daly and try to help Ichikawa out. Then I outline a traditional empiricist objection to Daly.
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  2. Procreative Justice Reconceived: Shifting the Moral Gaze.Emmalon Davis - 2024 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association (First View):1-23.
    This paper reconsiders Tommie Shelby's (2016) analysis of procreation in poor black communities. I identify three conceptual frames within which Shelby situates his analysis—feminization, choice-as-control, and moralization. I argue that these frames should be rejected on conceptual, empirical, and moral grounds. As I show, this framing engenders a flawed understanding of poor black women's procreative lives. I propose an alternative framework for reconceiving the relationship between poverty and procreative justice, one oriented around reproductive flourishing instead of reproductive responsibility. More generally, (...)
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  3. Language.Joseph Shieber - 2023 - In Aaron Garrett & James A. Harris (eds.), Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century, Volume 2: Method, Metaphysics, Mind, Language. Oxford University Press. pp. 327-364.
  4. A Philosophical Inquiry into the Linguistic Findings of Writing Research Articles (RAs) in Philosophy A Case Study: The Genre Analysis of Abstracts in SOOCHOW JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHICAL STUDIES from 2017 to 2021(哲學家應當如何看待語言學家針對哲學論文給出研究結果與教學寫作建議? 以《東吳哲學學報》近五年18篇西方哲學論文摘要的語體分析結果作為起點).連 祉鈞 & Lian Jr-Jiun - 2023 - 跨領域哲學研究、教學與社會實踐:台灣哲學學會2023年學術研討會(Taiwanese Philosophical Association Annual Conference 2023).
    In this paper, I expand my upon earlier linguistic research (Lian, 2023), which delved into the genre of abstracts from Western philosophical papers. I engage with the philosophical ramifications emanating from the guidelines established for crafting philosophy paper abstracts (Lian, 2023) and underscore their significance in the domain of academic philosophical writing. A pivotal focus of this research is to navigate the intricate philosophical challenges posed by cross-disciplinary investigations bridging applied linguistic statistics with philosophical paper composition, specifically, the nuanced interpretation (...)
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  5. Combing Graphs and Eulerian Diagrams in Eristic.Jens Lemanski & Reetu Bhattacharjee - 2022 - In Valeria Giardino, Sven Linker, Tony Burns, Francesco Bellucci, J. M. Boucheix & Diego Viana (eds.), Diagrammatic Representation and Inference. 13th International Conference, Diagrams 2022, Rome, Italy, September 14–16, 2022, Proceedings. Springer. pp. 97–113.
    In this paper, we analyze and discuss Schopenhauer’s n-term diagrams for eristic dialectics from a graph-theoretical perspective. Unlike logic, eristic dialectics does not examine the validity of an isolated argument, but the progression and persuasiveness of an argument in the context of a dialogue or even controversy. To represent these dialogue situations, Schopenhauer created large maps with concepts and Euler-type diagrams, which from today’s perspective are a specific form of graphs. We first present the original method with Euler-type diagrams, then (...)
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  6. Post-factum Studies in Trans-corporeal Rhetoric: Triangularities of Genre, Ethics, and Aesthetics in Kenneth Burke and Michel Foucault.Hue Woodson - 2022 - Dissertation, University of Texas at Arlington
    This dissertation gives an account of and expands upon Stacy Alaimo’s term, “trans-corporeality,” in order to reconsider the rhetorical situation, through conceptualizations of how rhetorical bodies become embodied and traverse one another in various humanities. From “trans-corporeality,” what arises is a “trans-corporeal rhetoric,” which becomes an interdisciplinary rhetoric that speaks to the futures of rhetoric within the boundaries of various humanities, involving notions of embodiment, materiality, corporeality, and what Alaimo calls “bodily natures.” These futures of rhetoric not only wrestle with (...)
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  7. Was Aristotle a virtue argumentation theorist?Andrew Aberdein - 2021 - In Joseph Andrew Bjelde, David Merry & Christopher Roser (eds.), Essays on Argumentation in Antiquity. Cham: Springer. pp. 215-229.
    Virtue theories of argumentation (VTA) emphasize the roles arguers play in the conduct and evaluation of arguments, and lay particular stress on arguers’ acquired dispositions of character, that is, virtues and vices. The inspiration for VTA lies in virtue epistemology and virtue ethics, the latter being a modern revival of Aristotle’s ethics. Aristotle is also, of course, the father of Western logic and argumentation. This paper asks to what degree Aristotle may thereby be claimed as a forefather by VTA.
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  8. Discourse Ethics and Eristic.Jens Lemanski - 2021 - Polish Journal of Aesthetics 62:151-162.
    Eristic has been studied more and more intensively in recent years in philosophy, law, communication theory, logic, proof theory, and A.I. Nevertheless, the modern origins of eristic, which almost all current researchers see in the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, are considered to be a theory of the illegitimate use of logical and rhetorical devices. Thus, eristic seems to violate the norms of discourse ethics. In this paper, I argue that this interpretation of eristic is based on prejudices that contradict the original (...)
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  9. Hume's Rhetorical Strategy: Three Views.Daryl Ooi - 2021 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 19 (3):243–259.
    In the Fragment on Evil, Hume announces that he “shall not employ any rhetoric in a philosophical argument, where reason alone ought to be hearkened to.” To employ the rhetorical strategy, in the context of the Fragment, just is to “enumerate all the evils, incident to human life, and display them, with eloquence, in their proper colours.” However, in Part 11 of the Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Hume employs precisely this rhetorical strategy. I discuss three interpretations that might account for (...)
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  10. Hume's Rhetorical Strategy: Three Views.Daryl Ooi - 2021 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 3 (19):243–259.
    In the Fragment on Evil, Hume announces that he “shall not employ any rhetoric in a philosophical argument, where reason alone ought to be hearkened to.” To employ the rhetorical strategy, in the context of the Fragment, just is to “enumerate all the evils, incident to human life, and display them, with eloquence, in their proper colours.” However, in Part 11 of the Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Hume employs precisely this rhetorical strategy. I discuss three interpretations that might account for (...)
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  11. Metaphor Abuse in the Time of Coronavirus: A Reply to Lynne Tirrell.Shane J. Ralston - 2021 - Southwest Philosophy Review 37 (1):89-99.
    In the time of Coronavirus, it is perhaps as good a time as any to comment on the use and abuse of metaphors. One of the worst instances of metaphor abuse-especially given the recent epidemiological crisis-is Lynne Tirrell's notion of toxic speech. In the foregoing reply piece, I analyze Tirrell's metaphor and reveal how it blinds us to the liberating power of public speech. Lynne Tirrell argues that some speech is, borrowing from field of Epidemiology, toxic in the sense that (...)
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  12. The Communicative Functions of Metaphors Between Explanation and Persuasion.Maria Grazia Rossi & Fabrizio Macagno - 2021 - In Fabrizio Macagno & Alessandro Capone (eds.), Inquiries in philosophical pragmatics. Theoretical developments. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 171-191.
    In the literature, the pragmatic dimension of metaphors has been clearly acknowledged. Metaphors are regarded as having different possible uses, especially pursuing persuasion. However, an analysis of the specific conversational purposes that they can be aimed at achieving in a dialogue and their adequacy thereto is still missing. In this chapter, we will address this issue focusing on the classical distinction between the explanatory and persuasive uses of metaphors, which is, however, complex to draw at an analytical level and often (...)
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  13. Can figures persuade? Zeugma as a figure of persuasion in latin.William Michael Short - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (2):632-648.
    Use of rhetorical figures has been an element of persuasive speech at least since Gorgias of Leontini, for whom such deliberate deviations from ordinary literal language were a defining feature of what he called the ‘psychagogic art’. But must we consider figures of speech limited to an ornamental and merely stylistic function, as some ancient and still many modern theorists suggest? Not according to contemporary cognitive rhetoric, which proposes that figures of speech can play a fundamentally argumentative role in speech (...)
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  14. Problems of Religious Luck, Ch. 4: "We Are All of the Common Herd: Montaigne and the Psychology of our 'Importunate Presumptions'".Guy Axtell - 2019 - In Problems of Religious Luck: Assessing the Limits of Reasonable Religious Disagreement. Lanham, MD, USA & London, UK: Lexington Books/Rowman & Littlefield.
    As we have seen in the transition form Part I to Part II of this book, the inductive riskiness of doxastic methods applied in testimonial uptake or prescribed as exemplary of religious faith, helpfully operationalizes the broader social scientific, philosophical, moral, and theological interest that people may have with problems of religious luck. Accordingly, we will now speak less about luck, but more about the manner in which highly risky cognitive strategies are correlated with psychological studies of bias studies and (...)
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  15. Animism as an Approach to Arda.Woody Evans - 2019 - IJALEL 4 (8):116-119.
    Here we examine qualities of what would be thought of as inanimate beings that lend evidence to the position that J.R.R. Tolkien’s fictional universe is animistic. Arda is full of life, and natural things in it, such as mountains and rivers, are often alive or conscious. A close look at the qualities of the stars in particular yields further evidence in favor of animism as a foundational ontology of Arda.
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  16. Pragmatism without the “-ism”: Cavell, Rhetoric, and the Role of Doctrines in Philosophy.Russell Johnson - 2019 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 40 (2):5-23.
    “If you will listen to me, I will say, do not involve yourselves in any –ism. Study every –ism. Ponder and assimilate what you have read and try to practice yourself what appeals to you out of it. But for heaven’s sake do not set out to establish any –ism.”William James’s 1907 treatise Pragmatism is the book in which James most clearly lays out the core tenets of pragmatism and makes arguments for pragmatism over against rival schools of philosophy. Precisely (...)
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  17. Rhetoric through the ages - MacDonald the oxford handbook of rhetorical studies. Pp. XXIV + 819, ills. New York: Oxford university press, 2017. Cased, £97, us$150. Isbn: 978-0-19-973159-6. [REVIEW]John Poulakos - 2019 - The Classical Review 69 (1):9-10.
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  18. Irony.Joana Garmendia - 2018 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    -/- Irony is an intriguing topic, central to the study of meaning in language. This book provides an introduction to the pragmatics of irony. It surveys key work carried out on irony in a range of disciplines such as semantics, pragmatics, philosophy and literary studies, and from a variety of theoretical perspectives including Grice's approach, Sperber and Wilson's echoic account, and Clark and Gerrig's pretense theory. It looks at a number of uses of irony and explores how irony can be (...)
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  19. Ramism.Andrea Strazzoni - 2017 - Encyclopedia of Renaissance Philosophy.
    The main aim of the French logician and philosopher Petrus Ramus was to provide a method of teaching the liberal arts enabling the completion of the undergraduate program of studies in 7 years. This method was based on a new logic, in which the complex structure of Aristotle’s Organon and of the Summulae logicales of Peter of Spain is reduced to two main doctrines: the invention of arguments, by which it is possible to find the notions for reasoning and disputing (...)
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  20. Old Stories No Longer Told: The End of the Anecdotes Tradition of Early China.Paul van Els - 2017 - In Paul van Els & Sarah A. Queen (eds.), Between History and Philosophy: Anecdotes in Early China. Albany, NY, USA: pp. 331–56.
    This chapter analyzes the anecdotes tradition of early China. It contains three parts. Part 1 is a case study of a single anecdote, which serves as a typical example of the thriving anecdotal tradition of early China, from the earliest Chinese narrative histories to the end of the Western Han Dynasty. Part 2 continues the case study by analyzing what happened to that single anecdote in texts from the Eastern Han Dynasty onwards, thereby illustrating the rapid decline of the anecdotes (...)
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  21. Is Faith in God Reasonable? Debates in Philosophy, Science and Rhetoric. [REVIEW]Scott D. G. Ventureyra - 2017 - Science Et Esprit 69 (3):447-451.
  22. Rhetoric and Medicine in Early Modern Europe, edited by Stephen Pender and Nancy S. Struever, 2012.Teodoro Katinis - 2016 - Early Science and Medicine 21 (1):97-99.
  23. Rhetoric of Effortlessness in Science.James W. McAllister - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (2):145-166.
    Some classic historical vignettes depict scientists achieving breakthroughs without effort: Archimedes grasping the principles of buoyancy while bathing, Galileo Galilei discovering the isochrony of the pendulum while sitting in a cathedral, James Watt noticing the motive power of steam while passing time in a kitchen, Alexander Fleming finding penicillin in Petri dishes that he had omitted to clean before going on holiday. These stories suggest that, to establish important findings in science, hard work is not always necessary. In this article, (...)
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  24. A means-end classification of argumentation schemes.Fabrizio Macagno - 2015 - In Frans Hendrik van Eemeren & Bart Garssen (eds.), Reflections on Theoretical Issues in Argumentation Theory. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 183-201.
    One of the crucial problems of argumentation schemes as illustrated in (Walton, Reed & Macagno 2008) is their practical use for the purpose of analyzing texts and producing arguments. The high number and the lack of a classification criterion make this instrument extremely difficult to apply practically. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the structure of argumentation schemes and outline a possible criterion of classification based on alternative and mutually-exclusive possibilities. Such a criterion is based not on what (...)
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  25. Classifying the patterns of natural arguments.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton - 2015 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 48 (1): 26-53.
    The representation and classification of the structure of natural arguments has been one of the most important aspects of Aristotelian and medieval dialectical and rhetorical theories. This traditional approach is represented nowadays in models of argumentation schemes. The purpose of this article is to show how arguments are characterized by a complex combination of two levels of abstraction, namely, semantic relations and types of reasoning, and to provide an effective and comprehensive classification system for this matrix of semantic and quasilogical (...)
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  26. A NOÇÃO DE FÓRMULA DE KRIEG-PLANQUE SOB A ORDEM DO DISCURSO DE FOUCAULT.Alex Pereira De Araújo - 2015 - Revista Eletrônica de Estudos Integrados Em Discurso E Argumentação 5 (1):5-21.
    Este artigo empreende uma discussão acerca da noção de fórmula discursiva nos trabalhos de Krieg-Planque e de um possível diálogo com o trabalho desenvolvido por Foucault, sobretudo, a partir do modo como o filósofo percebe o discurso, uma vez que ambos pertencem a uma tradição epistemológica francesa. Dessa forma, vamos adentrar pelo percurso de lapidação da noção de fórmula, tomando, para isso, a entrevista que Krieg-Planque concedeu a Philippe Schepens do Laboratoire de Sémio-linguistique, didatique e informatique (LASELDI) e do livro (...)
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  27. 3. Structure of the New Science.Donald Phillip Verene - 2015 - In Vico's "New Science": A Philosophical Commentary. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 18-26.
  28. Emotive Language in Argumentation.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton - 2014 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This book analyzes the uses of emotive language and redefinitions from pragmatic, dialectical, epistemic and rhetorical perspectives, investigating the relationship between emotions, persuasion and meaning, and focusing on the implicit dimension of the use of a word and its dialectical effects. It offers a method for evaluating the persuasive and manipulative uses of emotive language in ordinary and political discourse. Through the analysis of political speeches and legal arguments, the book offers a systematic study of emotive language in argumentation, rhetoric, (...)
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  29. LOGISCHE UND SEMANTISCHE FUNKTION DER PRÄPOSITIONEN IN LEIBNIZ’ SPRACHPHILOSOPHIE.Lucia Oliveri - 2014 - In Wenchao Li (ed.), Studia Leibnitiana - Supplementa 38 Einheit der Vernunft und Vielfalt der Sprachen Beiträge zu Leibniz' Sprachforschung und Zeichentheorie. Stoccarda, Germania: pp. 55-82.
    Eine Untersuchung der Präpositionen bei Leibniz kann aufgrund ihrer synkatego-rematischen Natur zeigen, in welchem Sinne die Sprache - als strukturiertes, bedeutendes Zeichensystem – das logische Verhältnis unter den Notionen ausdrü-cken kann, und damit der Zusammenhang zwischen Grammatik und Semantik einerseits, und Logik anderseits, erhellen. Meiner Ansicht nach bekommt auch Leibniz' Versuch des Aufbaus einer characteristica universalis dank dieser Per-spektive ein neues Forschungsinteresse. Um das Interesse für diese Redeteile zu wecken, werde ich zuvor in einem kurzen Exkurs die vorgängige Tradition dar-stellen. (...)
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  30. Onwards facing backwards: the rhetoric of science in nineteenth-century Greece.Kostas Tampakis - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Science 47 (2):217-237.
    The aim of this paper is to show how the Greek men of science negotiated a role for their enterprise within the Greek public sphere, from the institution of the modern Greek state in the early 1830s to the first decades of the twentieth century. By focusing on instances where they appeared in public in their official capacity as scientific experts, I describe the rhetorical schemata and the narrative strategies with which Greek science experts engaged the discourses prevalent in nineteenth- (...)
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  31. Strategies of Character Attack.Fabrizio Macagno - 2013 - Argumentation 27 (4):1-33.
    Why are personal attacks so powerful? In political debates, speeches, discussions and campaigns, negative character judgments, aggressive charges and charged epithets are used for different purposes. They can block the dialogue, trigger value judgments and influence decisions; they can force the interlocutor to withdraw a viewpoint or undermine his arguments. Personal attacks are not only multifaceted dialogical moves, but also complex argumentative strategies. They can be considered as premises for further arguments based on signs, generalizations or consequences. They involve tactics (...)
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  32. The Dialogical Force of Implicit Premises. Presumptions in Enthymemes.Fabrizio Macagno & Giovanni Damele - 2013 - Informal Logic 33 (3):361-389.
    The implicit dimension of enthymemes is investigated from a pragmatic perspective to show why a premise can be left unexpressed, and how it can be used strategically. The relationship between the implicit act of taking for granted and the pattern of presumptive reasoning is shown to be the cornerstone of kairos and the fallacy of straw man. By taking a proposition for granted, the speaker shifts the burden of proving its un-acceptability onto the hearer. The resemblance of the tacit premise (...)
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  33. Ancient rhetoric - E. Gunderson the cambridge companion to ancient rhetoric. Pp. X + 355. Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 2009. Paper, £20.99, us$37 . Isbn: 978-0-521-67786-8. [REVIEW]C. B. Watson - 2013 - The Classical Review 63 (1):46-48.
  34. Nathan Crick. Democracy and Rhetoric: John Dewey on the Arts of Becoming[REVIEW]Shane Ralston - 2011 - Philosophy in Review 31 (3):188-190.
    This new book by Nathan Crick explores the integral relationship between philosophical pragmatism and rhetoric. Unlike Robert Danisch’s earlier work on the topic, Pragmatism, Democracy, and the Necessity of Rhetoric (University of South Carolina Press 2007), Crick’s project focuses almost exclusively on the rhetorical resources found in John Dewey’s pragmatist philosophy. To trace the connections between pragmatism and rhetoric, the first obstacle the author must overcome is the time-honored tradition whereby philosophers denigrate rhetoric or sophistry because it deals only with (...)
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  35. Alan Gross and the rhetoric of science.Randy Harris - 2009 - Perspectives on Science 17 (3):pp. 346-380.
    This article reviews the recent work of Alan G. Gross , with prominent notice, as well, of works by Leah Ceccarelli, Celeste Condit, and Jeanne Fahnestock, among others, in order to sketch out developments in the rhetoric of science.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------.
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  36. Enthymemes, argumentation schemes, and topics.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton - 2009 - Logique Et Analyse 52 (205):39-56.
    This paper argues for a reinterpretation of Aristotle's concept of an enthymeme and also his wider informal logic in terms of arguments that are defeasible. They are represented by forms of argument that are called argumentation schemes, considered to be similar to forms of argument found in deductive logic, but different from the foregoing in virtue of their being defeasible. Indeed, the most interesting schemes have been put forward as a helpful way of characterizing structures of human reasoning that have (...)
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  37. From Valla to Viète: The Rhetorical Reform of Logic and its Use in Early Modern Algebra.Giovanna Cifoletti - 2006 - Early Science and Medicine 11 (4):390-423.
    Lorenzo Valla's rhetorical reform of logic resulted in important changes in sixteenth-century mathematical sciences, and not only in mathematical education and in the use of mathematics in other sciences, but also in mathematical theory itself. Logic came to be identified with dialectic, syllogisms with enthymemes and necessary truth with the limit case of probable truth. Two main ancient authorities mediated between logical and mathematical concerns: Cicero and Proclus. Cicero's 'common notions' were identified with Euclid's axioms, so that mathematics could be (...)
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  38. Mathematics and Rhetoric. Introduction.Giovanna Cifoletti - 2006 - Early Science and Medicine 11 (4):369-389.
  39. Les Structures Rhétoriques De La Science: De Kepler À Maxwell. [REVIEW]Greg Myers - 2006 - Isis 97:339-340.
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  40. F ERNAND H ALLYN, Les Structures rhétoriques de la science. De Kepler à Maxwell. Collection «Des travaux». Paris: Editions du Seuil, 2004. Pp. 323. ISBN 2-02-063249-7. €24.00. [REVIEW]Marta Spranzi - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Science 39 (2):285-286.
  41. Between Medicine and Rhetoric.Stephen Pender - 2005 - Early Science and Medicine 10 (1):36-64.
    Inspired by Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis' claim in 1798 that physicians might learn forms of medical reasoning from les anciens rhéteurs, in this paper I explore intimate associations between medicine and rhetoric over the longue durée. Gravely susceptible to error, medical reasoning relies on signs and examples, both gleaned from experience and both the subject of rhetorical inquiry; like rhetoric, medicine reaches plausible conclusions from probable premises. Here, ranging from Hippocrates and Plato through Aristotle to early modern England, I argue that forms (...)
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  42. Justifying practical reason: What chaïm Perelman's new rhetoric can learn from Frege's attack on psychologism.Louise Cummings - 2002 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 35 (1):50-76.
    Chaïm Perelman's new rhetoric represents both the foundation of his normative inquiry into the notion of justice and a fascinating exploration of argumentation that has relevance for philosophers and nonphilosophers alike. Notwithstanding the undoubted merits of the new rhetoric, the process of theorizing by means of which it is formulated is inherently problematic. The problematic nature of this process derives from its pursuit within the unintelligible perspective of a metaphysical standpoint. In order to demonstrate the unintelligibility of this standpoint and (...)
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  43. Communicating Science: The Scientific Article From the 17th Century to the Present.Alan G. Gross, Joseph E. Harmon & Michael S. Reidy - 2002 - Oxford University Press USA.
    This book describes the development of the scientific article from its modest beginnings to the global phenomenon that it has become today. The authors focus on changes in the style, organization, and argumentative structure of scientific communication over time. This outstanding resource is the definitive study on the rhetoric of science.
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  44. C. Castelli: The Mother of the Sophists. La tragedia nei trattati greci di retorica. Pp. 187. Milan: Edizioni Universitarie di Lettere Economia Diritto, 2000. Paper, L. 33,000. ISBN: 88-7916-124-5. [REVIEW]Orlando Poltera - 2002 - The Classical Review 52 (2):376-377.
  45. The Mother of the Sophists. La tragedia nei trattati greci di retorica. [REVIEW]Orlando Poltera - 2002 - The Classical Review 52 (2):376-377.
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  46. Seduction, Sophistry, and the Woman with the Rhetorical Figure.Michelle Ballif - 2001 - SIU Press.
    "Ballif questions why the profession wants to retain these beliefs in the face of vociferous arguments from "new rhetorics" that the discipline no longer posits a foundational self or truth, and in the face of the poststructuralist critique, which has demonstrated that founding truth is always accomplished by first positing and then negating an "other." As an alternative to this negative and violent rhetorical process, Ballif suggests a turn to sophistry as embodied in the figure of Woman, one with the (...)
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  47. H. Lausberg: Handbook of Literary Rhetoric. A Foundation for Literary Study . Pp. xxxi + 921. Leiden, Boston, and Cologne: Brill, 1998 . Cased, $240.50. ISBN: 90-04-10705-3. [REVIEW]Andrew Laird - 2000 - The Classical Review 50 (1):313-314.
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  48. S. Döpp : Antike Rhetorik und ihre Rezeption. Symposion zu Ehren von Professor Dr. Carl Joachim Classen D. Litt. Oxon. am 21. und 22. November 1998 in Göttingen. Pp. 181, ills. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1999. Paper, DM 88. ISBN: 3-515-07524-0. [REVIEW]Roland Mayer - 2000 - The Classical Review 50 (2):676-676.
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  49. Rhetoric and scientific controversies.Marcello Pera - 2000 - In Peter K. Machamer, Marcello Pera & Aristeidēs Baltas (eds.), Scientific Controversies: Philosophical and Historical Perspectives. Oxford University Press. pp. 50.
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  50. Semantic Flexibility in Scientific Practice: A Study of Newton's Optics.Michael Bishop - 1999 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 32 (3):210 - 232.
    Semantic essentialism holds that any scientific term that appears in a well-confirmed scientific theory has a fixed kernel of meaning. Semantic essentialism cannot make sense of the strategies scientists use to argue for their views. Newton's central optical expression "light ray" suggests a context-sensitive view of scientific language. On different occasions, Newton's expression could refer to different things depending on his particular argumentative goals - a visible beam, an irreducibly smallest section of propagating light, or a traveling particle of light. (...)
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