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  1. Empiricism and Tensions with Chris Daly.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    In his review of Chris Daly’s book Philosophical Methods, Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa debates with Daly over the value of using the word “tension,” which Daly describes as a weasel word. Ichikawa disagrees. I raise a worry that Ichikawa’s response will not convince Daly and try to help Ichikawa out. Then I outline a traditional empiricist objection to Daly.
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  2. Problems of Religious Luck, Ch. 4: "We Are All of the Common Herd: Montaigne and the Psychology of Our 'Importunate Presumptions'".Guy Axtell - forthcoming - In Problems of Religious Luck: Assessing the Limits of Reasonable Religious Disagreement.
    As we have seen in the transition form Part I to Part II of this book, the inductive riskiness of doxastic methods applied in testimonial uptake or prescribed as exemplary of religious faith, helpfully operationalizes the broader social scientific, philosophical, moral, and theological interest that people may have with problems of religious luck. Accordingly, we will now speak less about luck, but more about the manner in which highly risky cognitive strategies are correlated with psychological studies of bias studies and (...)
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  3. Discourse Ethics and Eristic.Jens Lemanski - 2022 - Polish Journal of Aesthetics 62:151-162.
    Eristic has been studied more and more intensively in recent years in philosophy, law, communication theory, logic, proof theory, and A.I. Nevertheless, the modern origins of eristic, which almost all current researchers see in the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, are considered to be a theory of the illegitimate use of logical and rhetorical devices. Thus, eristic seems to violate the norms of discourse ethics. In this paper, I argue that this interpretation of eristic is based on prejudices that contradict the original (...)
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  4. Was Aristotle a Virtue Argumentation Theorist?Andrew Aberdein - 2021 - In Joseph Andrew Bjelde, David Merry & Christopher Roser (eds.), Essays on Argumentation in Antiquity. Cham: Springer. pp. 215-229.
    Virtue theories of argumentation (VTA) emphasize the roles arguers play in the conduct and evaluation of arguments, and lay particular stress on arguers’ acquired dispositions of character, that is, virtues and vices. The inspiration for VTA lies in virtue epistemology and virtue ethics, the latter being a modern revival of Aristotle’s ethics. Aristotle is also, of course, the father of Western logic and argumentation. This paper asks to what degree Aristotle may thereby be claimed as a forefather by VTA.
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  5. The Communicative Functions of Metaphors Between Explanation and Persuasion.Fabrizio Macagno & Maria Grazia Rossi - 2021 - In Fabrizio Macagno & Alessandro Capone (eds.), Inquiries in philosophical pragmatics. Theoretical developments. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 171-191.
    In the literature, the pragmatic dimension of metaphors has been clearly acknowledged. Metaphors are regarded as having different possible uses, and in particular, they are commonly viewed as instruments for pursuing persuasion. However, an analysis of the specific conversational purposes that they can be aimed at achieving in a dialogue and their adequacy thereto is still missing. In this paper, we will address this issue focusing on the distinction between the explanatory and persuasive goal. The difference between explanation and persuasion (...)
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  6. Hume's Rhetorical Strategy: Three Views.Daryl Ooi - 2021 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 3 (19):243–259.
    In the Fragment on Evil, Hume announces that he “shall not employ any rhetoric in a philosophical argument, where reason alone ought to be hearkened to.” To employ the rhetorical strategy, in the context of the Fragment, just is to “enumerate all the evils, incident to human life, and display them, with eloquence, in their proper colours.” However, in Part 11 of the Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Hume employs precisely this rhetorical strategy. I discuss three interpretations that might account for (...)
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  7. Hume's Rhetorical Strategy: Three Views.Daryl Ooi - 2021 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 19 (3):243–259.
    In the Fragment on Evil, Hume announces that he “shall not employ any rhetoric in a philosophical argument, where reason alone ought to be hearkened to.” To employ the rhetorical strategy, in the context of the Fragment, just is to “enumerate all the evils, incident to human life, and display them, with eloquence, in their proper colours.” However, in Part 11 of the Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Hume employs precisely this rhetorical strategy. I discuss three interpretations that might account for (...)
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  8. Metaphor Abuse in the Time of Coronavirus: A Reply to Lynne Tirrell.Shane J. Ralston - 2021 - Southwest Philosophy Review 37 (1):89-99.
    In the time of Coronavirus, it is perhaps as good a time as any to comment on the use and abuse of metaphors. One of the worst instances of metaphor abuse-especially given the recent epidemiological crisis-is Lynne Tirrell's notion of toxic speech. In the foregoing reply piece, I analyze Tirrell's metaphor and reveal how it blinds us to the liberating power of public speech. Lynne Tirrell argues that some speech is, borrowing from field of Epidemiology, toxic in the sense that (...)
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  9. Can Figures Persuade? Zeugma as a Figure of Persuasion in Latin.William Michael Short - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (2):632-648.
    Use of rhetorical figures has been an element of persuasive speech at least since Gorgias of Leontini, for whom such deliberate deviations from ordinary literal language were a defining feature of what he called the ‘psychagogic art’. But must we consider figures of speech limited to an ornamental and merely stylistic function, as some ancient and still many modern theorists suggest? Not according to contemporary cognitive rhetoric, which proposes that figures of speech can play a fundamentally argumentative role in speech (...)
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  10. Negative Theology and Meaningless Suffering.Karen Kilby - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (1):92-104.
  11. Animism as an Approach to Arda.Woody Evans - 2019 - IJALEL 4 (8):116-119.
    Here we examine qualities of what would be thought of as inanimate beings that lend evidence to the position that J.R.R. Tolkien’s fictional universe is animistic. Arda is full of life, and natural things in it, such as mountains and rivers, are often alive or conscious. A close look at the qualities of the stars in particular yields further evidence in favor of animism as a foundational ontology of Arda.
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  12. Pragmatism Without the “-Ism”: Cavell, Rhetoric, and the Role of Doctrines in Philosophy.Russell Johnson - 2019 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 40 (2):5-23.
    “If you will listen to me, I will say, do not involve yourselves in any –ism. Study every –ism. Ponder and assimilate what you have read and try to practice yourself what appeals to you out of it. But for heaven’s sake do not set out to establish any –ism.”William James’s 1907 treatise Pragmatism is the book in which James most clearly lays out the core tenets of pragmatism and makes arguments for pragmatism over against rival schools of philosophy. Precisely (...)
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  13. Rhetoric Through the Ages - MacDonald the Oxford Handbook of Rhetorical Studies. Pp. XXIV + 819, Ills. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017. Cased, £97, Us$150. Isbn: 978-0-19-973159-6. [REVIEW]John Poulakos - 2019 - The Classical Review 69 (1):9-10.
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  14. Rhetoric and Medicine in Early Modern Europe, Edited by Stephen Pender and Nancy S. Struever, 2012.Teodoro Katinis - 2016 - Early Science and Medicine 21 (1):97-99.
  15. Rhetoric of Effortlessness in Science.James W. McAllister - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (2):145-166.
    Some classic historical vignettes depict scientists achieving breakthroughs without effort: Archimedes grasping the principles of buoyancy while bathing, Galileo Galilei discovering the isochrony of the pendulum while sitting in a cathedral, James Watt noticing the motive power of steam while passing time in a kitchen, Alexander Fleming finding penicillin in Petri dishes that he had omitted to clean before going on holiday. These stories suggest that, to establish important findings in science, hard work is not always necessary. In this article, (...)
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  16. 3. Structure of the New Science.Donald Phillip Verene - 2016 - In Vico's "New Science": A Philosophical Commentary. Cornell University Press. pp. 18-26.
  17. A Means-End Classification of Argumentation Schemes.Fabrizio Macagno - 2015 - In Frans van Eemeren & Bart Garssen (eds.), Reflections on theoretical issues in argumentation theory. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 183-201.
    One of the crucial problems of argumentation schemes as illustrated in (Walton, Reed & Macagno 2008) is their practical use for the purpose of analyzing texts and producing arguments. The high number and the lack of a classification criterion make this instrument extremely difficult to apply practically. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the structure of argumentation schemes and outline a possible criterion of classification based on alternative and mutually-exclusive possibilities. Such a criterion is based not on what (...)
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  18. Classifying the Patterns of Natural Arguments.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton - 2015 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 48 (1): 26-53.
    The representation and classification of the structure of natural arguments has been one of the most important aspects of Aristotelian and medieval dialectical and rhetorical theories. This traditional approach is represented nowadays in models of argumentation schemes. The purpose of this article is to show how arguments are characterized by a complex combination of two levels of abstraction, namely, semantic relations and types of reasoning, and to provide an effective and comprehensive classification system for this matrix of semantic and quasilogical (...)
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  19. Emotive Language in Argumentation.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton - 2014 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This book analyzes the uses of emotive language and redefinitions from pragmatic, dialectical, epistemic and rhetorical perspectives, investigating the relationship between emotions, persuasion and meaning, and focusing on the implicit dimension of the use of a word and its dialectical effects. It offers a method for evaluating the persuasive and manipulative uses of emotive language in ordinary and political discourse. Through the analysis of political speeches and legal arguments, the book offers a systematic study of emotive language in argumentation, rhetoric, (...)
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  20. LOGISCHE UND SEMANTISCHE FUNKTION DER PRÄPOSITIONEN IN LEIBNIZ’ SPRACHPHILOSOPHIE.Lucia Oliveri - 2014 - In Wenchao Li (ed.), Studia Leibnitiana - Supplementa 38 Einheit der Vernunft und Vielfalt der Sprachen Beiträge zu Leibniz' Sprachforschung und Zeichentheorie. Stoccarda, Germania: pp. 55-82.
    Eine Untersuchung der Präpositionen bei Leibniz kann aufgrund ihrer synkatego-rematischen Natur zeigen, in welchem Sinne die Sprache - als strukturiertes, bedeutendes Zeichensystem – das logische Verhältnis unter den Notionen ausdrü-cken kann, und damit der Zusammenhang zwischen Grammatik und Semantik einerseits, und Logik anderseits, erhellen. Meiner Ansicht nach bekommt auch Leibniz' Versuch des Aufbaus einer characteristica universalis dank dieser Per-spektive ein neues Forschungsinteresse. Um das Interesse für diese Redeteile zu wecken, werde ich zuvor in einem kurzen Exkurs die vorgängige Tradition dar-stellen. (...)
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  21. Onwards Facing Backwards: The Rhetoric of Science in Nineteenth-Century Greece.Kostas Tampakis - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Science 47 (2):217-237.
    The aim of this paper is to show how the Greek men of science negotiated a role for their enterprise within the Greek public sphere, from the institution of the modern Greek state in the early 1830s to the first decades of the twentieth century. By focusing on instances where they appeared in public in their official capacity as scientific experts, I describe the rhetorical schemata and the narrative strategies with which Greek science experts engaged the discourses prevalent in nineteenth- (...)
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  22. Strategies of Character Attack.Fabrizio Macagno - 2013 - Argumentation 27 (4):1-33.
    Why are personal attacks so powerful? In political debates, speeches, discussions and campaigns, negative character judgments, aggressive charges and charged epithets are used for different purposes. They can block the dialogue, trigger value judgments and influence decisions; they can force the interlocutor to withdraw a viewpoint or undermine his arguments. Personal attacks are not only multifaceted dialogical moves, but also complex argumentative strategies. They can be considered as premises for further arguments based on signs, generalizations or consequences. They involve tactics (...)
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  23. The Dialogical Force of Implicit Premises. Presumptions in Enthymemes.Fabrizio Macagno & Giovanni Damele - 2013 - Informal Logic 33 (3):361-389.
    The implicit dimension of enthymemes is investigated from a pragmatic perspective to show why a premise can be left unexpressed, and how it can be used strategically. The relationship between the implicit act of taking for granted and the pattern of presumptive reasoning is shown to be the cornerstone of kairos and the fallacy of straw man. By taking a proposition for granted, the speaker shifts the burden of proving its un-acceptability onto the hearer. The resemblance of the tacit premise (...)
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  24. Ancient Rhetoric - E. Gunderson the Cambridge Companion to Ancient Rhetoric. Pp. X + 355. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Paper, £20.99, Us$37 . Isbn: 978-0-521-67786-8. [REVIEW]C. Watson - 2013 - The Classical Review 63 (1):46-48.
  25. Nathan Crick. Democracy and Rhetoric: John Dewey on the Arts of Becoming[REVIEW]Shane Ralston - 2011 - Philosophy in Review 31 (3):188-190.
    This new book by Nathan Crick explores the integral relationship between philosophical pragmatism and rhetoric. Unlike Robert Danisch’s earlier work on the topic, Pragmatism, Democracy, and the Necessity of Rhetoric (University of South Carolina Press 2007), Crick’s project focuses almost exclusively on the rhetorical resources found in John Dewey’s pragmatist philosophy. To trace the connections between pragmatism and rhetoric, the first obstacle the author must overcome is the time-honored tradition whereby philosophers denigrate rhetoric or sophistry because it deals only with (...)
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  26. Enthymemes, Argumentation Schemes, and Topics.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton - 2009 - Logique Et Analyse 52 (205):39-56.
    This paper argues for a reinterpretation of Aristotle's concept of an enthymeme and also his wider informal logic in terms of arguments that are defeasible. They are represented by forms of argument that are called argumentation schemes, considered to be similar to forms of argument found in deductive logic, but different from the foregoing in virtue of their being defeasible. Indeed, the most interesting schemes have been put forward as a helpful way of characterizing structures of human reasoning that have (...)
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  27. From Valla to Viète: The Rhetorical Reform of Logic and its Use in Early Modern Algebra.Giovanna Cifoletti - 2006 - Early Science and Medicine 11 (4):390-423.
    Lorenzo Valla's rhetorical reform of logic resulted in important changes in sixteenth-century mathematical sciences, and not only in mathematical education and in the use of mathematics in other sciences, but also in mathematical theory itself. Logic came to be identified with dialectic, syllogisms with enthymemes and necessary truth with the limit case of probable truth. Two main ancient authorities mediated between logical and mathematical concerns: Cicero and Proclus. Cicero's 'common notions' were identified with Euclid's axioms, so that mathematics could be (...)
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  28. Mathematics and Rhetoric. Introduction.Giovanna Cifoletti - 2006 - Early Science and Medicine 11 (4):369-389.
  29. Les Structures Rhétoriques De La Science: De Kepler À Maxwell. [REVIEW]Greg Myers - 2006 - Isis 97:339-340.
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  30. F ERNAND H ALLYN, Les Structures Rhétoriques de la Science. De Kepler À Maxwell. Collection «Des Travaux». Paris: Editions du Seuil, 2004. Pp. 323. ISBN 2-02-063249-7. €24.00. [REVIEW]Marta Spranzi - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Science 39 (2):285-286.
  31. Between Medicine and Rhetoric.Stephen Pender - 2005 - Early Science and Medicine 10 (1):36-64.
    Inspired by Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis' claim in 1798 that physicians might learn forms of medical reasoning from les anciens rhéteurs, in this paper I explore intimate associations between medicine and rhetoric over the longue durée. Gravely susceptible to error, medical reasoning relies on signs and examples, both gleaned from experience and both the subject of rhetorical inquiry; like rhetoric, medicine reaches plausible conclusions from probable premises. Here, ranging from Hippocrates and Plato through Aristotle to early modern England, I argue that forms (...)
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  32. Justifying Practical Reason: What Chaïm Perelman's New Rhetoric Can Learn From Frege's Attack on Psychologism.Louise Cummings - 2002 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 35 (1):50-76.
  33. Communicating Science: The Scientific Article From the 17th Century to the Present.Alan G. Gross, Joseph E. Harmon & Michael S. Reidy - 2002 - Oxford University Press USA.
    This book describes the development of the scientific article from its modest beginnings to the global phenomenon that it has become today. The authors focus on changes in the style, organization, and argumentative structure of scientific communication over time. This outstanding resource is the definitive study on the rhetoric of science.
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  34. C. Castelli: The Mother of the Sophists. La Tragedia Nei Trattati Greci di Retorica. Pp. 187. Milan: Edizioni Universitarie di Lettere Economia Diritto, 2000. Paper, L. 33,000. ISBN: 88-7916-124-5. [REVIEW]Orlando Poltera - 2002 - The Classical Review 52 (2):376-377.
  35. The Mother of the Sophists. La Tragedia Nei Trattati Greci di Retorica. [REVIEW]Orlando Poltera - 2002 - The Classical Review 52 (2):376-377.
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  36. Seduction, Sophistry, and the Woman with the Rhetorical Figure.Michelle Ballif - 2001 - Siu Press.
    "Ballif questions why the profession wants to retain these beliefs in the face of vociferous arguments from "new rhetorics" that the discipline no longer posits a foundational self or truth, and in the face of the poststructuralist critique, which has demonstrated that founding truth is always accomplished by first positing and then negating an "other." As an alternative to this negative and violent rhetorical process, Ballif suggests a turn to sophistry as embodied in the figure of Woman, one with the (...)
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  37. H. Lausberg: Handbook of Literary Rhetoric. A Foundation for Literary Study . Pp. Xxxi + 921. Leiden, Boston, and Cologne: Brill, 1998 . Cased, $240.50. ISBN: 90-04-10705-3. [REVIEW]Andrew Laird - 2000 - The Classical Review 50 (1):313-314.
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  38. S. Döpp : Antike Rhetorik und ihre Rezeption. Symposion zu Ehren von Professor Dr. Carl Joachim Classen D. Litt. Oxon. am 21. und 22. November 1998 in Göttingen. Pp. 181, ills. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1999. Paper, DM 88. ISBN: 3-515-07524-0. [REVIEW]Roland Mayer - 2000 - The Classical Review 50 (2):676-676.
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  39. Rhetoric and Scientific Controversies.Marcello Pera - 2000 - In Peter K. Machamer, Marcello Pera & Aristeidēs Baltas (eds.), Scientific Controversies: Philosophical and Historical Perspectives. Oxford University Press. pp. 50.
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  40. Semantic Flexibility in Scientific Practice: A Study of Newton's Optics.Michael Bishop - 1999 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 32 (3):210 - 232.
    Semantic essentialism holds that any scientific term that appears in a well-confirmed scientific theory has a fixed kernel of meaning. Semantic essentialism cannot make sense of the strategies scientists use to argue for their views. Newton's central optical expression "light ray" suggests a context-sensitive view of scientific language. On different occasions, Newton's expression could refer to different things depending on his particular argumentative goals - a visible beam, an irreducibly smallest section of propagating light, or a traveling particle of light. (...)
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  41. E. A. Gondos: Auf dem Weg zur rhetorischen Theorie: Rhetorische Reflexion im ausgehenden fünften Jahrhundert v. Chr. Pp. 104. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1996. Paper, DM 68/öS 496/Sw. frs. 62. ISBN: 3-484-68010-5. [REVIEW]S. Usher - 1998 - The Classical Review 48 (1):206-206.
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  42. The Public Dimension Of Scientific Controversies.Jeanine Czubaroff - 1997 - Argumentation 11 (1):51-74.
    Acceptance of three tenets of the doctrine of scientific objectivity, namely, the tenets of consensus, compartmentalization, and ahistorical truth, undermines scientists‘ appreciation of the importance of scientific controversy and consideration of the policy and value implications of controversial scientific theories. This essay rejects these tenets and suggests scientists appreciate theoretical diversity, learn rational means for adjudicating value differences, and cultivate conversational as well as written forms of communication.
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  43. L. Bahmer: Antike Rhetorik and Kommunikative Aufsatzdidaktik. Der Beitrag der Rhetorik zur Didaktik des Schreibens. Pp. xi+299. Hildesheim, Zurich, New York: George Olms, 1991. Paper, DM 49.80. [REVIEW]Ian Rutherford - 1995 - The Classical Review 45 (1):175-175.
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  44. Pera, M. And Shea, W. R. [1991]: "Persuading Science. The Art of Scientific Rhetoric". [REVIEW]Eleonora Montuschi - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):375.
  45. The Discourses of Science.Marcello Pera - 1994 - University of Chicago Press.
    In this much-anticipated revision and translation of Scienza e Retorica, Marcello Pera argues that rhetoric is central to the making of scientific knowledge. Pera begins with an attack of what he calls the "Cartesian syndrome"--the fixation on method common to both defenders of traditional philosophy of science and its detractors. He argues that in assuming the primacy of methodological rules, both sides get it wrong. Scientific knowledge is neither the simple mirror of nature nor a cultural construct imposed by contingent (...)
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  46. 'In the Guise of Science' : Literature and the Rhetoric of 19th-Century English Psychiatry.Helen Small - 1994 - History of the Human Sciences 7 (1):27-55.
  47. Poetics, Politics and Professionalism in the Rise of American Psychology.Richard Harvey Brown - 1992 - History of the Human Sciences 5 (1):47-61.
  48. Persuading Science: The Art of Scientific Rhetoric. [REVIEW]Peter Dear - 1992 - British Journal for the History of Science 25 (3):387-388.
  49. The Literary Structure of Scientific Argument: Historical Studies by Peter Dear; The Rhetoric of Science by Alan G. Gross; Writing Biology: Texts in the Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge by Greg Myers; A Rhetoric of Science: Inventing Scientific Discourse by Lawrence J. Prelli.Trevor Melia - 1992 - Isis 83:100-106.
  50. The Literary Structure of Scientific Argument: Historical Studies. Peter DearThe Rhetoric of Science. Alan G. GrossWriting Biology: Texts in the Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge. Greg MyersA Rhetoric of Science: Inventing Scientific Discourse. Lawrence J. Prelli. [REVIEW]Trevor Melia - 1992 - Isis 83 (1):100-106.
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