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  1. Ficta and Virtuality: An Ingardenian Ontology of Virtualized Ficta.Hicham Jakha - forthcoming - Rivista di Estetica:1-16.
    In my paper, I establish an Ingardenian phenomenological ontology of virtualized ficta, i.e., fictional entities introduced to virtual gaming. The first Section of my paper provides an ontology of virtualized ficta, focusing primarily on their ‘‘existential moments’’. But in order to have a firm grasp of the ontological aspects grounding the virtual work, it’s important to engage its strata. This is what I attempt to do in Section 1.2. Virtualized ficta’s intentional dependencies are strongly manifest in what I call the (...)
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  2. Ingarden vs. Meinong on Ficta’s Generation and Properties.Hicham Jakha - 2024 - Estetika: The European Journal of Aesthetics 61 (1):54–72.
    In this article, I explore the problems of ficta ‘generation’ and ‘properties’ in light of the philosophies of Alexius Meinong and Roman Ingarden. Comparing Ingarden and the historical Meinong is not a novel idea. By contrast, comparing Ingarden and a phenomenological Meinong has not, to my knowledge, yet been explored. Here, I rely on Alberto Voltolini’s ‘phenomenological conception of außerseiende entities’. I devise Ingarden’s phenomenological ontology to account for the problems of ascription and generation that cripple Meinong’s account. In short, (...)
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  3. Learning from the Past to the Future in Metaphysics.Jani Hakkarainen - 2023 - In Jani Sinokki & Eero Kaila (eds.), Acta Philosophica Fennica XCVIII. Finnish Philosophical Society. pp. 125-141.
    I propose that metaphysical study is initially indifferent to the truth of Metaphysical Realism about Metaphysics (MRM) and Metaphysical Realism and does not presuppose them. Metaphysical Realism is a metaphysical doctrine the truth of which cannot be settled logically prior to metaphysical investigation. MRM presupposes Metaphysical Realism and therefore, one should not hold MRM uncritically. An epistemological consequence of this is that arguments against the possibility of cognition about metaphysically real entities (by e.g., Hume) are not arguments against the epistemic (...)
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  4. Formal Ontology.Jani Hakkarainen & Markku Keinänen - 2023 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Formal ontology as a main branch of metaphysics investigates categories of being. In the formal ontological approach to metaphysics, these ontological categories are analysed by ontological forms. This analysis, which we illustrate by some category systems, provides a tool to assess the clarity, exactness and intelligibility of different category systems or formal ontologies. We discuss critically different accounts of ontological form in the literature. Of ontological form, we propose a character- neutral relational account. In this metatheory, ontological forms of entities (...)
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  5. Ingarden’s Aesthetic Argument against Husserl’s Transcendental Idealism Turn.Hicham Jakha - 2023 - Analiza I Egzystencja 63 (3):89-108.
    Husserl’s allegiance to realism came under attack following his Ideas. Ingarden was a fierce critic of his teacher’s turn to transcendental idealism and provided compelling arguments both for his idealist reading of Husserl and for his rejection of idealism. One of the main arguments Ingarden devised against Husserl’s turn was based on his aesthetics. Against Husserl, Ingarden established literary works and fictional objects as purely intentional objects that are (1) doubly structured, vis-à-vis their formal ontology, and (2) endowed with spots (...)
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  6. Thinking Like an Austrian.Barry Smith - 2023 - In Jo Ann Cavallo & Walter Block (eds.), Libertarian Autobiographies: Moving Toward Freedom in Today’s World. Springer. pp. 421-425.
    Autobiography of Barry Smith; emphasizes the role of Dummett and Husserl, Austrian philosophy and economics, and the Munich-Göttingen-Kraków school of realist phenomenology.
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  7. The Aesthetic Value of Literary Works in Roman Ingarden’s Philosophy.Hicham Jakha - 2022 - Kultura I Wartości (32):165-185.
    In this paper, I attempt to formulate an Ingardenian conception of the literary work’s aesthetic value. Following Mitscherling’s lead, I attempt to place Ingarden’s aesthetics within his overall phenomenological-ontological project. That is, I argue that Ingarden’s aesthetics can only be properly fathomed in the context of his ontological deliberations, since, as he himself often enunciated, all his philosophical investigations constitute a realist rejoinder to Husserl’s turn toward transcendental idealism. To this end, I bring together insights from his aesthetics and ontology (...)
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  8. Techno-Telepathy & Silent Subvocal Speech-Recognition Robotics.Virgil W. Brower - 2021 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 10 (1):232-257.
    The primary focus of this project is the silent and subvocal speech-recognition interface unveiled in 2018 as an ambulatory device wearable on the neck that detects a myoelectrical signature by electrodes worn on the surface of the face, throat, and neck. These emerge from an alleged “intending to speak” by the wearer silently-saying-something-to-oneself. This inner voice is believed to occur while one reads in silence or mentally talks to oneself. The artifice does not require spoken sounds, opening the mouth, or (...)
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  9. Część i Całość: W Stronę Topoontologii (Part and Whole: Towards Topoontology).Bartłomiej Skowron - 2021 - Warsaw: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej, 2021..
    part, whole, ideal quality, foundation, unity, space, topoontology, topophilosophy, formal ontology, topology, mathematical philosophy, topology, topology of the person, topology of mind, mathematics in philosophy, mereology, mereotopology, phenomenology, Benedict Bornstein, Edmund Husserl, Roman Ingarden, Kurt Lewin, René Thom.
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  10. Innards of Ingarden: Physiology of Time.Virgil W. Brower - 2020 - In Dominika Czakon, Natalia Anna Michna & Leszek Sosnowski (eds.), Roman Ingarden and His Times. Kraków, Poland: pp. 25-42.
    This project begins with the selective sensory experience suggested by lngarden followed by an insensitivity he insinuates to digestive processes. This is juxtaposed with an oenological explanation of phenomenal sedimentation offered by Jean-Luc Marion. It compares the dynamics of time in the former with the those of wine in the latter. Emphasis is given to lngarden's insinuation of time as fluid, liquid, or aquatic. It revisits Ingarden's physiological explanations of partially-open systems by way of the bilateral excretion and absorption of (...)
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  11. Ingarden’s Husserl: A critical assessment of the 1915 review of the logical investigations.Thomas Byrne - 2020 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 9 (2):513-531.
    This essay critically assesses Roman Ingarden’s 1915 review of the second edition of Edmund Husserl’s Logical Investigations. I elucidate and critique Ingarden’s analysis of the differences between the 1901 first edition and the 1913 second edition. I specifically examine three tenets of Ingarden’s interpretation. First, I demonstrate that Ingarden correctly denounces Husserl’s claim that he only engages in an eidetic study of consciousness in 1913, as Husserl was already performing eidetic analyses in 1901. Second, I show that Ingarden is misguided, (...)
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  12. Time and its indeterminacy in Roman ingarden’s concept of the literary work of art.Charlene Elsby - 2020 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 9 (2):729-748.
    The time of the literary work of art is a schematized aspect of the represented objectivities of the literary work. Roman Ingarden’s analysis of the time of the literary work extends upon Husserl’s phenomenology of time consciousness but nevertheless remains consistent with it, insofar as within a literary work as well as actuality, an objective time or literary objective time is constituted from an experience of temporal objects. The time of the literary work of art is experienced through its represented (...)
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  13. O sensowności uczuć. Dziedzictwo myśli Edyty Stein.Piotr J. Janik - 2020 - Studia Philosophiae Christianae 2 (56):127-141.
    Stein’s theory of empathy lies at the intersection of the phenomenological findings of E. Husserl and M. Scheler. By presenting the issue of “empathy” in a broader framework, including intentionality, the originality of experience, the issue of personality and the individual identity, as well as the so-called world of values, namely the culture, I argue for a dynamic, process-oriented concept of dealing with feelings, namely diapathy. -/- Koncepcja Edyty Stein rozumienia drugiego człowieka jest znana z jej dysertacji O zagadnieniu wczucia. (...)
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  14. Phenomenology and the stratification of reality.James Kinkaid - 2020 - European Journal of Philosophy 28 (4):892-910.
    Phenomenologists have no taste for desert landscapes. The early phenomenologists—Edmund Husserl, Max Scheler, and Roman Ingarden—adopt stratified views of reality on which spiritual objects like artifacts and persons are distinct from their underlying matter. Call this view “pluralism.” After describing Scheler, Ingarden, and Husserl's pluralism about goods, literary artworks, and images, respectively, I reconstruct a phenomenological case for pluralism from Husserl's work and defend it against an objection. The phenomenological method reveals a special subset of objects' essential properties: modes of (...)
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  15. Pytanie o aktualność rozważań Romana Ingardena dotyczących dzieła muzycznego w świetle współczesnej fenomenologii.Andrzej Krawiec - 2020 - Muzyka 65 (3):3-20.
    Roman Ingarden has exerted an immense influence on the development of aesthetics, and his texts in this field continue to inspire in-depth studies on art, despite the passage of several decades since the publication of his major works. At the same time, however, phenomenology – especially in France – brought about crucial changes during the second half of the twentieth century with regard to thinking about art, undermining its own methodological principles and tenets, as well as redefining fundamental phenomenological concepts. (...)
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  16. Brak czy wszechobecność artykulacji w Ingardenowskiej teorii budowy dzieła muzycznego?Andrzej Krawiec - 2020 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 29 (4):473-485.
    In 'The Work of Music and the Problem of Its Identity' by Roman Ingarden we are presented with a philosophical theory of the structure of the musical work. The author includes melody, rhythm and harmony among the primary elements of the musical work while dynamics, tempo and colouration (sonoristics) are classified as its secondary elements. The elements designated by the score constitute a schematic prescription for creating a particular work. Still, the scheme also includes numerous gaps and indeterminacies which can (...)
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  17. The Semiotic Foundation of Ingarden’s Analysis of Music.Hélène Leblanc - 2020 - In N. A. Michna D. Czakon (ed.), Roman Ingarden and His Times. Varsovie, Pologne: Ksiegarnia Akademicka Publishing. pp. 173-190.
    Based on chapter 3 “The musical Work and its score” of Roman Ingarden’s The Work of Music and the Problem of its Identity, this paper examines the semiotic theory from which the Polish philosopher develops his analysis of music.
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  18. The Ingardenian distinction between inseparability and dependence: Historical and systematic considerations.Marek Piwowarczyk - 2020 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 9 (2):532-551.
    In this paper I present the Ingardenian distinction between inseparability and dependence. My considerations are both historical and systematic. The historical part of the paper accomplishes two goals. First, I show that in the Brentanian tradition the problem of existential conditioning was entangled into parts—whole theories. The best examples of such an approach are Kazimierz Twardowski’s theory of the object and Edmund Husserl’s theory of parts and wholes. Second, I exhibit the context within which Ingarden distinguished inseparability and dependence. Moreover, (...)
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  19. A Controversy Over the Existence of Fictional Objects: Husserl and Ingarden on Imagination and Fiction.Witold Płotka - 2020 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 51 (1):33-54.
    1. Phenomenology is first and foremost about intentionality. As Husserl puts it, “Intentionality is the name of the problem encompassed by the whole of phenomenology”.1 Broadly understood, the phen...
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  20. On Roman ingarden’s conception of ontic foundations of responsibility: Responsibility as foundation of ontology?Tomas Sodeika - 2020 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 9 (2):601-618.
    The Polish phenomenologist Roman Ingarden gained recognition primarily due to his research on aesthetics. However, he considered the ontology to be the main area of his philosophical interests. At the beginning of his scientific career, Ingarden realized that he could not agree with his teacher Edmund Husserl, who considered phenomenology as a transcendental philosophy. From Ingarden’s point of view, the fallacy of this approach lies in the fact that it leads to metaphysical idealism and makes it impossible to grasp the (...)
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  21. Twardowski, Ingarden, and Blaustein on Creative Imagination.Witold Płotka - 2019 - Social Imaginaries 5 (1):121-141.
    The article is a critical elaboration of two phenomenological theories of imagination formulated by Ingarden and Blaustein in their discussion with Twardowski. Ingarden, as well as Blaustein were students of both Twardowski and Husserl, however, they defined imagination in two different contexts: whereas for Ingarden a proper way of analysis of imagination is ontology, for Blaustein imagination is the object of descriptive psychology, connected mainly with an aesthetic experience. As a result, the question of creativity of imagination is described in (...)
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  22. A Phenomenological “Aesthetics of Isolation” as Environmental Aesthetics for an Era of Ubiquitous Art.Matthew E. Gladden - 2018 - Polish Journal of Aesthetics (49):11-25.
    Here the concept of the human being as a “relatively isolated system” developed in Ingarden’s later phenomenology is adapted into an “aesthetics of isolation” that complements conventional environmental aesthetics. Such an aesthetics of isolation is especially relevant, given the growing “aesthetic overload” brought about by ubiquitous computing and new forms of art and aesthetic experience such as those involving virtual reality, interactive online performance art, and artificial creativity.
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  23. Roman Ingarden.Olivier Malherbe - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:153-181.
    Roman Ingarden, one of Husserl’s most gifted students, devoted several thousand pages to the development of an ontological, epistemological, aesthetical and even anthropological framework that would allow him to firmly reject the so-called “idealistic turn” of his master Husserl. This paper aims at reconstructing an often overlooked side of his philosophy: his theory of consciousness and his analysis of the constitutive process involved in sense perception. After emphasizing the distinctive character of Ingarden’s ontological frame and its impact on understanding concepts (...)
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  24. On the Philosophical Research of Edith Stein (translated by Inna Savynska).Inna Savynska & Roman Ingarden - 2018 - Δόξα / Докса 1:170-193.
    ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCH OF EDITH STEIN (translated by Inna Savynska)The main Polish philosopher Roman Ingarden in his lecture presents a cross-section of Edith Stein writings and demonstrates the shot timeliness of her ideas. Roman Ingarden was a Stein’s friend from the time of her studies in Göttingen;he knew her ideas and conceptions. He wrote that hers was a search for ananswer to the main question: «What is the structure of man?» That is why she proposed a phenomenological analysis by (...)
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  25. Erwartungshorizont: Über eine literarische Hermeneutik, die Ingarden nie schrieb.Gerardo Arguelles-Fernandez - 2017 - Meta: Research in Hermeneutics, Phenomenology, and Practical Philosophy 9 (1):137-164.
    In this paper I examine the subject of the intersubjective constitution of intentional objects in Ingarden, particularly in the literary work. Subsequently, I cover certain topics of Husserl’s phenomenology adopted and developed further by Ingarden, which were certainly taken up in Reception Aesthetics, but were insufficiently recognized as Husserl’s legacy. In doing so, I attempt to show that Ingarden’s literature aesthetics, as regards its origin in Husserl’s essential-eidetic phenomenology, provides important clues to suggest that Ingarden may not necessarily be regarded (...)
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  26. Noemat jako sens. Problem przedmiotu świadomości w transcendentalnym idealizmie Husserla.Marek Rosiak - 2017 - Diametros 52:107-126.
    The paper develops the argument presented in my earlier article, Intentional Reference and Its Object in Husserl’s Transcendental Idealism. It contains further considerations on the proper understanding of Husserl’s notion of noema. My aim is not only to present an interpretation of Husserl’s text, but primarily to understand what constitutes an intentional reference of an act of consciousness. I agree with some of Husserl’s claims in Ideas, Book I, that noema, sense and intentional object are basically the same. This standpoint (...)
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  27. Barry Smith and His Influence On (Not Only, But Mainly My) Philosophy.Peter Simons - 2017 - Cosmos + Taxis 4 (4):38-41.
    Autobiographical survey of interactions between the author and Barry Smith, especially as concerns the background and influence of the Seminar for Austro-German Philosophy and work on the relevance of Adolf Reinach, Roman Ingarden and other Central-European thinkers to contemporary analytic philosophy.
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  28. Ingarden’s Combinatorial Analysis of The Realism-Idealism Controversy.Raphael Milliere - 2016 - In Sébastian Richard & Olivier Malherbe (eds.), Form(s) and Modes of Being. The Ontology of Roman Ingarden. Bern and New York: pp. 67-98.
    The Controversy over the Existence of the World (henceforth Controversy) is the magnum opus of Polish philosopher Roman Ingarden. Despite the renewed interest for Ingarden’s pioneering ontological work whithin analytic philosophy, little attention has been dedicated to Controversy's main goal, clearly indicated by the very title of the book: finding a solution to the centuries-old philosophical controversy about the ontological status of the external world. -/- There are at least three reasons for this relative indifference. First, even at the time (...)
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  29. Formal Ontology as an Operative Tool in the Theories of the Objects of the Life-World.Horacio Banega - 2012 - Symposium: Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy/Revue canadienne de philosophie continentale 16 (2):64-88.
    It is accepted that certain mereological concepts and phenomenological conceptualisations presented in Carl Stumpf’s Über den psychologischen Ursprung der Raumvorstellung and Tonpsychologie played an important role in the development of the Husserlian formal ontology. In the third Logical Investigation, which displays the formal relations between part and whole and among parts that make out a whole, one of the main concepts of contemporary formal ontology and metaphysics is settled: ontological dependence or foundation (Fundierung). My main objective is to display Stumpf’s (...)
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  30. Transzendentale Ontologie.Maciej Potepa - 2003 - Fichte-Studien 22:141-154.
    Roman Ingarden, der große polnische Phänomenologe, glaubte den metaphysischen Idealismus in vielen Entscheidungen Husserls zu sehen. Er ist u.a. in der These des transzendentalen Idealismus Husserls enthalten. Diese These hat Ingarden folgendermaßen formuliert: » das Sein der uns in der Erfahrung gegebenen Welt ist auf das Sein und den Verlauf des reinen konstituierenden Bewußtseins angewiesen, ohne das die Welt überhaupt nicht existieren würde, und zweitens ist es absolut sinnlos, schon deshalb nach der Existenz der Welt zu fragen«. Demzufolge » ist (...)
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  31. Transzendentale Ontologie.Maciej Potepa - 2003 - Fichte-Studien 22:141-154.
    Roman Ingarden, der große polnische Phänomenologe, glaubte den metaphysischen Idealismus in vielen Entscheidungen Husserls zu sehen. Er ist u.a. in der These des transzendentalen Idealismus Husserls enthalten. Diese These hat Ingarden folgendermaßen formuliert: » das Sein der uns in der Erfahrung gegebenen Welt ist auf das Sein und den Verlauf des reinen konstituierenden Bewußtseins angewiesen, ohne das die Welt überhaupt nicht existieren würde, und zweitens ist es absolut sinnlos, schon deshalb nach der Existenz der Welt zu fragen«. Demzufolge » ist (...)
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  32. Forme et référence. Le langage de Roman Ingarden. [REVIEW]Sylvie Lachize - 1999 - Dialogue 38 (3):636-638.
    Roman Ingarden fut un auteur prolifique. Ancien élève de Husserl, il publia de nombreux ouvrages et articles en près de cinquante ans de carrière et suscita un nombre impressionnant de commentaires tout en demeurant peu connu des francophones. Victor Kocay tente de réparer cette injustice en nous montrant l’intérêt de l’approche ingardenienne pour l’analyse littéraire et la théorisation de la réception esthétique de l’œuvre littéraire. Deux ouvrages constituent le cœur de l’exposition: Das literarische Kunstwerks et Vom Erkennen des literarischen Kunstwerks. (...)
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  33. The truth about fiction.Josef Seifert & Barry Smith - 1994 - In Kunst Und Ontologie: Für Roman Ingarden zum 100. Geburtstag. Amsterdam: Rodopi. pp. 97-118.
    Ingarden distinguishes four strata making up the structure of the literary work of art: the stratum of word sounds and sound-complexes; the stratum of meaning units; the stratum of represented objectivities (characters, actions, settings, and so forth); and the stratum of schematized aspects (perspectives under which the represented objectivities are given to the reader). It is not only works of literature which manifest this four-fold structure but also certain borderline cases such as newspaper articles, scientific works, biographies, and so forth. (...)
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  34. A self-satisfied, empty and unfair criticism-reply.J. Moural - 1991 - Filosoficky Casopis 39 (5):878-878.
    A short rebuttal to Antonín Mokrejš's hostile reply to my critical review of his translation of Roman Ingarden's 'The Literary Work of Art'.
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  35. Practices of Art.Barry Smith - 1988 - In J. C. Nyíri & Barry Smith (eds.), Practical Knowledge: Outlines of a Theory of Traditions and Skills. Croom Helm. pp. 172-209.
    Starting out from the ontology of human work set out by Marx in Das Kapital, the paper seeks to analyse the relations between the artist and his actions and aims, the work of art he produces, and the audience for this work. The paper concludes with a discussion of the problem of creativity in the arts, drawing on ideas of Roman Ingarden and other phenomenologists.
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  36. Adolf Reinach: An annotated bibliography.Barry Smith - 1987 - In Kevin Mulligan (ed.), Speech Act and Sachverhalt. Reinach and the Foundations of Realist Phenomenology. Dordrecht: Reidel. pp. 299-332.
    Reinach is principally known for his anticipation in 1913 of many ideas subsequently developed by Austin, Searle and others under the heading of 'speech act theory'. This bibliography of primary and secondary literature by and on Reinach shows that his influenced extended more broadly into areas such as the theory of judgment, the ontology of states of affairs, and the philosophy of law.
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  37. Meinen und Verstehen in der literarischen Gegenstandskonstitution.Barry Smith - 1983 - In Gerd Wolandt (ed.), Kunst und Kunstforschung: Beiträge zur Ästhetik. Bonn: Bouvier. pp. 49-61.
    Material things have material (spatial) parts. Acts, events, occurrences, have phases, which we can view as their temporal parts. Spatial surfaces and volumes, stretches of time, they all have parts again; they can all be considered "extended". Entities, on the other hand, such as directions, numbers, temperatures, colors, tones, fictional characters, prices, numbers, values, ideologies, goals, are all unextended; they are partless. Let us call such non-extended objects “nodes”, in order to express the fact that we have a tendency to (...)
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  38. Ingarden vs. Meinong on the logic of fiction.Barry Smith - 1980 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 41 (1/2):93-105.
    For Meinong, familiarly, fictional entities are not created, but rather merely discovered (or picked out) from the inexhaustible realm of Aussersein (beyond being and non-being). The phenomenologist Roman Ingarden, in contrast, offers in his Literary Work of Art of 1931 a constructive ontology of fiction, which views fictional objects as entities which are created by the acts of an author (as laws, for example, are created by acts of parliament). We outline the logic of fiction which is implied by Ingarden’s (...)
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  39. On making sense of Ingarden.Barry Smith - 1979 - In Smith Barry (ed.), Crisis of Aesthetics. Cracow: Jagiellonian University Press. pp. 283-289.
    An account of Roman Ingarden's ontology of literature.
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  40. On the Motives Which Led Husserl to Transcendental Idealism, by Roman Ingarden.Peter M. Simons - 1978 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 9 (2):137-137.
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  41. An Essay in Formal Ontology.Barry Smith - 1978 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 6 (1):39-62.
    As conceived by analytic philosophers ontology consists in the application of the methods of mathematical logic to the analysis of ontological discourse. As conceived by realist philosophers such as Meinong and the early Husserl, Reinach and Ingarden, it consists in the investigation of the forms of entities of various types. The suggestion is that formal methods be employed by phenomenological ontologists, and that phenomenological insights may contribute to the construction of adequate formal-ontological languages. The paper sketches an account of what (...)
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  42. Analecta Husserliana, Vol IV. [REVIEW]C. O. S. - 1977 - Review of Metaphysics 31 (2):332-333.
    The philosophical press, in the United States as well as abroad, has not given the thought of the Polish philosopher, Roman Ingarden, the recognition that it rightly deserves. It is because of this state of affairs that Volume IV of Analecta Husserliana comes to us as a scholarly contribution in a time of need. The singular merit of this volume is that it not only makes available some noteworthy critical and constructive analyses by Ingarden but also offers a series of (...)
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  43. Matematyka a Ontologiczna Estetyka Ingardena.Barry Smith - 1976 - Studia Filozoficzne 1 (122):51-56.
    This paper applies the ontological framework developed by Roman Ingarden in his Controversy over the Existence of the World to the domain of mathematics, concluding with some remarks on parallels between the mode of existence of mathematical entities on the one hand and of values on the other.
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  44. The Literary Work of Art. [REVIEW]F. B. C. - 1975 - Review of Metaphysics 28 (3):555-557.
    Roman Ingarden published his two major works in aesthetics in the 1930’s. The Literary Work of Art was published first in a German edition in 1931 and The Cognition of the Literary Work of Art was published first in a Polish edition in 1937. A revised and enlarged edition of the second book was published in Germany in 1968 and it is the German edition translated into English in 1973 which is the subject of this review. Ingarden’s two works, founded (...)
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