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Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970) was a German-American philosopher mainly working in logic and philosophy of science. He began his philosophical career as a neo-Kantian, and later became a leading figure of the logical empiricism of the Vienna Circle. Since that time, he considered it as one of the main tasks of philosophy to “overcome metaphysics” – not simply as an internal philosophical issue, but also as a contribution of philosophy to the project of enlightenment and the fight against politically and morally pernicious ideologies. After his emigration to the United States (1935) he became one of the best-known representatives of philosophy of science and analytic philosophy. According to Carnap, the task of philosophy was to construct linguistic and ontological frameworks that could be used in the ongoing progress of scientific knowledge. In the last decades of his life he dedicated a great part of his work in the elaboration of inductive logic. 

Key works Two classical works of Carnap are Carnap 1928 (translated into English as Carnap 1967) and Carnap 1937. Two excellent collections of papers on all aspects of Carnap's philosophy are  Creath & Friedman 2007 and Richardson & Uebel 2007. The Schilpp volume Schilpp 1963 dedicated to Carnap is still worth reading. Klein & Awodey 2004 and  Friedman 2002 offer useful information on the European context of Carnap's philosophy.
Introductions Many introductory works on specific Carnapian themes may be found in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. There are surprisingly few introductory works that deal with Carnap's philosophy in general. An internet source is Murzi 2001, for a book-length general introduction into Carnap's philosophy see Mormann 2000
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  1. Completeness also Solves Carnap’s Problem.Eric Johannesson - 2022 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 11 (4):192-198.
    In what sense, and to what extent, do rules of inference determine the meaning of logical constants? Motivated by the principle of charity, a natural constraint on the interpretation of logical constants is to make the rules of inference come out sound. But, as Carnap observed, although this constraint does rule out some non-standard interpretations, it does not rule them all out. This is known as Carnap’s problem. I suggest that a charitable interpretation of the logical constants should, as far (...)
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  2. Carnap and Husserl.Ansten Klev - forthcoming - In Christian Dambock & Georg Schiemer (eds.), Rudolf Carnap Handbuch. Metzler Verlag.
    The first part of this entry details what is known about the personal encounters between Rudolf Carnap and Edmund Husserl. The second part looks at all the places in Carnap’s works where Husserl is cited.
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  3. Carnap-Handbuch.Christian Damböck & Georg Schiemer (eds.) - forthcoming - Metzler.
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  4. Carnap on Unity of Science.Bianca Crewe & Alan Richardson - 2024 - In Alan W. Richardson & Adam Tamas Tuboly (eds.), Interpreting Carnap: Critical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    It is no secret that various versions of logical empiricism argued for the importance of unified science. Carnap was a proponent of unity of science views, although he expressed this in different idioms at different times. In the Aufbau (1928) he spoke of the unity of the object domain secured through definability in the constitutional system, in his physicalist period he argued that a physicalist language could serve as the universal language of science, and in his mature philosophical work he (...)
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  5. Review of Sean Morris: The Philosophical Project of Carnap and Quine[REVIEW]James Andrew Smith - 2024 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 14 (1):260-263.
  6. Review of A. W. Carus, Michael Friedman, Wolfgang Kienzler, Alan Richardson and Sven Schlotter: The Collected Works of Rudolf Carnap[REVIEW]Emerson P. Doyle - 2024 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 14 (1):210-215.
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  7. Carnap And Heidegger.Patrick A. Heelan - 2012 - In Trish Glazebrook (ed.), Heidegger on Science. State University of New York Press. pp. 113-129.
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  8. Statistical and inductive probability.Rudolf Carnap - 1955 - In Anthony Eagle (ed.), Philosophy of Probability. Routledge.
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  9. On Quine's epistemological objection to Carnap's analyticity.Joseph Bentley & Thomas Uebel - 2024 - In Alan W. Richardson & Adam Tamas Tuboly (eds.), Interpreting Carnap: Critical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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  10. Carnap on determinism and free will.Richard Creath - 2024 - In Alan W. Richardson & Adam Tamas Tuboly (eds.), Interpreting Carnap: Critical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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  11. Carnap is not against metaphysics.Vera Flocke - 2024 - In Alan W. Richardson & Adam Tamas Tuboly (eds.), Interpreting Carnap: Critical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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  12. Interpreting Carnap: Critical Essays.Alan W. Richardson & Adam Tamas Tuboly (eds.) - 2024 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    A comprehensive, systematic, and historical collection of essays on Rudolf Carnap's philosophy and legacy, written by leading international experts. This volume provides a redressing of Carnap's place in the history of analytic philosophy, through his approach to metaphysics, values, politics, epistemology and philosophy of science.
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  13. Carnap, Language Pluralism, and Rationality.Matti Eklund - manuscript
    Forthcoming in Darren Bradley (ed.), Carnap and Contemporary Philosophy. -/- This paper is centered on Carnap’s views on rationality. More specifically, much of the focus is on a puzzle regarding Carnap’s view on rationality that Florian Steinberger has recently discussed. Not only is Steinberger’s discussion of significant intrinsic interest: his discussion also raises general questions about Carnap interpretation. As I have discussed in earlier work, there are two very different ways of interpreting Carnap’s talk of “frameworks” – and, relatedly, different (...)
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  14. Analytical Truths in R. Carnap’s Theory and in Natural Language.Petr S. Kusliy & Andrey A. Veretennikov - 2024 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 61 (1):184-201.
    The article presents a critical semantic analysis of the so-called analytical truths as they were discussed by R. Carnap and building on some new empirical data that are not fully satisfactorily explained by Carnap’s theory. A theoretical reconstruction of Carnap’s theory of analytical truths is proposed. It is demonstrated how his understanding of analytical truths, as statements that are true in all possible worlds and amenable to a quite obvious definition on a par with the concepts of sense (meaning) and (...)
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  15. Wittgenstein, Carnap, & Copernicus.Arthur Sullivan - 2024 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 61 (1):169-183.
    My point of departure is a passage in which Coffa claims: “Wittgenstein’s and Carnap’s insights on the a priori belong in the same family as Kant’s... What we witness circa 1930 is a Copernican turn that, like Kant’s, bears the closest connection to the a priori; but its topic is meaning rather than experience” [Coffa, 1991, p. 263]. I draw out Kantian resonances in Wittgenstein’s and Carnap’s work on logic, grammar, and theoretical frameworks. In the end, Coffa’s remark comes out (...)
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  16. Rudolf Carnap’s Ideas in Philosophy of Language in the Context of Conceptual Engineering.Irina N. Griftsova & Natalya Yu Kozlova - 2024 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 61 (1):122-133.
    The past decade has seen notable development of conceptual engineering – a field of analytical philosophy that focuses on the critical evaluation of concepts. Most authors engaged with this area identify Rudolf Carnap’s ideas as its methodological framework and theoretical origin, placing particular emphasis on the philosopher’s method of explication. This article highlights the unquestionable influence Carnap’s thought had on conceptual engineering whilst by no means reducing it to the utilisation and advancement of explication within this field of analytical philosophy: (...)
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  17. Pragmatism and scientific philosophy in Carnap and Quine.Robert Sinclair - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-8.
    Critical Review of The Philosophical Project of Carnap and Quine, edited by Sean Morris, Cambridge University Press, 2023.Scholarly opinion concerning the Carnap–Quine relationship and their centra...
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  18. Explication in the Space of Reasons: What Sellars and Carnap Could Offer to Each Other.Krisztián Pete & Adam Tamas Tuboly - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):171-185.
    In this paper, we reconsider the highly underrated Carnap–Sellars relationship, arguing that Sellars might be able to provide an interesting resolution to some of Carnap’s finest problems around explication by offering a grand-scale picture of science/common-sense or manifest interactions. The narrative developed here points toward the need for some stratification and re-evaluation of a field of scholarship that all too often still engages in challenging and contradictory dichotomies, undermining the genuine intentions of scholars who were collaborating with, as well as (...)
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  19. Carnap and Quine on Explanationism in Ontology.Anthony Dardis - 2023 - Acta Analytica 39 (1):19-36.
    Let “explanationism” be the view that ontology is fundamentally an explanatory enterprise. What it does is “on a par” with natural science, as Quine put it. Carnap appears to offer a “lighter weight” alternative in “Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology”: ontology is concerned with semantics and language choice. This paper argues that Carnap’s account of the internal/external distinction is of less use than Carnap suggests for diagnosis of disputes in ontology. But he largely agrees with Quine about explanationism. I propose that (...)
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  20. Ways of the Scientific World-Conception. Rudolf Carnap and Otto Neurath.Christian Damböck, Johannes Friedl & Ulf Höfer (eds.) - 2024 - BRILL.
    Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970) and Otto Neurath (1882-1945) decisively determined the development of the scientific world view of logical empiricism. The contributions to this volume illuminate from different perspectives the intricate relations between these two key thinkers.
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  21. Review Essay: Carnap and the Twentieth Century: Volume 1 and 2.Anne Siegetsleitner - 2023 - In Paola Cantù & Georg Schiemer (eds.), Logic, Epistemology, and Scientific Theories – From Peano to the Vienna Circle. Springer Nature Switzerland. pp. 311-316.
    This edition of the early diaries of Rudolf Carnap (1891–1970), which are housed in the Carnap estate at the University of Pittsburgh, was published in two volumes by Felix Meiner Verlag Hamburg in 2021 and 2022. These are also the first two volumes of the Meiner Edition Schriften aus dem Nachlass von Rudolf Carnap. The title of these two volumes is succinctly Rudolf Carnap. Tagebücher (Rudolf Carnap. Diaries), supplemented by the respective indication of the volume. Volume 1 (approx. 600 pages) (...)
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  22. Russell and Carnap or Bourbaki? Two Ways Towards Structures.Paola Cantù & Frédéric Patras - 2023 - In Paola Cantù & Georg Schiemer (eds.), Logic, Epistemology, and Scientific Theories – From Peano to the Vienna Circle. Springer Nature Switzerland. pp. 193-216.
    Recent years have featured the existence of a variety of structuralisms, with an important partition between methodological versus philosophical structuralism. Inside philosophical structuralism, many trends can be identified, corresponding to various ontological stances. We argue here that another main partition has contributed to organize structuralism in the twentieth century, rooted in different technical and theoretical interests. This partition is largely transversal to the ones classically identified. Concretely, the paper will focus on possible differences between an arithmetical and logical notion of (...)
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  23. Schlick and Carnap on Definitions.Pierre Wagner - 2023 - In Paola Cantù & Georg Schiemer (eds.), Logic, Epistemology, and Scientific Theories – From Peano to the Vienna Circle. Springer Nature Switzerland. pp. 175-192.
    In the 1920s, Carnap and Schlick both made an important use of definitions in their main publications: Schlick, in his Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre (1918, 2nd ed. 1925) and Carnap in Der logische Aufbau der Welt (1928, mostly written by 1925). In this paper, we first provide an analysis of the kinds of definitions that are distinguished in these books and a few other papers, and we then propose a systematic comparison of Schlick’s and Carnap’s diverging conceptions of definitions in the 1920s, (...)
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  24. Carnap and Gödel, Again.Gabriella Crocco - 2023 - In Paola Cantù & Georg Schiemer (eds.), Logic, Epistemology, and Scientific Theories – From Peano to the Vienna Circle. Springer Nature Switzerland. pp. 217-246.
    Difficulties and ambiguities of Carnap’s conception of logic and mathematics are the main target of Gödel’s analysis in his famous drafts of “Is mathematics Syntax of Language?”. In a recent article, Gregory Lavers discusses two main recent dismissive analyses of Gödel’s drafts, concluding at a defense of Gödel’s arguments against Carnap’s position in the 1930. Lavers partially integrates in his examination an argument that I presented in a paper published in 2003. Yet, there are three important differences between my understanding (...)
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  25. What was Carnap rejecting when he rejected metaphysics?Richard Creath - 2023 - In William C. Bausman, Janella K. Baxter & Oliver M. Lean (eds.), From biological practice to scientific metaphysics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
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  26. Logicism and Principle of Tolerance: Carnap’s Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics.Stefano Domingues Stival - 2023 - History and Philosophy of Logic 44 (4):491-504.
    In this paper, the connection between logicism and the principle of tolerance in Carnap’s philosophy of logic and mathematics is to be presented in terms of the history of its development. Such development is conditioned by two lines of criticism to Carnap’s attempt to combine Logicism and Conventionalism, the first of which comes from Gödel, the second from Alfred Tarski. The presentation will take place in three steps. First, the Logicism of Carnap before the publication of The Logical Syntax of (...)
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  27. Carnap and the a priori.Benjamin Marschall - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    What are Carnap's views on the epistemology of mathematics? Did he believe in a priori justification, and if so, what is his account of it? One might think that such questions are misguided, since in the 1930s Carnap came to reject traditional epistemology as a confused mixture of logic and psychology. But things are not that simple. Drawing on recent work by Richardson and Uebel, I will show that Carnap's mature metaphilosophy leaves room for two distinct notions of a priori (...)
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  28. Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology.Rudolf Carnap - 1952 - In Leonard Linsky (ed.), Semantics and the philosophy of language. Urbana,: University of Illinois Press. pp. 208-228.
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  29. Toward a new foundationalism: from Carnap to Kripke, and from Husserl to Sallis.Bernard Freydberg - 2021 - Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Press.
    This book addresses the breach within contemporary philosophy with a newly conceived foundationalism. It shows that dramatic discord has arisen between its two dominant branches. The Anglo-American branch generally takes its departure from logic and from natural science, while the Continental branch generally takes its departure from art and from the great traditional questions. However, they share this common negative feature: each side denies the view that philosophy issues from a central foundation. The book gives brief distillations of six major (...)
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  30. Tagebücher.Rudolf Carnap - 2022 - Hamburg: Meiner. Edited by Christian Damböck, Brigitta Arden, Roman Jordan, Brigitte Parakenings & Lois M. Rendl.
    Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970) war einer der wichtigsten Vertreter der europäischen Philosophie der Zwischenkriegszeit wie auch der amerikanischen analytischen Philosophie der Nachkriegszeit. Seine frühen Tagebücher, mit deren Edition die Ausgabe seiner Schriften aus dem Nachlass eröffnet wird, bieten einen einzigartigen Einblick in die Motive und Gedanken einer Schlüsselfigur der Philosophie des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts und liefern unerlässliche Informationen zu Entstehung und Hintergrund von Carnaps Werk, aber auch zur (Vor-)Geschichte des Wiener Kreises und des Logischen Empirismus.
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  31. Sinnvolle Theologie bei Rudolf Carnap.Niko Strobach - 2023 - In Martin Lemke, Konstantin Leschke, Friederike Peters & Matthias Wunsch (eds.), Der Wiener Kreis und sein philosophisches Spektrum: Beiträge zur Kulturphilosophie, Metaphysik, Philosophiegeschichte, Praktischen Philosophie und Ästhetik. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 107-126.
    In diesem Beitrag soll gezeigt werden, dass, inwiefern und wieso Rudolf Carnap die Möglichkeit sinnvoller Theologie anerkannt hat. Die These ist, kurz gesagt: Es gibt nach Carnap sinnvolle Theologie. Es lohnt sich, das zu zeigen, da oberflächliche Rezeption der Legende Vorschub leistet, nach Carnap sei alle Theologie Unsinn. Kant und Frege hielten sinnvolle Theologie klarerweise für möglich. Kant zweifelte nicht daran, mit dem Satz „Gott ist“ oder „Es ist ein Gott“ (KrV, B 627) sagen zu können, was er für nachweislich (...)
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  32. Carnap's Geometrical Methodology: Explication as a Transfer Principle.Matteo De Benedetto - 2023 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 11 (4).
    In this paper, I will offer a novel perspective on Carnapian explication, understanding it as a philosophical analogue of the transfer principle methodology that originated in nineteenth-century projective geometry. Building upon the historical influence that projective geometry exerted on Carnap’s philosophy, I will show how explication can be modeled as a kind of transfer principle that connects, relative to a given task and normatively constrained by the desiderata chosen by the explicators, the functional properties of concepts belonging to different conceptual (...)
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  33. How not to Russell Carnap’s Aufbau.Alan Richardson - 1990 - PSA Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990 (1):2-14.
    Rudolf Carnap is principally renowned for stating with remarkable precision and rigor a rich variety of philosophical doctrines — doctrines which, thanks mainly to Carnap’s meticulous formulations, the philosophical world now holds to be clearly and fundamentally mistaken. Thus, it is Carnap who, in Meaning and Necessity (Carnap 1947), presents in detail the linguistic doctrine of logical truth and the semantic underpinnings of the analytic/synthetic distinction, providing thereby the grist for the mill of Quine’s highly influential and important attacks on (...)
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  34. A Propósito de la Falta de Continuidad de Las Experiencias Elementales En El Aufbau de Carnap.Carlos Alberto Cardona Suárez - 2011 - Praxis Filosófica 23:21-38.
    El artículo critica la naturaleza instantánea impuesta a las experienciaselementales en el sistema construccional propuesto por Carnap en Derlogische Aufbau der Welt. Inspirado en una idea seminal de Peirce, propongoalgunas modificaciones a los primeros niveles del sistema construccionalsin dejar de advertir que una adaptación más cuidadosa exige atender otrascríticas sustanciales.
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  35. Rudolf Carnap.Thomas Uebel - 2006 - In John Shand (ed.), Central Works of Philosophy, Volume 4: The Twentieth Century: Moore to Popper. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 111-133.
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  36. Carnap and the Legacy of Rational Reconstruction.Yael Gazit & Michael Beaney - forthcoming - In Christian Dambock & Georg Schiemer (eds.), Rudolf Carnap Handbuch. Metzler Verlag.
    Among his many contributions to philosophy, Carnap’s work also influenced the historiography of philosophy. In his Aufbau of 1928, he introduced the term ‘rational reconstruction’ (‘rationale Nachkonstruction’), which is now known as a central approach to the history of philosophy. Carnap’s own conception, though, had nothing to do with our engagement with the Mighty Dead. It was only later, when subsequent philosophers appropriated the term, that it entered the historiographical debate. In this chapter we sketch the development of the notion (...)
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  37. Las teorías modernas de la probabilidad: la probabilidad y la lógica inductiva en Carnap.Eduardo H. Del Busto - 1955 - Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Departamento de Filosofía e Historia de la Ciencia.
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  38. Meaning and necessity.Rudolf Carnap - 1947 - Chicago,: University of Chicago Press.
    "This book is valuable as expounding in full a theory of meaning that has its roots in the work of Frege and has been of the widest influence.... The chief virtue of the book is its systematic character. From Frege to Quine most philosophical logicians have restricted themselves by piecemeal and local assaults on the problems involved. The book is marked by a genial tolerance. Carnap sees himself as proposing conventions rather than asserting truths. However he provides plenty of matter (...)
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  39. Carnap Versus Popper.Miguel López Astorga - 2023 - Logos and Episteme 14 (2):131-139.
    Carnap and Popper proposed ways scientists have to work. According to Carnap, they should look for confirmations for hypotheses. In Popper‘s view, what is important is to try to falsify hypotheses. Cognitive science seems to prove that, in real scientific research, both activities play a role. First, people attempt to confirm hypotheses. Second, they seek examples refuting those hypotheses. This paper is intended to show that the theory of mental models can describe the mental processes involved in both tasks: confirmation (...)
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  40. La superación de la metafísica por medio del análisis lógico del lenguaje.Rudolf Carnap - 1961 - México]: Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
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  41. Would Carnap have tolerated modern metaphysics?Wouter A. Cohen & Marschall Benjamin - 2023 - The Monist 106 (3):326-341.
    It is well known that Carnap, early in his philosophical career, took most of metaphysics to consist of meaningless pseudostatements. In contrast to this meaning-theoretic critique of metaphysics, we develop what we take to be Carnap’s later value-based critique. We argue that this later critique is forceful against several central contemporary metaphysical debates, its origin in the principle of tolerance notwithstanding.
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  42. Scheinprobleme in der Philosophie.Rudolf Carnap - 1928 - [Frankfurt a. M.]: Suhrkamp.
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  43. Logische Syntax der Sprache.Rudolf Carnap - 1934 - Wien, New York,: Springer Verlag.
    Seit beinahe einem Jahrhundert sind Mathematiker und Logiker mit Erfolg bemiiht, aus der Logik eine strenge Wissen­ schaft zu machen. Dieses Ziel ist in einem gewissen Sinn erreicht worden: man hat gelemt, in der Logistik mit Symbolen und Formeln ii. hnlich denen der Mathematik in strenger Weise zu operieren. Aber ein logisches Buch muB auBer den Formeln auch Zwischentext enthalten, der mit Hilfe der gewohnlichen Wort­ sprache iiber die Formeln spricht und ihren Zusammenhang kIar macht. Dieser Zwischentext laBt oft an (...)
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  44. Einführung in die Philosophie der Naturwissenschaft.Rudolf Carnap - 1969 - München: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung.
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  45. Bedeutung und Notwendigkeit.Rudolf Carnap - 1972 - New York,: Springer Verlag.
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  46. Lewis and Quine in context.Sander Verhaegh - 2023 - Asian Journal of Philosophy 2 (2):1-8.
    Robert Sinclair’s *Quine, Conceptual Pragmatism, and the Analytic-Synthetic Distinction* persuasively argues that Quine’s epistemology was deeply influenced by C. I. Lewis’s pragmatism. Sinclair’s account raises the question why Quine himself frequently downplayed Lewis’s influence. Looking back, Quine has always said that Rudolf Carnap was his “greatest teacher” and that his 1933 meeting with the German philosopher was his “first experience of sustained intellectual engagement with anyone of an older generation” (1970, 41; 1985, 97-8, my emphasis). Quine’s autobiographies contain only a (...)
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  47. Einführung in die symbolische Logik.Rudolf Carnap - 1968 - New York,: Springer Verlag.
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  48. Quine's Naturalistic Explication of Carnap's Logic of Science.Gary Ebbs - 2013 - In Ernie Lepore & Gilbert Harman (eds.), A Companion to W. V. O. Quine. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 465–482.
    Gillian Russell: Quine on the Analytic/Synthetic Distinction: This paper examines several of Quine's arguments against the analytic/synthetic distinction: the main arguments from “Two Dogmas of Empiricism” and several arguments against truth in virtue of meaning from “Truth by Convention” and “Carnap on Logical Truth.” It proposes a particular interpretation of the Circularity Argument that helps to make sense of several related puzzles concerning it, and endorses some of the epistemological lessons of the Argument from Confirmation Holism, but it argues that (...)
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  49. Quine's Conception of Explication – and Why It Isn't Carnap's.Martin Gustafsson - 2013 - In Ernie Lepore & Gilbert Harman (eds.), A Companion to W. V. O. Quine. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 508–525.
    Robert Sinclair: Quine on Evidence: Quine's influential “Epistemology Naturalized” is typically read as arguing for the replacement of the “normative” project of traditional epistemology with a psychological description of the causal processes involved in belief acquisition. Recent commentators have rejected this view, arguing that rather than eliminate normative concerns, Quine's proposal seeks to locate them within his scientific conception of epistemology. This chapter examines this debate concerning the normative credentials of Quine's naturalized account of knowledge and its consequences for understanding (...)
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  50. Rudolf Carnap (1891–1970).Sahotra Sarkar - 2001 - In Aloysius Martinich & David Sosa (eds.), A companion to analytic philosophy. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell. pp. 94–109.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Space The constructionist phase Viennese positivism The syntactic phase Semantics Inductive logic The legacy.
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