Rudolf Carnap

Edited by Thomas Mormann (University of the Basque Country, University of the Basque Country)
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Summary

Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970) was a German-American philosopher mainly working in logic and philosophy of science. He began his philosophical career as a neo-Kantian, and later became a leading figure of the logical empiricism of the Vienna Circle. Since that time, he considered it as one of the main tasks of philosophy to “overcome metaphysics” – not simply as an internal philosophical issue, but also as a contribution of philosophy to the project of enlightenment and the fight against politically and morally pernicious ideologies. After his emigration to the United States (1935) he became one of the best-known representatives of philosophy of science and analytic philosophy. According to Carnap, the task of philosophy was to construct linguistic and ontological frameworks that could be used in the ongoing progress of scientific knowledge. In the last decades of his life he dedicated a great part of his work in the elaboration of inductive logic. 

Key works Two classical works of Carnap are Carnap 1928 (translated into English as Carnap 1967) and Carnap 1937. Two excellent collections of papers on all aspects of Carnap's philosophy are  Creath & Friedman 2007 and Richardson & Uebel 2007. The Schilpp volume Schilpp 1963 dedicated to Carnap is still worth reading. Klein & Awodey 2004 and  Friedman 2002 offer useful information on the European context of Carnap's philosophy.
Introductions Many introductory works on specific Carnapian themes may be found in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. There are surprisingly few introductory works that deal with Carnap's philosophy in general. An internet source is Murzi 2001, for a book-length general introduction into Carnap's philosophy see Mormann 2000
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  1. Physicalism, Introspection, and Psychophysics: The Carnap/Duncker Exchange.Uljana Feest - 2017 - In Marcus P. Adams, Zvi Biener, Uljana Feest & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (eds.), Eppur Si Muove: Doing History and Philosophy of Science with Peter Machamer: A Collection of Essays in Honor of Peter Machamer. Springer.
    In 1932, Rudolf Carnap published his article “Psychology in a Physical Language.” The article prompted a critical response by the Gestalt psychologist Karl Duncker. The exchange is marked by mutual lack of comprehension. In this paper I will provide a contextualized explication of the exchange. I will show that Carnap’s physicalism was deeply rooted in the psychophysical tradition that also informed Gestalt psychological research. By failing to acknowledge this, Carnap missed out on the possibility to enter into a serious debate (...)
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  2. The Carnap Book, by Graham Leach-Krouse. [REVIEW]Matt LaVine - 2021 - Teaching Philosophy 44:393-399.
  3. Completeness: From Husserl to Carnap.Víctor Aranda - forthcoming - Logica Universalis:1-27.
    In his Doppelvortrag, Edmund Husserl introduced two concepts of “definiteness” which have been interpreted as a vindication of his role in the history of completeness. Some commentators defended that the meaning of these notions should be understood as categoricity, while other scholars believed that it is closer to syntactic completeness. A detailed study of the early twentieth-century axiomatics and Husserl’s Doppelvortrag shows, however, that many concepts of completeness were conflated as equivalent. Although “absolute definiteness” was principally an attempt to characterize (...)
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  4. Carnap Und Die Farben.Thomas Michael Jahn - 2021 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 75 (2):202-234.
    In the analytical colour debate there are currently two positions facing each other: color objectivism and color subjectivism. For color objectivists, colors are purely physical properties, whereas for color subjectivists they are phenomenal properties that are ontologically dependent on subjects. Although both positions have strong arguments, a stalemate and idleness in the debate has been evident for decades that requires explanation. In this essay I will show, on the basis of some considerations of Carnap's color view, what causes the stalemate (...)
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  5. O que é ‘Metametafisica’? Uma Análise das Metodologias de Meinong, Carnap e Quine.Italo Lins Lemos & Cristian Kraemer - 2021 - Griot : Revista de Filosofia 21 (2):237-255.
    Metametaphysics is the study regarding the foundations and the methodology of Metaphysics. We’ll analyze in this paper three methodologies that established the origins of Metametaphysics in the Analytic Tradition: that of Alexius Meinong, Rudolf Carnap and Willard van Orman Quine. According to Meinong, there is a distinction between ‘to exist’ and ‘there is’ and, in order to preserve the intuition that every intentional act is directed towards an object, there are things that do not exist. According to Carnap, the questions (...)
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  6. To the Icy Slopes in the Melting Pot: Forging Logical Empiricisms in the Context of American Pragmatisms.Adam Tamas Tuboly - 2021 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 11 (1):27-71.
  7. A Portrait of Carnap as a Young Philosopher: A. W. Carus, Michael Friedman, Wolfgang Kienzler, Alan Richardson, and Sven Schlotter (Eds.): Rudolf Carnap: Early Writings: The Collected Works of Rudolf Carnap, Volume 1. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019, 528 Pp, £74 HB. [REVIEW]Pierre Wagner - 2021 - Metascience 30 (2):281-284.
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  8. Logical Necessity Based on Carnap's Criterion of Adequacy.Nino Cocchiarella - 2002 - Korean Journal of Logic 5 (2):1-21.
    A semantics for logical necessity, based on Carnap's criterion of adequacy, is given with respect to the ontology of logical atomism. A calculus for sentential (propositional) modal logic is described and shown to be complete with respect to this semantics. The semantics is then modified in terms of a restricted notion of 'all possible worlds' in the interpretation of necessity and shown to yield a completeness theorem for the modal logic S5. Such a restricted notion introduces material content into the (...)
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  9. Coming to America: Carnap, Reichenbach and the Great Intellectual Migration. Part II: Hans Reichenbach.Sander Verhaegh - 2020 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 8 (11).
    In the late 1930s, a few years before the start of the Second World War, a small number of European philosophers of science emigrated to the United States, escaping the increasingly perilous situation on the continent. Among the first expatriates were Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach, arguably the most influential logical empiricists of their time. In this two-part paper, I reconstruct Carnap’s and Reichenbach’s surprisingly numerous interactions with American academics in the decades before their move in order to explain the (...)
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  10. Coming to America: Carnap, Reichenbach and the Great Intellectual Migration. Part I: Rudolf Carnap.Sander Verhaegh - 2020 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 8 (11).
    In the years before the Second World War, Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach emigrated to the United States, escaping the quickly deteriorating political situation on the continent. Once in the U. S., the two significantly changed the American philosophical climate. This two-part paper reconstructs Carnap’s and Reichenbach’s surprisingly numerous interactions with American academics in the decades before their move in order to explain the impact of their arrival in the late 1930s. Building on archival material of several key players and (...)
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  11. Carnapian Frameworks.Gabriel L. Broughton - forthcoming - Synthese:1-30.
    Carnap’s seminal ‘Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology’ makes important use of the notion of a framework and the related distinction between internal and external questions. But what exactly is a framework? And what role does the internal/external distinction play in Carnap’s metaontology? In an influential series of papers, Matti Eklund has recently defended a bracingly straightforward interpretation: A Carnapian framework, Eklund says, is just a natural language. To ask an internal question, then, is just to ask a question in, say, English. (...)
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  12. Shadows of Syntax: Revitalizing Logical and Mathematical Conventionalism.Jared Warren - 2020 - New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    What is the source of logical and mathematical truth? This book revitalizes conventionalism as an answer to this question. Conventionalism takes logical and mathematical truth to have their source in linguistic conventions. This was an extremely popular view in the early 20th century, but it was never worked out in detail and is now almost universally rejected in mainstream philosophical circles. Shadows of Syntax is the first book-length treatment and defense of a combined conventionalist theory of logic and mathematics. It (...)
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  13. The Vienna Circle’s Reception of Nietzsche.Andreas Vrahimis - 2020 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 8 (9):1-29.
    Friedrich Nietzsche was among the figures from the history of nineteenth century philosophy that, perhaps surprisingly, some of the Vienna Circle’s members had presented as one of their predecessors. While, primarily for political reasons, most Anglophone figures in the history of analytic philosophy had taken a dim view of Nietzsche, the Vienna Circle’s leader Moritz Schlick admired and praised Nietzsche, rejecting what he saw as a misinterpretation of Nietzsche as a militarist or proto-fascist. Schlick, Frank, Neurath, and Carnap were in (...)
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  14. Carnapova logická syntax jazyka a problém kategoriální chyby.Miroslav Vacura - 2019 - Filosoficky Casopis 67 (1):69-88.
    Významnou součástí novopozitivistické filosofie byl Carnapův projekt eliminace metafyziky logickou analýzou jazyka, ohlášený ve stejnojmenném článku. Tento projekt směřoval mj. k vytvoření tzv. logické syntaxe jazyka, která by umožňovala odhalit metafyzické věty jako nesmyslné a eliminovat je z vědeckého diskurzu. V tomto textu se nejprve věnujeme Carnapovu vymezení logické syntaxe v historickém kontextu. Následně analyzujeme Carnapovy neúspěšné pokusy logickou syntaxi jazyka zkonstruovat, přičemž ukazujeme, že jeho obtíže při hledání logické syntaxe nejsou nahodilé, ale mají systémovou povahu a souvisí se způsobem, (...)
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  15. Explication, Description and Enlightenment.Severin Schroeder & John Preston - 2019 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 22 (1):106-120.
    In the first chapter of his book Logical Foundations of Probability, Rudolf Carnap introduced and endorsed a philosophical methodology which he called the method of ‘explication’. P.F. Strawson took issue with this methodology, but it is currently undergoing a revival. In a series of articles, Patrick Maher has recently argued that explication is an appropriate method for ‘formal epistemology’, has defended it against Strawson’s objection, and has himself put it to work in the philosophy of science in further clarification of (...)
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  16. Sign and Object : Quine’s Forgotten Book Project.Sander Verhaegh - 2019 - Synthese 196 (12):5039-5060.
    W. V. Quine’s first philosophical monograph, Word and Object, is widely recognized as one of the most influential books of twentieth century philosophy. Notes, letters, and draft manuscripts at the Quine Archives, however, reveal that Quine was already working on a philosophical book in the early 1940s; a project entitled Sign and Object. In this paper, I examine these and other unpublished documents and show that Sign and Object sheds new light on the evolution of Quine’s ideas. Where “Two Dogmas (...)
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  17. El Círculo de Viena. Una nota histórica.David Villena Saldaña - 2014 - Analítica 8 (8):123-130.
    This paper gives a historical overview of the rise and fall of the Vienna Circle. It also explains its philosophical roots, methodological principles, the scientific world-conception it promoted, and how it influenced later generations of philosophers.
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  18. Language, Truth, and Logic and the Anglophone Reception of the Vienna Circle.Andreas Vrahimis - 2020 - In Adam Tamas Tuboly (ed.), The Historical and Philosophical Significance of Ayer’s Language, Truth and Logic. Hampshire: Palgrave. pp. 41-68.
    A. J. Ayer’s Language, Truth, and Logic had been responsible for introducing the Vienna Circle’s ideas, developed within a Germanophone framework, to an Anglophone readership. Inevitably, this migration from one context to another resulted in the alteration of some of the concepts being transmitted. Such alterations have served to facilitate a number of false impressions of Logical Empiricism from which recent scholarship still tries to recover. In this paper, I will attempt to point to the ways in which LTL has (...)
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  19. Working From Within: The Nature and Development of Quine’s Naturalism. [REVIEW]Ali Hossein Khani - 2020 - The Philosophical Quarterly 70 (278):210-212.
    Working from Within: The Nature and Development of Quine's Naturalism. By Verhaegh Sander.
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  20. The "Analytic"/"Continental" Divide and the Question of Philosophy's Relation to Literature.Andreas Vrahimis - 2019 - Philosophy and Literature 43 (1):253-269.
    The history of the writing of philosophy could be seen as divided between two tendencies. One tendency involves a constant reconfiguration of the literary and stylistic elements involved in the way philosophy is written. Examples include most texts in the philosophical canon, from Plato's dialogues, or Aristotle's lecture notes, to Marcus Aurelius's diary, Augustine's confessions, the pseudepigrapha of the Areopagite, Anselm's prayer, Montaigne's essays, Descartes's meditations, Kierkegaard's play with pseudonymy, or Wittgenstein's "remarks."1 In such texts, we find a self-reflective attitude (...)
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  21. Review: La Relevancia de Carnap: Estudio Del Libro El Programa de Carnap. Ramón Cirera, Andoni Ibarra y Thomas Mormann. [REVIEW]Guillermo E. Rosado Haddock - 2006 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 10 (2):209-235.
    In this critical study of the valuable collection of essays edited by Cirera, Ibarra and Mormann, the present author not only critically assesses the different renderings of Carnap’s writings propounded by the different authors therein represented, but also sketches his own interpretation and subjects to criticism some of the presumed consequences of the demise of logical empiricism.
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  22. The Continental Origins of Verificationism: Natorp, Husserl and Carnap on the Object as Infinitely Determinable X.Abraham D. Stone - 2005 - Angelaki 10 (1):129-143.
  23. Explication.Moritz Cordes & Geo Siegwart - 2018 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This encyclopedia article provides a procedural account of explication outlining each step that is part of the overall explicative effort (2). It is prefaced by a summary of the historical development of the method (1). The latter part of the article includes a rough structural theory of explication (3) and a detailed presentation of an examplary explication taken from the history of philosophy and the foundations of mathematics (4).
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  24. Logical Positivism and Carnap's Confirmability on the Meaningfulness of Religious Language.Alberto Oya - 2018 - Espíritu 67 (155):243-249.
    Due to their acceptance of the verifiability principle, the only way left for logical positivists to argue for the meaningfulness of religious language was to accept some sort of emotivistic conception of it or to reduce it to the description of religious attitude. The verifiability principle, however, suffers from some severe limitations that make it inadequate as a criterion for cognitive meaning. To resolve these problems, logical positivists gave up the requirement of conclusive verifiability and defended a sort of ‘liberalization’ (...)
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  25. Carnap's Foundation of Probability Theory.D. van Dantzig - 1949 - Synthese 8 (1):459-470.
  26. Concepts Morphologiques Et Concepts Propres : Le Problème de l'Axiomatisation de l'Expérience Chez Husserl Et Carnap.Jean-Baptiste Fournier - 2018 - Philosophie 138 (3):46.
  27. Working From Within: The Nature and Development of Quine's Naturalism.Sander Verhaegh - 2018 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    During the past few decades, a radical shift has occurred in how philosophers conceive of the relation between science and philosophy. A great number of analytic philosophers have adopted what is commonly called a ‘naturalistic’ approach, arguing that their inquiries ought to be in some sense continuous with science. Where early analytic philosophers often relied on a sharp distinction between science and philosophy—the former an empirical discipline concerned with fact, the latter an a priori discipline concerned with meaning—philosophers today largely (...)
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  28. Setting Sail: The Development and Reception of Quine’s Naturalism.Sander Verhaegh - 2018 - Philosophers' Imprint 18:1-24.
    Contemporary analytic philosophy is dominated by metaphilosophical naturalism, the view that philosophy ought to be continuous with science. This naturalistic turn is for a significant part due to the work of W. V. Quine. Yet, the development and the reception of Quine’s naturalism have never been systematically studied. In this paper, I examine Quine’s evolving naturalism as well as the reception of his views. Scrutinizing a large set of unpublished notes, correspondence, drafts, papers, and lectures as well as published responses (...)
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  29. Carnap, Quine, and Putnam on Methods of Inquiry. [REVIEW]Sander Verhaegh - 2017 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews:1-9.
  30. ”Carnap’s Ideal of Explication and Naturalism, Edited by Pierre Wagner, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012". [REVIEW]Constantin C. Brîncuș - 2014 - Romanian Journal of Analytic Philosophy 8 (2).
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  31. With Carnap, Beyond Carnap: Metaphysics, Science, and the Realism/Instrumentalism Controversy.Parrini Paolo - 1994 - Logic, Language, and the Structure of Scientific Theories, Universitätsverlag Konstanz Und Pittsburgh University Press, Pittsburgh Und Konstanz:255--277.
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  32. In Carnap’s Defense: A Survey on the Concept of a Linguistic Framework in Carnap’s Philosophy.Parzhad Torfehnezhad - 2016 - Abstracta 9 (1):03-30.
    The main task in this paper is to detail and investigate Carnap’s conception of a “linguistic framework”. On this basis, we will see whether Carnap’s dichotomies, such as the analytic-synthetic distinction, are to be construed as absolute/fundamental dichotomies or merely as relative dichotomies. I argue for a novel interpretation of Carnap’s conception of a LF and, on that basis, will show that, according to Carnap, all the dichotomies to be discussed are relative dichotomies; they depend on conventional decisions concerning the (...)
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  33. Dear Carnap, Dean Van: The Quine-Carnap Correspondence and Related Work.Barry Stroud - 1992 - Journal of Philosophy 89 (7):383-386.
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  34. Wesley Salmon and Gereon Wolters, Eds., Logic, Language, and the Structure of Scientific Theories. Proceedings of the Carnap-Reichenbach Centennial, University of Konstanz, 21-24 May 1991. [REVIEW]Alexander Rueger - 1995 - Philosophy in Review 15 (4):286-287.
  35. La constitución de objetos físicos en el "aufbau": Quine contra Carnap.Carlos Alberto Cardona Suárez - 2010 - Critica 42 (124):51-76.
    En este artículo se sugiere que el argumento de Quine contra el reduccionismo radical de Carnap exhibe de manera incompleta el fundamento del proyecto de Carnap recogido en Der logische Aufbau der Welt. En el artículo se ofrece una estrategia de lectura de los doce pasos que conducen a la construcción de objetos físicos en el Aufbau y se plantean algunas críticas a una propuesta reciente de Thomas Mormann. In this paper it is argued that Quine's critic of Carnap's radical (...)
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  36. The Logical and the Analytic.Richard Creath - 2017 - Synthese 194 (1):79-96.
    This paper considers various objections to Carnap’s logical syntax definition of ’logical expression’, including those by Saunders Mac Lane and W. V. O. Quine. While the specific objections of these two authors can be answered, if necessary by a slight modification of Carnap’s definition, there are other objections that I do not see how to meet. I also consider the proposal by Denis Bonnay for avoiding the objections to Carnap’s definition. In light of the unresolved problems with Carnap’s definition, I (...)
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  37. A Forgotten Strand of Reception History: Understanding Pure Semantics.Peter Olen - 2017 - Synthese 194 (1):121-141.
    I explore a strand of reception history that follows Rudolf Carnap’s shift from a purely syntactical analysis of constructed languages to his conception of pure semantics. My exploration focuses on Gustav Bergmann’s and Everett Hall’s interpretation of pure semantics, their understanding of what constitutes a ’formal’ investigation of language, and their arguments concerning the relationship between expressions and their extra-linguistic referents. I argue that Bergmann and Hall strongly misread Carnap’s semantic project and, subsequently, their misunderstanding is passed down through colleagues (...)
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  38. Carnap on Logic and Rationality.Georg Schiemer - 2017 - Synthese 194 (1):1-14.
    In Untersuchungen zur allgemeinen Axiomatik and Abriss der Logistik, Carnap attempted to formulate the metatheory of axiomatic theories within a single, fully interpreted type-theoretic framework and to investigate a number of meta-logical notions in it, such as those of model, consequence, consistency, completeness, and decidability. These attempts were largely unsuccessful, also in his own considered judgment. A detailed assessment of Carnap’s attempt shows, nevertheless, that his approach is much less confused and hopeless than it has often been made out to (...)
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  39. Selected Papers on Epistemology and Physics. [REVIEW]M. M. E. - 1979 - Review of Metaphysics 32 (3):552-553.
    Though Béla von Juhos belonged to a Hungarian family, he was born in Vienna and, after his ninth year, lived there for the rest of his life. Though associated with the Vienna Circle, he did not assume a teaching position in Vienna until 1948. The present collection, ably translated by Paul Foulkes and introduced by Gerhard Frey, focuses on the type of epistemological analysis of scientific knowledge that remained Juhos’s abiding concern. By the mid-nineteen-thirties the pristine positivism of the early (...)
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  40. The Logical Analysis of Scientific Language According to Carnap.Ramon Cirera - 1993 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 45 (1):1-19.
    "Testability and Meaning" is one of Carnap's best-known works. It has been usually seen as one of the main sources of the received view of the philosophy of science, and it is normally read in the hght of the tradition it originated. Nevertheless, this reading detaches the text from the philosophical project to which it belongs. This paper aims to situate Camap's article in its proper philosophical place, which is found in the programme initiated in the Logische Syntax, a programme (...)
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  41. Quine's Response to the Dualisms of Kant and Carnap: A Case of Abortive Hegelianism.Martin G. Kalin - 1972 - Philosophy Today 16 (3):180-192.
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  42. Stephan Blatti and Sandra Lapointe, Eds., Ontology After Carnap. Reviewed By.Adam Tamas Tuboly - 2016 - Philosophy in Review 36 (6):244-246.
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  43. Analytic Philosophy, Continental Literature?Marc Champagne - 2015 - Philosophy Now 109:21-23.
  44. The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap.Richard C. Jeffrey & Paul Arthur Schilpp - 1966 - Philosophical Review 75 (4):534.
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  45. A Letter of Rudolf Carnap to Jonas Cohn From 26 September 1925.Guillermo E. Rosado Haddock - 2016 - In Husserl and Analytic Philosophy. De Gruyter. pp. 321-322.
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  46. The Old Husserl and the Young Carnap.Guillermo E. Rosado Haddock - 2016 - In Guillermo E. Rosado Haddock (ed.), Husserl and Analytic Philosophy. De Gruyter. pp. 261-286.
  47. Der Logische Aufbau Als Plagiat: Oder: Eine Einführung in Husserls System der Konstitution.Verena Mayer - 2016 - In Guillermo E. Rosado Haddock (ed.), Husserl and Analytic Philosophy. De Gruyter. pp. 175-260.
  48. Carnap Rudolf. Meaning and Necessity. A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1947, Viii + 210 Pp. [REVIEW]Paul Bernays - 1950 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 14 (4):237-241.
  49. II—Carnap on Logic and Language.W. Mays - 1962 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 62 (1):21-38.
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  50. Introduction to Semantics. Rudolf Carnap.Keith R. Symon - 1943 - Isis 34 (3):229-229.
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