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Science, Logic, and Mathematics
  1. Melissus as an Analytic Metaphysicist.Vincenzo Fano, Pierluigi Graziani, Flavia Marcacci & Mirko Tagliaferri - forthcoming - Axiomathes:1-23.
    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the logical structure of Melissus philosophy, building on Laks Most’s translation and Barnes’ seminal work on the Samian. This will allow us to shed some light on the subtle argumentations of Melissus. On top of that, we frame Melissus’ metaphysics employing modern logical instruments. On one side, this reformulation makes clear a few assumptions hidden in the deductions made by the Samian; on the other side, our paper shows that contemporary analytic metaphysics (...)
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  2. (Re)Producing mtEve.Marina DiMarco - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences:101290.
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  3. Was ist das Anthropozän und was wird es gewesen sein? Ein kritischer Überblick über neue Literatur zum kontemporären Erdzeitalter.Andreas Folkers - forthcoming - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin.
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  4. What is an Element? Oxford University Press, 2020.Eric Scerri (ed.) - 2020 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    The concept of a chemical element is foundational within the field of chemistry, but there is wide disagreement over its definition. Even the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) claims two distinct definitions: a species of atoms versus one which identifies chemical elements with the simple substances bearing their names. The double definition of elements proposed by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry contrasts an abstract meaning and an operational one. Nevertheless, the philosophical aspects of this (...)
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  5. Epistemic Holes and Determinism in Classical General Relativity.Juliusz Doboszewski - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (3):1093-1111.
    Determinism fails easily if spacetimes with points removed from the spacetime manifold are taken to be physically reasonable representations of a way the world could be according to classical general relativity. I discuss a recently proposed condition for determining which spacetimes have holes—epistemic hole freeness—and show that epistemic hole freeness gives the correct verdict in some non-globally hyperbolic spacetimes with a closed subset removed, certain spacetimes with genuinely indeterministic features count as having an epistemic hole, which implies that the requirement (...)
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  6. It’s Not a Game: Accurate Representation with Toy Models.James Nguyen - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (3):1013-1041.
    Drawing on ‘interpretational’ accounts of scientific representation, I argue that the use of so-called ‘toy models’ provides no particular philosophical puzzle. More specifically; I argue that once one gives up the idea that models are accurate representations of their targets only if they are appropriately similar, then simple and highly idealized models can be accurate in the same way that more complex models can be. Their differences turn on trading precision for generality, but, if they are appropriately interpreted, toy models (...)
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  7. Bottled Understanding: The Role of Lab Work in Ecology.Adrian Currie - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (3):905-932.
    It is often thought that the vindication of experimental work lies in its capacity to be revelatory of natural systems. I challenge this idea by examining laboratory experiments in ecology. A central task of community ecology involves combining mathematical models and observational data to identify trophic interactions in natural systems. But many ecologists are also lab scientists: constructing microcosm or ‘bottle’ experiments, physically realizing the idealized circumstances described in mathematical models. What vindicates such ecological experiments? I argue that ‘extrapolationism’, the (...)
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  8. The Non-Mechanistic Option: Defending Dynamical Explanations.Russell Meyer - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (3):959-985.
    This article demonstrates that non-mechanistic, dynamical explanations are a viable approach to explanation in the special sciences. The claim that dynamical models can be explanatory without reference to mechanisms has previously been met with three lines of criticism from mechanists: the causal relevance concern, the genuine laws concern, and the charge of predictivism. I argue, however, that these mechanist criticisms fail to defeat non-mechanistic, dynamical explanation. Using the examples of Haken et al.’s model of bimanual coordination, and Thelen et al.’s (...)
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  9. Of Water Drops and Atomic Nuclei: Analogies and Pursuit Worthiness in Science.Rune Nyrup - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (3):881-903.
    This article highlights a use of analogies in science that so far has received relatively little systematic discussion: providing reasons for pursuing a model or theory. Using the development of the liquid drop model as a test case, I critically assess two extant pursuit worthiness accounts: that analogies justify pursuit by supporting plausibility arguments and that analogies can serve as a guide to potential theoretical unification. Neither of these fit the liquid drop model case. Instead, I develop an alternative account, (...)
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  10. Disarming the Ultimate Historical Challenge to Scientific Realism.Peter Vickers - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (3):987-1012.
    Probably the most dramatic historical challenge to scientific realism concerns Arnold Sommerfeld’s derivation of the fine structure energy levels of hydrogen. Not only were his predictions good, he derived exactly the same formula that would later drop out of Dirac’s 1928 treatment. And yet the most central elements of Sommerfeld’s theory were not even approximately true: his derivation leans heavily on a classical approach to elliptical orbits, including the necessary adjustments to these orbits demanded by relativity. Even physicists call Sommerfeld’s (...)
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  11. Capricious Kinds.Jessica Laimann - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (3):1043-1068.
    According to Ian Hacking, some human kinds are subject to a peculiar type of classificatory instability: individuals change in reaction to being classified, which in turn leads to a revision of our understanding of the kind. Hacking’s claim that these ‘human interactive kinds’ cannot be natural kinds has been vehemently criticized on the grounds that similar patterns of instability occur in paradigmatic examples of natural kinds. I argue that the dialectic of the extant debate misses the core conceptual problem of (...)
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  12. Malament–Hogarth Machines.J. B. Manchak - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (3):1143-1153.
    This article shows a clear sense in which general relativity allows for a type of ‘machine’ that can bring about a spacetime structure suitable for the implementation of ‘supertasks’. 1Introduction2Preliminaries3Malament–Hogarth Spacetimes4Machines5Malament–Hogarth Machines6Conclusion.
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  13. Colour, Wavelength and Turbidity in the Light of Goethe’s Colour Studies.Gopi Krishna Vijaya - forthcoming - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-26.
    The polarity of light and dark in the treatment of the Newtonian spectrum and the inverse spectrum is studied further and the validity of heterogeneity of light and darkness in relation to Goethe’s views is examined. In order to clarify the reality of the “darkness rays”, the experimentum crucis is re-evaluated. It is shown that the commonly accepted analysis contains assumptions in the choice of the spectrum and background, which mask the inherent dynamic of the spectrum. The relation between colour (...)
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  14. Normalizing the Paradigm on Human Enhancements in Space.Margaret Boone Rappaport & Christopher Corbally - 2020 - In Human Enhancements for Space Missions; Lunar, Martian, and Future Missions to the Outer Planets. New York, NY, USA: pp. 3-17.
    The authors describe the context and need for, and three methods to achieve a paradigm normalization in space research and space programming for the coming changes to the human species wrought by human enhancements. They explore the relevance of the longstanding nature of human enhancements, which reach back into prehistory, and new future capacities that will render humans able to withstand the rigors of microgravity, the monotony of spaceflight, and the extremes of off-world environments. The authors draw together a wide (...)
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  15. Hilbert's Metamathematical Problems and Their Solutions.Besim Karakadilar - 2008 - Dissertation, Boston University
    This dissertation examines several of the problems that Hilbert discovered in the foundations of mathematics, from a metalogical perspective. The problems manifest themselves in four different aspects of Hilbert’s views: (i) Hilbert’s axiomatic approach to the foundations of mathematics; (ii) His response to criticisms of set theory; (iii) His response to intuitionist criticisms of classical mathematics; (iv) Hilbert’s contribution to the specification of the role of logical inference in mathematical reasoning. This dissertation argues that Hilbert’s axiomatic approach was guided primarily (...)
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  16. Scientific Realism, Metaphysical Antirealism and the No Miracle Arguments.Mario Alai - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-24.
    Many formulations of scientific realism include some commitment to metaphysical realism. On the other hand, authors like Schlick, Carnap and Putnam held forms of scientific realism coupled with metaphysical antirealism. So we might ask: do scientific realists really need MR? or is MR already implied by SR, so that SR is actually incompatible with metaphysical antirealism? And if MR must really be added to SR, why is that so? And which additional arguments scientific realists need to support it? After reviewing (...)
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  17. Categorization in Real-World Tasks.Alisa Vokert, Jona Schroder & Alexandra Kirsh - 2020 - In Proceedings of ACS. New York, NY, USA: pp. 37-54.
    We examine the role of category representations for decision-making in real-life tasks. To this end, we empirically examine how people categorize kitchen objects and make use of categories when storing objects in a kitchen. We then compare two computational models and their ability to represent the participants’ mental models. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the models and point the way to further research.
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  18. An Analysis of the Antinomic Structure of the Relation of Being in Husserl and Its Political Implication An Analysis of the Antinomic Structure of the Relation of Being in Husserl and Its Political Implication. Yusuk - 2018 - Genshôgaku Nenpô 34:(21)-(36).
    Antinomy basically as an inherent structural tension from within the reason between rational willing toward the unconditioned and rational thinking necessarily conditioned by the rule of understanding plays a negative role in and for Kant's system to critically compass reason in limiting itself within the possibility of real experience. In Husserl, under the banner of one all-encompassing reason, antinomy takes a modified form of an ontological incommensurability between two essentially separable regions of being, i.e., between the ideal and the real; (...)
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  19. Informed Consent, Therapeutic Misconception, and Unrealistic Optimism.Lynn A. Jansen - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):359-373.
    Ethical research on human subjects requires that subjects, if they have the capacity to do so, give free and informed consent to participate in the trials in which they are enrolled. This requirement, which is commonly referred to as the principle of informed consent, was prominently endorsed by the authors of the Belmont Report in 1978, and it remains widely accepted today. Yet while the principle of informed consent is by now almost universally accepted, the responsibilities that it imposes on (...)
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  20. The Belmont Report and Innovative Clinical Research.John D. Lantos - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):389-400.
    The ethical principles articulated in the Belmont Report and the regulatory oversight of research based on those principles seem to have served society well. Before Belmont, there were numerous egregious violations of research ethics. Since Belmont, there seem to be fewer—though good data are lacking.A central pillar of the Belmont framework is that a bright line must be drawn between medical practice and biomedical research. The Report stated that to qualify as practice, the following conditions must be satisfied: the purpose (...)
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  21. International Clinical Research and Justice in the Belmont Report.Joseph Millum - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):374-388.
    There is a long history of Western scientists conducting medical research in other countries. Indeed, one of the first recorded cases of the use of a consent form for research volunteers comes from Walter Reed’s studies of the transmission of yellow fever in American-occupied Cuba at the turn of the 20th century. But in the 1960s and ’70s, the volume of international clinical research was low relative to the present. The scandals that prompted the creation of the National Commission for (...)
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  22. Introduction to the Special Issue on the Belmont Report.Franklin G. Miller & Jonathan Kimmelman - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):219-219.
    The Belmont Report, issued in 1979 by the US National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, is a landmark document providing guidance on the ethics of research involving human subjects. It is divided into three sections: “Boundaries between practice and research; “Basic ethical principles” ; and “Applications of these principles with respect to informed consent, assessment of risks and benefits, and selection of subjects.”While the Belmont Report has enduring significance, the landscape of biomedical research (...)
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  23. Belmont in Context.Will Schupmann & Jonathan D. Moreno - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):220-239.
    The Belmont Report has had an enormous influence on the ethics of biomedical research over the last several decades. It has served as a philosophical foundation for federal regulations governing human subjects research, and its principles are well known to individuals across the research enterprise. Given the outsized influence Belmont has enjoyed as a core document in bioethics, it is worth reminding ourselves of the historical context in which it came to be. In this article, we examine the societal forces (...)
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  24. Minimizing Risks Is Not Enough: The Relevance of Benefits to Protecting Research Participants.David Wendler - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):346-358.
    Martin Luther King, Jr., quoting the 19th-century clergyman Theodore Parker, claimed that the arc of the moral universe “bends toward justice.” One hopes he is right, perhaps especially at times when history appears to have taken something of a detour. The 40th anniversary of the Belmont Report offers the opportunity to evaluate the arc of research ethics, to assess where it is going and whether it too is bending toward justice.The Belmont Report is the work of the National Commission, which (...)
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  25. The Belmont Report and Innovative Practice.Jake Earl - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):313-326.
    The National Research Act of 1974 tasked the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research with identifying ethical principles and guidelines for research with human subjects. As part of this task, the Commission was ordered to consider “[t]he boundaries between biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects and the accepted and routine practice of medicine” ). Section A of the Commission’s famous Belmont Report addresses this charge by distinguishing between two kinds of activity—“research” and (...)
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  26. Belmont in Europe: A Mostly Indirect Influence.Søren Holm - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):262-276.
    When the Belmont Report was published in 1979, the European research ethics community was very small, even if we take this community to include everyone who was working in research ethics academically or professionally, and the report itself made very little impact in European medical journals.1 If we try to trace Belmont’s later reception history in Europe and in much of the bioethics literature worldwide, we find that it is most often quoted either as a landmark in the history of (...)
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  27. What Is Human Research For? Reflections on the Omission of Scientific Integrity From the Belmont Report.Jonathan Kimmelman - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):251-261.
    The Belmont Report is a totem of human research ethics. Its principles have provided a sustained and organizing vision for human protections and have been endorsed by various subsequent human protections policies. Besides its influence, the Belmont Report rewards multiple reads and abounds in insights, many of which have been under-attended in research ethics. Above all, the principles articulated in Belmont have proven adaptable to the many novel research strategies, approaches, settings, and challenges that have emerged in the 40 years (...)
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  28. Revisiting the Distinction and the Connection Between Research and Practice.Franklin G. Miller - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):277-292.
    The Belmont Report begins with the sentence, “It is important to distinguish between biomedical and behavioral research, on the one hand, and the practice of accepted therapy on the other”. Writing an essay in a journal issue devoted to the 40th anniversary of the Belmont Report offers an opportunity not only to examine critically a theme addressed in this remarkable document—the distinction between research and practice—but also to reflect on the role of this theme as a major dimension of my (...)
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  29. Towards Identifying an Upper Limit of Risk: A Persistent Area of Controversy in Research Ethics.Erin T. Paquette & Seema K. Shah - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):327-345.
    A core tenet of research ethics is that risks assumed by research participants are reasonable, balanced, and minimized in relation to benefit to the individual and to society. It is also generally accepted that people who cannot give their own informed consent ought only to be exposed to low risks in research, unless there is a compensating potential for direct benefit.However, there is no consensus on whether individuals should be able to voluntarily consent to high net risk in research—or, in (...)
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  30. Judging the Social Value of Health-Related Research: Current Debate and Open Questions.Annette Rid - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):293-312.
    Several influential ethical guidelines and frameworks endorse the view that research with human participants is ethically acceptable only when it has “social value,” meaning that it generates knowledge which can be used to benefit society. For example, the Nuremberg Code requires that medical experiments on human beings “yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study”. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences guidelines hold that “health-related research with humans... must have social (...)
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  31. The Origins and Drafting of the Belmont Report.Tom L. Beauchamp - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):240-250.
    The Belmont Report of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research was essentially mandated in a public law on July 12, 1974. The publications of this Commission have turned out to be the most influential of all US ethics and bioethics commissions on US public policy and federal regulation. The reason for its influence is that this Commission was allowed—indeed required—to draft federal regulations governing research with vulnerable subjects and to produce a general (...)
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  32. Underdetermination and Evidence-Based Policy.Fredrik Andersen & Elena Rocca - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences:101335.
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  33. Schemas for Induction.Alan Baker - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 82:114-119.
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  34. Natural Diversity: A Neo-Essentialist Misconstrual of Homeostatic Property Cluster Theory in Natural Kind Debates.Joachim Lipski - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 82:94-103.
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  35. Norton's Material Theory of Analogy.Paul Bartha - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 82:104-113.
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