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Science, Logic, and Mathematics
  1. Philosophy of sustainability experimentation _ experimental legacy, normativity and transfer of evidence.Stojanovic Milutin - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-22.
    The recent proliferation of types and accounts of experimentation in sustainability science still lacks philosophical reflection. The present paper introduces this burgeoning topic to the philosophy of science by identifying key notions and dynamics in sustainability experimentation, by discussing taxonomies of sustainability experimentation and by focusing on barriers to the transfer of evidence. It integrates three topics: the philosophy of experimentation; the sustainability science literature on experimentation; and discussions on values in science coming from the general philosophy of science, the (...)
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    Logic and Phil of Logic
     Logics
     Logical Consequence and Entailment
     Logical Expressions
     Paradoxes
     Logical Semantics and Logical Truth
     History of Logic
     Logic and Phil of Logic, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Biology
     Developmental Biology
     Ecology and Conservation Biology
     Evolutionary Biology
     Genetics and Molecular Biology
     Phil of Biology, Miscellaneous
     Systematic Biology
     Environmental Philosophy
     Teleology and Function
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
    Phil of Cognitive Science
     Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Phil of Psychology
     Phil of Neuroscience
     Phil of Consciousness
     Phil of Linguistics
     Phil of Psychiatry and Psychopathology
     Phil of Cognitive Science, Miscellaneous
     Science of Consciousness
    Phil of Computing and Information
     Computation and Physical Systems
     Computer Ethics
     Computer Simulation and Virtual Reality
     Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Phil of Computation, Miscellaneous
     Phil of Information
     Theory of Computation
     Philosophy of Technology
    Phil of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Ontology of Mathematics
     Mathematical Cognition
     Mathematical Truth
     Set Theory
     Areas of Mathematics
     Theories of Mathematics
     History: Philosophy of Mathematics
     Phil of Mathematics, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Physical Science
     Complex Systems
     Phil of Chemistry
     Phil of Cosmology
     Phil of Earth Sciences
     Phil of Physics, Miscellaneous
     Phil of Physical Science, Misc
     Quantum Mechanics
     Space and Time
    Phil of Social Science
     Phil of Anthropology
     Phil of Archaeology
     Phil of Economics
     Phil of Education
     Phil of Geography
     Phil of History
     Phil of Law
     Philosophy of Political Science
     Phil of Sociology
     Phil of Social Science, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Probability
     Interpretation of Probability
     Chance and Objective Probability
     Subjective Probability
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Mathematics of Probability
     Phil of Statistics
     Applications of Probability
     Decision Theory
     Phil of Probability, Misc
    General Phil of Science
     Scientific Method
     Explanation
     History of Science
     Laws of Nature
     General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Interlevel Relations in Science
     Scientific Change
     Scientific Language
     Scientific Practice
     Scientific Realism
     Sociology of Science
     Theories and Models
    Phil of Science, Misc
     Feminist Phil of Science
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  2. The Human Factor in the Settlement of the Moon; An Interdisciplinary Approach.Margaret Boone Rappaport & Konrad Szocik (eds.) - forthcoming - New York, NY: Sppringer.
    Approaching the settlement of our Moon from a practical perspective, this book is well suited for space program planners. It addresses a variety of human factor topics involved in colonizing Earth's Moon, including: history, philosophy, science, engineering, agriculture, medicine, politics & policy, sociology, and anthropology. Each chapter identifies the complex, interdisciplinary issues of the human factor that arise in the early phases of settlement on the Moon. Besides practical issues, there is some emphasis placed on preserving, protecting, and experiencing the (...)
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    Logic and Phil of Logic
     Logics
     Logical Consequence and Entailment
     Logical Expressions
     Paradoxes
     Logical Semantics and Logical Truth
     History of Logic
     Logic and Phil of Logic, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Biology
     Developmental Biology
     Ecology and Conservation Biology
     Evolutionary Biology
     Genetics and Molecular Biology
     Phil of Biology, Miscellaneous
     Systematic Biology
     Environmental Philosophy
     Teleology and Function
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
    Phil of Cognitive Science
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     Phil of Psychology
     Phil of Neuroscience
     Phil of Consciousness
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     Phil of Information
     Theory of Computation
     Philosophy of Technology
    Phil of Mathematics
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     History: Philosophy of Mathematics
     Phil of Mathematics, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Physical Science
     Complex Systems
     Phil of Chemistry
     Phil of Cosmology
     Phil of Earth Sciences
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     Quantum Mechanics
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    Phil of Social Science
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    Phil of Probability
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     Phil of Probability, Misc
    General Phil of Science
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  3. A sequence labeling model for catchphrase identification from legal case documents.Arpan Mandal, Kripabandhu Ghosh, Saptarshi Ghosh & Sekhar Mandal - forthcoming - Artificial Intelligence and Law:1-34.
    In a Common Law system, legal practitioners need frequent access to prior case documents that discuss relevant legal issues. Case documents are generally very lengthy, containing complex sentence structures, and reading them fully is a strenuous task even for legal practitioners. Having a concise overview of these documents can relieve legal practitioners from the task of reading the complete case statements. Legal catchphrases are phrases that provide a concise overview of the contents of a case document, and automated generation of (...)
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    Logic and Phil of Logic
     Logics
     Logical Consequence and Entailment
     Logical Expressions
     Paradoxes
     Logical Semantics and Logical Truth
     History of Logic
     Logic and Phil of Logic, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Biology
     Developmental Biology
     Ecology and Conservation Biology
     Evolutionary Biology
     Genetics and Molecular Biology
     Phil of Biology, Miscellaneous
     Systematic Biology
     Environmental Philosophy
     Teleology and Function
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
    Phil of Cognitive Science
     Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Phil of Psychology
     Phil of Neuroscience
     Phil of Consciousness
     Phil of Linguistics
     Phil of Psychiatry and Psychopathology
     Phil of Cognitive Science, Miscellaneous
     Science of Consciousness
    Phil of Computing and Information
     Computation and Physical Systems
     Computer Ethics
     Computer Simulation and Virtual Reality
     Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Phil of Computation, Miscellaneous
     Phil of Information
     Theory of Computation
     Philosophy of Technology
    Phil of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Ontology of Mathematics
     Mathematical Cognition
     Mathematical Truth
     Set Theory
     Areas of Mathematics
     Theories of Mathematics
     History: Philosophy of Mathematics
     Phil of Mathematics, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Physical Science
     Complex Systems
     Phil of Chemistry
     Phil of Cosmology
     Phil of Earth Sciences
     Phil of Physics, Miscellaneous
     Phil of Physical Science, Misc
     Quantum Mechanics
     Space and Time
    Phil of Social Science
     Phil of Anthropology
     Phil of Archaeology
     Phil of Economics
     Phil of Education
     Phil of Geography
     Phil of History
     Phil of Law
     Philosophy of Political Science
     Phil of Sociology
     Phil of Social Science, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Probability
     Interpretation of Probability
     Chance and Objective Probability
     Subjective Probability
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Mathematics of Probability
     Phil of Statistics
     Applications of Probability
     Decision Theory
     Phil of Probability, Misc
    General Phil of Science
     Scientific Method
     Explanation
     History of Science
     Laws of Nature
     General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Interlevel Relations in Science
     Scientific Change
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     Scientific Realism
     Sociology of Science
     Theories and Models
    Phil of Science, Misc
     Feminist Phil of Science
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  4. Close encounters with scientific analogies of the third kind.Francesco Nappo - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-20.
    Arguments from non-causal analogy form a distinctive class of analogical arguments in science not recognized in authoritative classifications by, e.g., Hesse and Bartha. In this paper, I illustrate this novel class of scientific analogies by means of historical examples from physics, biology and economics, at the same time emphasizing their broader significance for contemporary debates in epistemology.
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    Logic and Phil of Logic
     Logics
     Logical Consequence and Entailment
     Logical Expressions
     Paradoxes
     Logical Semantics and Logical Truth
     History of Logic
     Logic and Phil of Logic, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Biology
     Developmental Biology
     Ecology and Conservation Biology
     Evolutionary Biology
     Genetics and Molecular Biology
     Phil of Biology, Miscellaneous
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     Environmental Philosophy
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     Interlevel Relations in Biology
    Phil of Cognitive Science
     Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Phil of Psychology
     Phil of Neuroscience
     Phil of Consciousness
     Phil of Linguistics
     Phil of Psychiatry and Psychopathology
     Phil of Cognitive Science, Miscellaneous
     Science of Consciousness
    Phil of Computing and Information
     Computation and Physical Systems
     Computer Ethics
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     Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Phil of Computation, Miscellaneous
     Phil of Information
     Theory of Computation
     Philosophy of Technology
    Phil of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Ontology of Mathematics
     Mathematical Cognition
     Mathematical Truth
     Set Theory
     Areas of Mathematics
     Theories of Mathematics
     History: Philosophy of Mathematics
     Phil of Mathematics, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Physical Science
     Complex Systems
     Phil of Chemistry
     Phil of Cosmology
     Phil of Earth Sciences
     Phil of Physics, Miscellaneous
     Phil of Physical Science, Misc
     Quantum Mechanics
     Space and Time
    Phil of Social Science
     Phil of Anthropology
     Phil of Archaeology
     Phil of Economics
     Phil of Education
     Phil of Geography
     Phil of History
     Phil of Law
     Philosophy of Political Science
     Phil of Sociology
     Phil of Social Science, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Probability
     Interpretation of Probability
     Chance and Objective Probability
     Subjective Probability
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Mathematics of Probability
     Phil of Statistics
     Applications of Probability
     Decision Theory
     Phil of Probability, Misc
    General Phil of Science
     Scientific Method
     Explanation
     History of Science
     Laws of Nature
     General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Interlevel Relations in Science
     Scientific Change
     Scientific Language
     Scientific Practice
     Scientific Realism
     Sociology of Science
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     Feminist Phil of Science
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  5. Bernhard Riemann, the Ear, and an Atom of Consciousness.Andrew Bell, Bryn Davies & Habib Ammari - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-19.
    Why did Bernhard Riemann, arguably the most original mathematician of his generation, spend the last year of life investigating the mechanism of hearing? Fighting tuberculosis and the hostility of eminent scientists such as Hermann Helmholtz, he appeared to forsake mathematics to prosecute a case close to his heart. Only sketchy pages from his last paper remain, but here we assemble some significant clues and triangulate from them to build a broad picture of what he might have been driving at. Our (...)
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    Logic and Phil of Logic
     Logics
     Logical Consequence and Entailment
     Logical Expressions
     Paradoxes
     Logical Semantics and Logical Truth
     History of Logic
     Logic and Phil of Logic, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Biology
     Developmental Biology
     Ecology and Conservation Biology
     Evolutionary Biology
     Genetics and Molecular Biology
     Phil of Biology, Miscellaneous
     Systematic Biology
     Environmental Philosophy
     Teleology and Function
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
    Phil of Cognitive Science
     Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Phil of Psychology
     Phil of Neuroscience
     Phil of Consciousness
     Phil of Linguistics
     Phil of Psychiatry and Psychopathology
     Phil of Cognitive Science, Miscellaneous
     Science of Consciousness
    Phil of Computing and Information
     Computation and Physical Systems
     Computer Ethics
     Computer Simulation and Virtual Reality
     Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Phil of Computation, Miscellaneous
     Phil of Information
     Theory of Computation
     Philosophy of Technology
    Phil of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Ontology of Mathematics
     Mathematical Cognition
     Mathematical Truth
     Set Theory
     Areas of Mathematics
     Theories of Mathematics
     History: Philosophy of Mathematics
     Phil of Mathematics, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Physical Science
     Complex Systems
     Phil of Chemistry
     Phil of Cosmology
     Phil of Earth Sciences
     Phil of Physics, Miscellaneous
     Phil of Physical Science, Misc
     Quantum Mechanics
     Space and Time
    Phil of Social Science
     Phil of Anthropology
     Phil of Archaeology
     Phil of Economics
     Phil of Education
     Phil of Geography
     Phil of History
     Phil of Law
     Philosophy of Political Science
     Phil of Sociology
     Phil of Social Science, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Probability
     Interpretation of Probability
     Chance and Objective Probability
     Subjective Probability
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Mathematics of Probability
     Phil of Statistics
     Applications of Probability
     Decision Theory
     Phil of Probability, Misc
    General Phil of Science
     Scientific Method
     Explanation
     History of Science
     Laws of Nature
     General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Interlevel Relations in Science
     Scientific Change
     Scientific Language
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     Scientific Realism
     Sociology of Science
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     Feminist Phil of Science
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  6. Symmetry and partial belief geometry.Stefan Lukits - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-24.
    When beliefs are quantified as credences, they are related to each other in terms of closeness and accuracy. The “accuracy first” approach in formal epistemology wants to establish a normative account for credences based entirely on the alethic properties of the credence: how close it is to the truth. To pull off this project, there is a need for a scoring rule. There is widespread agreement about some constraints on this scoring rule, but not whether a unique scoring rule stands (...)
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    Logic and Phil of Logic
     Logics
     Logical Consequence and Entailment
     Logical Expressions
     Paradoxes
     Logical Semantics and Logical Truth
     History of Logic
     Logic and Phil of Logic, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Biology
     Developmental Biology
     Ecology and Conservation Biology
     Evolutionary Biology
     Genetics and Molecular Biology
     Phil of Biology, Miscellaneous
     Systematic Biology
     Environmental Philosophy
     Teleology and Function
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
    Phil of Cognitive Science
     Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Phil of Psychology
     Phil of Neuroscience
     Phil of Consciousness
     Phil of Linguistics
     Phil of Psychiatry and Psychopathology
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     Science of Consciousness
    Phil of Computing and Information
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     Computer Simulation and Virtual Reality
     Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Phil of Computation, Miscellaneous
     Phil of Information
     Theory of Computation
     Philosophy of Technology
    Phil of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Ontology of Mathematics
     Mathematical Cognition
     Mathematical Truth
     Set Theory
     Areas of Mathematics
     Theories of Mathematics
     History: Philosophy of Mathematics
     Phil of Mathematics, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Physical Science
     Complex Systems
     Phil of Chemistry
     Phil of Cosmology
     Phil of Earth Sciences
     Phil of Physics, Miscellaneous
     Phil of Physical Science, Misc
     Quantum Mechanics
     Space and Time
    Phil of Social Science
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     Phil of Archaeology
     Phil of Economics
     Phil of Education
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     Phil of History
     Phil of Law
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     Phil of Sociology
     Phil of Social Science, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Probability
     Interpretation of Probability
     Chance and Objective Probability
     Subjective Probability
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Mathematics of Probability
     Phil of Statistics
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     Decision Theory
     Phil of Probability, Misc
    General Phil of Science
     Scientific Method
     Explanation
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     Laws of Nature
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     Interlevel Relations in Science
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    Phil of Science, Misc
     Feminist Phil of Science
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  7. Down to Earth: History and philosophy of geoscience in practice for undergraduate education.Maarten G. Kleinhans - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-15.
    Undergraduate geoscience students are rarely exposed to history and philosophy of science. I will describe the experiences with a short course unfavourably placed in the first year of a bachelor of earth science. Arguments how HPS could enrich their education in many ways are sketched. One useful didactic approach is to develop a broader interest by connecting HPS themes to practical cases throughout the curriculum, and develop learning activities that allow students to reflect on their skills, methods and their field (...)
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    Logic and Phil of Logic
     Logics
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     Logical Expressions
     Paradoxes
     Logical Semantics and Logical Truth
     History of Logic
     Logic and Phil of Logic, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Biology
     Developmental Biology
     Ecology and Conservation Biology
     Evolutionary Biology
     Genetics and Molecular Biology
     Phil of Biology, Miscellaneous
     Systematic Biology
     Environmental Philosophy
     Teleology and Function
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
    Phil of Cognitive Science
     Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Phil of Psychology
     Phil of Neuroscience
     Phil of Consciousness
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     Phil of Psychiatry and Psychopathology
     Phil of Cognitive Science, Miscellaneous
     Science of Consciousness
    Phil of Computing and Information
     Computation and Physical Systems
     Computer Ethics
     Computer Simulation and Virtual Reality
     Phil of Artificial Intelligence
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     Phil of Information
     Theory of Computation
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    Phil of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Mathematics
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     Mathematical Cognition
     Mathematical Truth
     Set Theory
     Areas of Mathematics
     Theories of Mathematics
     History: Philosophy of Mathematics
     Phil of Mathematics, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Physical Science
     Complex Systems
     Phil of Chemistry
     Phil of Cosmology
     Phil of Earth Sciences
     Phil of Physics, Miscellaneous
     Phil of Physical Science, Misc
     Quantum Mechanics
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    Phil of Social Science
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     Phil of Archaeology
     Phil of Economics
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     Phil of Geography
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     Phil of Law
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     Phil of Sociology
     Phil of Social Science, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Probability
     Interpretation of Probability
     Chance and Objective Probability
     Subjective Probability
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     Mathematics of Probability
     Phil of Statistics
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     Decision Theory
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    General Phil of Science
     Scientific Method
     Explanation
     History of Science
     Laws of Nature
     General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Interlevel Relations in Science
     Scientific Change
     Scientific Language
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     Scientific Realism
     Sociology of Science
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    Phil of Science, Misc
     Feminist Phil of Science
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  8. Divertissement quasigramsciano su logica e linguaggio.Salvatore Pistoia-Reda - 2021 - Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del Linguaggio 15 (1):148-153.
    This note focuses on the interaction between logic and grammar and discusses whether logical rules are irrelevant for syntactic formation. Classical evidence for the independence of syntax from logic comes from the acceptability of analytic propositions. Based on this piece of evidence, various authors in traditional discussions pronounced that language is illogical. This note focuses instead on two ways to oppose such pronouncements. In Gramscian linguistics, one can maintain that language is not illogical by broadening the notion of language one (...)
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     Theory of Computation
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    Phil of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Ontology of Mathematics
     Mathematical Cognition
     Mathematical Truth
     Set Theory
     Areas of Mathematics
     Theories of Mathematics
     History: Philosophy of Mathematics
     Phil of Mathematics, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Physical Science
     Complex Systems
     Phil of Chemistry
     Phil of Cosmology
     Phil of Earth Sciences
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     Phil of Physical Science, Misc
     Quantum Mechanics
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    Phil of Social Science
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     Phil of Statistics
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    General Phil of Science
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     Interlevel Relations in Science
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     Feminist Phil of Science
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  9. Une datation médiévale discréditée mais révélatrice.Tristan Casabianca - 2021 - Cahiers MNTV 64:7-16.
    Le résultat de l’analyse des données brutes confirme et renforce le discrédit de la datation de 1988. Indéniablement, cette découverte fournit une bonne raison (peut-être la seule que pouvait accepter la communauté académique « mainstream ») pour une nouvelle datation, qui doit nécessairement avoir lieu dans un cadre interdisciplinaire. Les résultats de 1988, sans homogénéité ni fiabilité, bâtis sur des données dont la représentativité n’est pas garantie, ne permettent pas de conclure que le lin du Suaire de Turin a été (...)
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  10. Reactivity in measuring depression.Rosa W. Runhardt - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-22.
    If a human subject knows they are being measured, this knowledge may affect their attitudes and behaviour to such an extent that it affects the measurement results as well. This broad range of effects is shared under the term ‘reactivity’. Although reactivity is often seen by methodologists as a problem to overcome, in this paper I argue that some quite extreme reactive changes may be legitimate, as long as we are measuring phenomena that are not simple biological regularities. Legitimate reactivity (...)
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  11. Representation in measurement.Elina Vessonen - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-23.
    The Representational Theory of Measurement is the best known account of the kind of representation measurement requires. However, RTM has been challenged from various angles, with critics claiming e.g. that RTM fails to account for actual measurement practice and that it is ambiguous about the nature of measurable attributes. In this paper I use the critical literature on RTM to formulate Representation Minimalism – a characterization of what measurement-relevant representation requires at the minimum. I argue that Representation Minimalism avoids the (...)
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  12. Impermanent Biological Phenomena.Sun Kyeong Yu - 2021 - In Buddhism and Culture. Seoul, South Korea:
    “Impermanent Biological Phenomena” July 2021, Buddhism and Culture (a Korean-language Buddhist magazine sponsored by the Foundation for the Promotion of Korean Buddhism), Korea.
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  13. Engineering the Minds of the Future: An Intergenerational Approach to Cognitive Technology.Michael Madary - forthcoming - Axiomathes:1-15.
    The first part of this article makes the case that human cognition is an intergenerational project enabled by the inheritance and bequeathal of cognitive technology. The final two sections of the article explore the normative significance of this claim. My case for the intergenerational claim draws results from multiple disciplines: philosophy, cultural evolutionary approaches in cognitive science, and developmental psychology and neuroscience. In Sect. 5, I propose that cognitive technology should be given to future generations in accordance with principles of (...)
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  14. Significance Tests, Belief Calculi, and Burden of Proof in Legal and Scientific Discourse.Julio Michael Stern - 2003 - Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications 101:139-147.
    We review the definition of the Full Bayesian Significance Test (FBST), and summarize its main statistical and epistemological characteristics. We review also the Abstract Belief Calculus (ABC) of Darwiche and Ginsberg, and use it to analyze the FBST’s value of evidence. This analysis helps us understand the FBST properties and interpretation. The definition of value of evidence against a sharp hypothesis, in the FBST setup, was motivated by applications of Bayesian statistical reasoning to legal matters where the sharp hypotheses were (...)
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  15. Combining Optimization and Randomization Approaches for the Design of Clinical Trials.Julio Michael Stern, Victor Fossaluza, Marcelo de Souza Lauretto & Carlos Alberto de Braganca Pereira - 2015 - Springer Proceedings in Mathematics and Statistics 118:173-184.
    t Intentional sampling methods are non-randomized procedures that select a group of individuals for a sample with the purpose of meeting specific prescribed criteria. In this paper we extend previous works related to intentional sampling, and address the problem of sequential allocation for clinical trials with few patients. Roughly speaking, patients are enrolled sequentially, according to the order in which they start the treatment at the clinic or hospital. The allocation problem consists in assigning each new patient to one, and (...)
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  16. Intentional Sampling by Goal Optimization with Decoupling by Stochastic Perturbation.Julio Michael Stern, Marcelo de Souza Lauretto, Fabio Nakano & Carlos Alberto de Braganca Pereira - 2012 - AIP Conference Proceedings 1490:189-201.
    Intentional sampling methods are non-probabilistic procedures that select a group of individuals for a sample with the purpose of meeting specific prescribed criteria. Intentional sampling methods are intended for exploratory research or pilot studies where tight budget constraints preclude the use of traditional randomized representative sampling. The possibility of subsequently generalize statistically from such deterministic samples to the general population has been the issue of long standing arguments and debates. Nevertheless, the intentional sampling techniques developed in this paper explore pragmatic (...)
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  17. Verstehen (Causal/Interpretative Understanding), Erklaeren (Law-Governed Description/Prediction), and Empirical Legal Studies.Julio Michael Stern - 2018 - Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 174:105-114.
    Comments presented at the 35th International Seminar on the -- New Institutional Economics -- Empirical Methods for the Law; Syracuse, 2018.
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  18. The Logical Consistency of Simultaneous Agnostic Hypothesis Tests.Julio Michael Stern - 2016 - Entropy 8 (256):1-22.
    Simultaneous hypothesis tests can fail to provide results that meet logical requirements. For example, if A and B are two statements such that A implies B, there exist tests that, based on the same data, reject B but not A. Such outcomes are generally inconvenient to statisticians (who want to communicate the results to practitioners in a simple fashion) and non-statisticians (confused by conflicting pieces of information). Based on this inconvenience, one might want to use tests that satisfy logical requirements. (...)
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  19. Constructive Verification, Empirical Induction, and Falibilist Deduction: A Threefold Contrast.Julio Michael Stern - 2011 - Information 2 (4):635-650.
    This article explores some open questions related to the problem of verification of theories in the context of empirical sciences by contrasting three epistemological frameworks. Each of these epistemological frameworks is based on a corresponding central metaphor, namely: (a) Neo-empiricism and the gambling metaphor; (b) Popperian falsificationism and the scientific tribunal metaphor; (c) Cognitive constructivism and the object as eigen-solution metaphor. Each of one of these epistemological frameworks has also historically co-evolved with a certain statistical theory and method for testing (...)
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  20. Can a Significance Test Be Genuinely Bayesian?Julio Michael Stern, Carlos Alberto de Braganca Pereira & Sergio Wechsler - 2008 - Bayesian Analysis 3 (1):79-100.
    The Full Bayesian Significance Test, FBST, is extensively reviewed. Its test statistic, a genuine Bayesian measure of evidence, is discussed in detail. Its behavior in some problems of statistical inference like testing for independence in contingency tables is discussed.
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  21. Paraconsistent Sensitivity Analysis for Bayesian Significance Tests.Julio Michael Stern - 2004 - Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 3171:134-143.
    In this paper, the notion of degree of inconsistency is introduced as a tool to evaluate the sensitivity of the Full Bayesian Significance Test (FBST) value of evidence with respect to changes in the prior or reference density. For that, both the definition of the FBST, a possibilistic approach to hypothesis testing based on Bayesian probability procedures, and the use of bilattice structures, as introduced by Ginsberg and Fitting, in paraconsistent logics, are reviewed. The computational and theoretical advantages of using (...)
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  22. Factorization of Sparse Bayesian Networks.Julio Michael Stern & Ernesto Coutinho Colla - 2009 - Studies in Computational Intelligence 199:275-285.
    This paper shows how an efficient and parallel algorithm for inference in Bayesian Networks (BNs) can be built and implemented combining sparse matrix factorization methods with variable elimination algorithms for BNs. This entails a complete separation between a first symbolic phase, and a second numerical phase.
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  23. Emergent Semiotics in Genetic Programming and the Self-Adaptive Semantic Crossover.Julio Michael Stern & Rafael Inhasz - 2010 - Studies in Computational Intelligence 314:381-392.
    We present SASC, Self-Adaptive Semantic Crossover, a new class of crossover operators for genetic programming. SASC operators are designed to induce the emergence and then preserve good building-blocks, using metacontrol techniques based on semantic compatibility measures. SASC performance is tested in a case study concerning the replication of investment funds.
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  24. Adapting practice-based philosophy of science to teaching of science students.Sara Green, Hanne Andersen, Kristian Danielsen, Claus Emmeche, Christian Joas, Mikkel Willum Johansen, Caio Nagayoshi, Joeri Witteveen & Henrik Kragh Sørensen - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-18.
    The “practice turn” in philosophy of science has strengthened the connections between philosophy and scientific practice. Apart from reinvigorating philosophy of science, this also increases the relevance of philosophical research for science, society, and science education. In this paper, we reflect on our extensive experience with teaching mandatory philosophy of science courses to science students from a range of programs at University of Copenhagen. We highlight some of the lessons we have learned in making philosophy of science “fit for teaching” (...)
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  25. An apology for conflicts between metaphysics and science in naturalized metaphysics.Rasmus Jaksland - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-24.
    According to naturalized metaphysics, metaphysics should be informed by our current best science and not rely on a priori reasoning. Consequently, naturalized metaphysics tends to dismiss metaphysicians’ attempts to quarrel with science. This paper argues that naturalized metaphysics should instead welcome such conflicts between metaphysics and science. Naturalized metaphysics is not eliminative of metaphysics. So, if such conflicts are driven by the immediate absence in science of an answer to a metaphysical question, then the conflict should not be dismissed, but (...)
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  26. Varieties of dispositional essentialism about natural laws.Salim Hirèche - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-28.
    An important task for metaphysicians and philosophers of science is to account for laws of nature – in particular, how they distinguish themselves from ‘mere’ regularities, and the modal force they are endowed with, ‘natural necessity’. Dispositional essentialism about laws is roughly the view that laws distinguish themselves by being grounded in the essences of natural entities. This paper does not primarily concern how essentialism compares to its main rivals – Humeanism and Armstrongeanism. Rather, it distinguishes and comparatively assesses various (...)
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  27. Decoupling, Sparsity, Randomization, and Objective Bayesian Inference.Julio Michael Stern - 2008 - Cybernetics and Human Knowing 15 (2):49-68..
    Decoupling is a general principle that allows us to separate simple components in a complex system. In statistics, decoupling is often expressed as independence, no association, or zero covariance relations. These relations are sharp statistical hypotheses, that can be tested using the FBST - Full Bayesian Significance Test. Decoupling relations can also be introduced by some techniques of Design of Statistical Experiments, DSEs, like randomization. This article discusses the concepts of decoupling, randomization and sparsely connected statistical models in the epistemological (...)
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  28. Language and the Self-Reference Paradox.Julio Michael Stern - 2007 - Cybernetics and Human Knowing 14 (4):71-92.
    Heinz Von Forester characterizes the objects “known” by an autopoietic system as eigen-solutions, that is, as discrete, separable, stable and composable states of the interaction of the system with its environment. Previous articles have presented the FBST, Full Bayesian Significance Test, as a mathematical formalism specifically designed to access the support for sharp statistical hypotheses, and have shown that these hypotheses correspond, from a constructivist perspective, to systemic eigen-solutions in the practice of science. In this article several issues related to (...)
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  29. Cognitive Constructivism, Eigen-Solutions, and Sharp Statistical Hypotheses.Julio Michael Stern - 2007 - Cybernetics and Human Knowing 14 (1):9-36.
    In this paper epistemological, ontological and sociological questions concerning the statistical significance of sharp hypotheses in scientific research are investigated within the framework provided by Cognitive Constructivism and the FBST (Full Bayesian Significance Test). The constructivist framework is contrasted with the traditional epistemological settings for orthodox Bayesian and frequentist statistics provided by Decision Theory and Falsificationism.
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  30. Jacob's Ladder and Scientific Ontologies.Julio Michael Stern - 2014 - Cybernetics and Human Knowing 21 (3):9-43.
    The main goal of this article is to use the epistemological framework of a specific version of Cognitive Constructivism to address Piaget’s central problem of knowledge construction, namely, the re-equilibration of cognitive structures. The distinctive objective character of this constructivist framework is supported by formal inference methods of Bayesian statistics, and is based on Heinz von Foerster’s fundamental metaphor of objects as tokens for eigen-solutions. This epistemological perspective is illustrated using some episodes in the history of chemistry concerning the definition (...)
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  31. Karl Pearson and the Logic of Science: Renouncing Causal Understanding (the Bride) and Inverted Spinozism.Julio Michael Stern - 2018 - South American Journal of Logic 4 (1):219-252.
    Karl Pearson is the leading figure of XX century statistics. He and his co-workers crafted the core of the theory, methods and language of frequentist or classical statistics – the prevalent inductive logic of contemporary science. However, before working in statistics, K. Pearson had other interests in life, namely, in this order, philosophy, physics, and biological heredity. Key concepts of his philosophical and epistemological system of anti-Spinozism (a form of transcendental idealism) are carried over to his subsequent works on the (...)
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  32. Beyond "Nature" and "God".Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    With this article, the author argues that in reality nothing is or isn’t itself, that everything is both a relative proof and an absolute proof of God’s existence, and that our language, such as “nature” or “god”, is the only obstacle between Nature and God.
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  33. L’usage de la conjecture technique chez Galien de Pergame.Jérémie Hébrard - 2019 - Philosophiques 46:179-206.
    The aim of this paper is to examine the considerations on stochastic arts in Antiquity and to show how Galen’s analysis concerning the “art of conjecturing” constitutes a preferable alternative to the traditional ways used by philosophers to explain the inherent fallibility in the medical art. By distinguishing the scientific diagnosis from the conjectural one, Galen encompasses all cases relevant to the medical art. The former, because of its general nature, can be theorized. As for the latter, it concerns only (...)
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  34. The Politics of Environments Before the Environment: Biopolitics in the Longue Durée.Maurizio Meloni - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A.
    Our understanding of body–world relations is caught in a curious contradiction. On one side, it is well established that many concepts that describe interaction with the outer world – ‘plasticity’ or ‘metabolism’- or external influences on the body - ‘environment’ or ‘milieu’ – appeared with the rise of modern science. On the other side, although premodern science lacked a unifying term for it, an anxious attentiveness to the power of ‘environmental factors’ in shaping physical and moral traits held sway in (...)
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  35. Ontological Pluralism and Multi-Quantificational Ontology.Zbigniew Król & Józef Lubacz - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-20.
    This paper explores some variants and aspects of multi-quantificational criteria of existence, examining these in the context of the debate between monism and pluralism in analytical philosophy. Assuming familiarity with the findings to date, we seek to apply to these the newly introduced concepts of “substitution” and “substitutional model”. Possible applications of formal theories involving multiple types of existential quantifier are highlighted, together with their methods of construction. These considerations then lead to a thesis asserting the irrelevance of both multi-quantificational (...)