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  1. added 2019-01-15
    Value of Cognitive Diversity in Science.Samuli Pöyhönen - 2017 - Synthese 194 (11):4519-4540.
    When should a scientific community be cognitively diverse? This article presents a model for studying how the heterogeneity of learning heuristics used by scientist agents affects the epistemic efficiency of a scientific community. By extending the epistemic landscapes modeling approach introduced by Weisberg and Muldoon, the article casts light on the micro-mechanisms mediating cognitive diversity, coordination, and problem-solving efficiency. The results suggest that social learning and cognitive diversity produce epistemic benefits only when the epistemic community is faced with problems of (...)
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  2. added 2018-12-19
    Scientific Realism and the Future Development of Science.Seungbae Park - forthcoming - Diametros: An Online Journal of Philosophy.
    Nickles (2016, 2017, forthcoming) raises many original objections against scientific realism. One of them holds that scientific realism originates from the end of history illusion. I reply that this objection is self-defeating and commits the genetic fallacy. Another objection is that it is unknowable whether our descendants will regard our current mature theories as true or false. I reply that this objection entails skepticism about induction, leading to skepticism about the world, which is inconsistent with the appeal to the end (...)
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  3. added 2018-12-19
    Between Cassirer and Kuhn. Some Remarks on Friedman’s Relativized a Priori.Massimo Ferrari - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (1):18-26.
  4. added 2018-12-19
    Beyond Case-Studies: History as Philosophy.Hasok Chang - unknown
    What can we conclude from a mere handful of case studies? The field of HPS has witnessed too many hasty philosophical generalizations based on a small number of conveniently chosen case studies. One might even speculate that dissatisfaction with such methodological shoddiness contributed decisively to a widespread disillusionment with the whole HPS enterprise. Without specifying clear mechanisms for history-philosophy interaction, we are condemned to either making unwarranted generalizations from history, or writing entirely "local" histories with no bearing on an overall (...)
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  5. added 2018-12-19
    The Convergence of Scientific Knowledge a View From the Limit.Vincent F. Hendricks - 2001
    This book will be a rewarding reading for everybody who is interested in logical aspects of scientific knowledge acquisition. The presentation of the issues discussed in the book is exemplary. The author was able to present in parallel way three different perspectives under which the issues discussed in the book might be approached.
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  6. added 2018-12-19
    Some Contemporary Discussions About the Rationality of Science.Aleksandar V. Gordić - 1992 - Theoria 35 (2):77-93.
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  7. added 2018-12-19
    Scientific Controversies: Case Studies in the Resolution and Closure of Disputes in Science and Technology. H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr., Arthur L. Caplan. [REVIEW]David Edge - 1989 - Isis 80 (4):675-676.
  8. added 2018-12-19
    Scientific Controversies Case Studies in the Resolution and Closure of Disputes in Science and Technology.H. Tristram Engelhardt & Arthur L. Caplan - 1987
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  9. added 2018-12-19
    Book Review:The Structure of Scientific Theories Frederick R. Suppe. [REVIEW]C. A. Hooker - 1975 - Philosophy of Science 42 (1):107-.
  10. added 2018-12-19
    Willard Humphreys Anomalies and Scientific Theories. [REVIEW]Richard J. Hall - 1969 - Philosophical Review 78 (4):535.
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  11. added 2018-12-19
    A Heuristic Model for the Growth Process of Modern Physical Science.Gerald Holton - 1955 - Synthese 10 (1):190 - 202.
  12. added 2018-11-28
    An Invitation to Explore Unexamined Shifts and Variety in the Meanings of Genotype and Phenotype, and Their Distinction.Peter J. Taylor - 2018 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 10 (6).
    Noting minimal philosophical attention to the shift of the meanings of “genotype” and “phenotype,” and their distinction, as well as to the variety of meanings that have co-existed over the last hundred years, this note invites readers to join in exploring the implications of shifts that have been left unexamined.
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  13. added 2018-09-26
    Defining a Crisis: The Roles of Principles in the Search for a Theory of Quantum Gravity.Karen Crowther - forthcoming - Synthese:1-28.
    In times of crisis, when current theories are revealed as inadequate to task, and new physics is thought to be required---physics turns to re-evaluate its principles, and to seek new ones. This paper explores the various types, and roles of principles that feature in the problem of quantum gravity as a current crisis in physics. I illustrate the diversity of the principles being appealed to, and show that principles serve in a variety of roles in all stages of the crisis, (...)
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  14. added 2018-09-20
    Truth and Scientific Change.Gila Sher - 2017 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 48 (3):371-394.
    The paper seeks to answer two new questions about truth and scientific change: What lessons does the phenomenon of scientific change teach us about the nature of truth? What light do recent developments in the theory of truth, incorporating these lessons, throw on problems arising from the prevalence of scientific change, specifically, the problem of pessimistic meta-induction?
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  15. added 2018-08-14
    Should Scientific Realists Embrace Theoretical Conservatism?Finnur Dellsén - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A.
    A prominent type of scientific realism holds that some important parts of our best current scientific theories are at least approximately true. According to such realists, radically distinct alternatives to these theories or theory-parts are unlikely to be approximately true. Thus one might be tempted to argue, as the prominent anti-realist Kyle Stanford recently did, that realists of this kind have little or no reason to encourage scientists to attempt to identify and develop theoretical alternatives that are radically distinct from (...)
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  16. added 2018-07-29
    We Are Not Witnesses to a New Scientific Revolution.Gregor Schiemann - 2014 - In A. Nordmann & H. Radder (eds.), Science Transformed? Debating Claims of an Epochal Break. Velbrück. pp. 31-42.
    Do the changes that have taken place in the structures and methods of the production of scientific knowledge and in our understanding of science over the past fifty years justify speaking of an epochal break in the development of science? Gregor Schiemann addresses this issues through the notion of a scientific revolution and claims that at present we are not witnessing a new scientific revolution. Instead, Schiemann argues that after the so-called Scientific Revolution in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a (...)
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  17. added 2018-07-29
    Mehr Seinsschichten Für Die Welt? Vergleich Und Kritik der Schichtenkonzeptionen von Nicolai Hartmann Und Werner Heisenberg.Gregor Schiemann - 2012 - In M. Wunsch & G. Hartung (eds.), Nicolai Hartmann – Von der Systemphilosophie zur Systemetischen Philosophie.
    Ich thematisiere die beiden Konzeptionen als Varianten der wissenschaftlichen Weltsicht. Der Reiz des Vergleichs liegt aber weniger in den Gemeinsamkeiten als vielmehr in den Differenzen und den dabei hervortretenden Desideraten der beiden Konzeptionen. Heisenberg versteht sein Schichtenmodell nicht wie Hartmann als Fortsetzung und Zusammenfassung vorangehender philosophischer Bemühungen, sondern als einen Bruch mit den Hauptströmungen der philosophischen Tradition. In der geschichtlichen Entwicklung der Versuche um eine Bestimmung der Weltstruktur sieht er statt einer Generaltendenz, die langfristig auf eine Annäherung an die Wahrheit (...)
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  18. added 2018-07-29
    An Epoch-Making Change in the Development of Science? A Critique of the “Epochal-Break-Thesis”.Gregor Schiemann - 2011 - In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer. pp. 431--453.
    In recent decades, several authors have claimed that an epoch-making change in the development of science is taking place. A closer examination of this claim shows that these authors take different – and problematic – concepts of an epochal break as their points of departure. In order to facilitate an evaluation of the current development of science, I would like to propose a concept of an epochal change according to which it is not necessarily a discontinuous process that typically begins (...)
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  19. added 2018-07-09
    Physics and Philosophy in the 20th Century.Michael Heller - 2005 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 61 (1):73 - 87.
    In the 20th century the infiltration of scientific elements into philosophical currents not only reached its maximum, but also science itself became a "philosophical factor". We look at these processes in physics starting from the fall of mechanistic philosophy. The advent of relativity theory and quantum mechanics has changed physics as science and raised a host of philosophical questions. Traditionally philosophical questions concerning space, time and causality cannot be any longer considered with no help of these theories. Relativistic cosmology and (...)
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  20. added 2018-06-07
    Phlogiston as a Case Study of Scientific Rationality.Jonathon Hricko - manuscript
    A number of prominent defenders of the phlogiston theory identified phlogiston with hydrogen in the late eighteenth century, and I argue that this identification was fairly well-entrenched by the early nineteenth century. In light of this identification, I examine the ways in which retaining phlogiston could have retarded scientific progress, and also the ways in which it could have benefited science. I argue that it was rational for chemists to eliminate phlogiston, but that it also would have been rational for (...)
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  21. added 2018-06-07
    Scientific Rationality: Phlogiston as a Case Study.Jonathon Hricko - 2017 - In Timothy Joseph Lane & Tzu-Wei Hung (eds.), Rationality: Constraints and Contexts. London, UK: pp. 37-59.
    I argue that it was rational for chemists to eliminate phlogiston, but that it also would have been rational for them to retain it. I do so on the grounds that a number of prominent phlogiston theorists identified phlogiston with hydrogen in the late 18th century, and this identification became fairly well entrenched by the early 19th century. In light of this identification, I critically evaluate Hasok Chang’s argument that chemists should have retained phlogiston, and that doing so would have (...)
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  22. added 2018-05-31
    The Significance of the Hypothetical in Natural Science.Michael Heidelberger & Gregor Schiemann (eds.) - 2009 - De Gruyter.
    How was the hypothetical character of theories of experience thought about throughout the history of science? The essays cover periods from the middle ages to the 19th and 20th centuries. It is fascinating to see how natural scientists and philosophers were increasingly forced to realize that a natural science without hypotheses is not possible.
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  23. added 2018-05-18
    Realism and Explanatory Perspectivism.Juha Saatsi - forthcoming - In Michela Massimi & C. D. McCoy (eds.), Understanding Perspectivism: Scientific Challenges and Methodological Prospects. New York: Routledge.
    This chapter defends a (minimal) realist conception of progress in scientific understanding in the face of the ubiquitous plurality of perspectives in science. The argument turns on the counterfactual-dependence framework of explanation and understanding, which is illustrated and evidenced with reference to different explanations of the rainbow.
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  24. added 2018-05-18
    Scientific Progress: Four Accounts.Finnur Dellsén - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (11):e12525.
    Scientists are constantly making observations, carrying out experiments, and analyzing empirical data. Meanwhile, scientific theories are routinely being adopted, revised, discarded, and replaced. But when are such changes to the content of science improvements on what came before? This is the question of scientific progress. One answer is that progress occurs when scientific theories ‘get closer to the truth’, i.e. increase their degree of truthlikeness. A second answer is that progress consists in increasing theories’ effectiveness for solving scientific problems. A (...)
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  25. added 2018-05-13
    Specialisation, Interdisciplinarity, and Incommensurability.Vincenzo Politi - 2017 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 31 (3):301-317.
    Incommensurability may be regarded as driving specialisation, on the one hand, and as posing some problems to interdisciplinarity, on the other hand. It may be argued, however, that incommensurability plays no role in either specialisation or interdisciplinarity. Scientific specialties could be defined as simply 'different' (that is, about different things), rather than 'incommensurable' (that is, competing for the explanation of the same phenomena). Interdisciplinarity could be viewed as the co- ordinated effort of scientists possessing complemetary and interlocking skills, and not (...)
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  26. added 2018-05-11
    Rethinking ‘Style’ for Historians and Philosophers of Science: Converging Lessons From Sexuality, Translation, and East Asian Studies.Howard H. Chiang - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 40 (2):109-118.
    Historians and philosophers of science have furnished a wide array of theoretical-historiographical terms to emphasize the discontinuities among different systems of knowledge. Some of the most famous include Thomas Kuhn’s “paradigm”, Michel Foucault’s “episteme”, and the notion of “styles of reasoning” more recently developed by Ian Hacking and Arnold Davidson. This paper takes up this theoretical-historiographical thread by assessing the values and limitations of the notion of “style” for the historical and philosophical study of science. Specifically, reflecting on various methodological (...)
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  27. added 2018-03-26
    Exemplarising the Origin of Genetics: A Path to Genetics (From Mendel to Bateson).Yafeng Shan - 2016 - Dissertation, University College London
    This thesis aims to propose and defend a new way of analysing and understanding the origin of genetics (from Mendel to Bateson). Traditionally philosophers used to analyse the history of genetics in terms of theories. However, I will argue that this theory-based approach is highly problematic. In Chapter 1, I shall critically review the theory-driven approach to analysisng the history of genetics and diagnose its problems. In Chapter 2, inspired by Kuhn’s concept “exemplar”, I shall make a new interpretation of (...)
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  28. added 2018-03-25
    On Scientific Biography and Biographies of Scientists.Helge Kragh - 2015 - In Ana Simões, Jürgen Renn & Theodore Arabatzis (eds.), Relocating the History of Science. Springer Verlag.
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  29. added 2018-03-25
    Social Change and Epistemic Thought.(Reflections on the Origins of the Experimental Method) in Scientific Knowledge Socialized.W. Krohn - 1988 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 108:165-178.
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  30. added 2018-02-23
    Against Selective Realism.Dana Tulodziecki - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):996-1007.
    It has recently been suggested that realist responses to historical cases featured in pessimistic meta-inductions are not as successful as previously thought. In response, selective realists have updated the basic divide et impera strategy specifically to take such cases into account and to argue that more modern realist accounts are immune to the historical challenge. Using a case study—that of the nineteenth-century zymotic theory of disease—I argue that these updated proposals fail and that even the most sophisticated recent realist accounts (...)
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  31. added 2018-02-18
    Philosophy and History of Science: Beyond the Kuhnian Paradigm.Hans Radder - 1997 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 28 (4):633-655.
    At issue in this paper is the question of the appropriate relationship between the philosophy and history of science. The discussion starts with a brief sketch of Kuhn's approach, followed by an analysis of the so-called ‘testing-theories-of-scientific-change programme’. This programme is an attempt at a more rigorous approach to the historical philosophy of science. Since my conclusion is that, by and large, this attempt has failed, I proceed to examine some more promising approaches. First, I deal with Hacking's recent views (...)
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  32. added 2018-02-17
    Joint Acceptance and Scientific Change: A Case Study.Hanne Andersen - 2010 - Episteme 7 (3):248-265.
    Recently, several scholars have argued that scientists can accept scientific claims in a collective process, and that the capacity of scientific groups to form joint acceptances is linked to a functional division of labor between the group members. However, these accounts reveal little about how the cognitive content of the jointly accepted claim is formed, and how group members depend on each other in this process. In this paper, I shall therefore argue that we need to link analyses of joint (...)
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  33. added 2018-02-17
    Empiricism, Scientific Change and Mathematical Change.Otávio Bueno - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (2):269-296.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a unified account of scientific and mathematical change in a thoroughly empiricist setting. After providing a formal modelling in terms of embedding, and criticising it for being too restrictive, a second modelling is advanced. It generalises the first, providing a more open-ended pattern of theory development, and is articulated in terms of da Costa and French's partial structures approach. The crucial component of scientific and mathematical change is spelled out in terms of (...)
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  34. added 2018-02-17
    Feyerabend's Early Philosophy.Eric Oberheim & Paul Hoyningen-Huene - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (2):363-375.
  35. added 2018-01-06
    Standards and the Distribution of Cognitive Labour: A Model of the Dynamics of Scientific Activity.Langhe Rogieder & Greiff Matthias - 2010 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 18 (2):278-294.
    We present a model of the distribution of labour in science. Such models tend to rely on the mechanism of the invisible hand . Our analysis starts from the necessity of standards in distributed processes and the possibility of multiple standards in science. Invisible hand models turn out to have only limited scope because they are restricted to describing the atypical single-standard case. Our model is a generalisation of these models to J standards; single-standard models such as Kitcher are a (...)
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  36. added 2017-12-14
    Transoral Laser Surgery for Laryngeal Carcinoma: Has Steiner Achieved a Genuine Paradigm Shift in Oncological Surgery?A. T. Harris, Attila Tanyi, R. D. Hart, J. Trites, M. H. Rigby, J. Lancaster, A. Nicolaides & S. M. Taylor - 2018 - Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 100 (1):2-5.
    Transoral laser microsurgery applies to the piecemeal removal of malignant tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract using the CO2 laser under the operating microscope. This method of surgery is being increasingly popularised as a single modality treatment of choice in early laryngeal cancers (T1 and T2) and occasionally in the more advanced forms of the disease (T3 and T4), predomi- nantly within the supraglottis. Thomas Kuhn, the American physicist turned philosopher and historian of science, coined the phrase ‘paradigm shift’ in (...)
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  37. added 2017-07-13
    Embodied Anomaly Resolution in Molecular Genetics: A Case Study of RNAi.John J. Sung - 2008 - Foundations of Science 13 (2):177-193.
    Scientific anomalies are observations and facts that contradict current scientific theories and they are instrumental in scientific theory change. Philosophers of science have approached scientific theory change from different perspectives as Darden (Theory change in science: Strategies from Mendelian genetics, 1991) observes: Lakatos (In: Lakatos, Musgrave (eds) Criticism and the growth of knowledge, 1970) approaches it as a progressive “research programmes” consisting of incremental improvements (“monster barring” in Lakatos, Proofs and refutations: The logic of mathematical discovery, 1976), Kuhn (The structure (...)
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  38. added 2017-07-13
    The Goals of Natural Science in Scientific Knowledge Socialized.Ernan Mcmullin - 1988 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 108:27-58.
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  39. added 2017-07-13
    Stegmüller Über „Wissenschaftliche Revolutionen“.Klaus Jürgen Düsberg - 1977 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 8 (2):331-341.
    Anknüpfend an Untersuchungen von J. D. Sneed, hat W. Stegmüller eine Explikation von "'revolutionärem' wissenschaftlichem Fortschritt" vorgeschlagen, die auf einer bestimmten Definition der intertheoretischen Relation der Reduktion beruht. Zumindest in seiner bisherigen Fassung erweist sich das von Stegmüller vorgebrachte Kriterium für "revolutionären" wissenschaftlichen Fortschritt jedoch nicht nur als zu weit, sondern auch, wie das Beispiel klassische vs. relativistische Kinematik zeigt, als zu eng.
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  40. added 2017-07-12
    Interdisziplinarität Und Wissensentwicklung.Karlheinz Lüdtke - 1995 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 26 (1):93 - 117.
    Interdisciplinarity and the Development of Knowledge. The author is engaged in the question how to explain the development of scientific meanings of facts which does not coincide with producing them rather with processes of the scientists' public communication. So long as the facts are adjustable to the conventional theories of those discipline which the researcher belongs to this connection does not reveal perfectly clear. More instructive is a consideration of so-called 'anomalies'. The author demonstrates with an example of the history (...)
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  41. added 2017-07-12
    On the Emergence of Scientific Disciplines in Scientific Knowledge Socialized.Hubert Laitko - 1988 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 108:213-223.
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  42. added 2017-07-12
    On Scientific Justification by Consensus.Paul K. Moser - 1986 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 17 (1):154-161.
    Nach vielen gegenwärtigen Wissenschaftstheoretikern ist die Wissenschaftstheorie des Logischen Empirismus, wie sie in den Schriften von Carnap, Russell, Reichenbach und Hempel vertreten wird, durch die neue Wissenschaftstheorie wesentlich verbessert worden, wie sie von Hanson, Polanyi, Toulmin und Kuhn entwickelt worden ist. Aber keiner der letzteren Gegner des Logischen Empirismus hat im Detail die Erkenntnistheorie herausgearbeitet, welche der neuen Wissenschaftstheorie zugrundeliegt. Kürzlich jedoch hat Harold I. Brown, in Perception, Theory and Commitment · The New Philosophy of Science , eine klare Formulierung (...)
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  43. added 2017-07-12
    RADNITZKY, GERARD and ANDERSSON, GUNNAR : "The Structure and Development of Science". [REVIEW]Robert Nola - 1984 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 35:184.
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  44. added 2017-07-12
    The Promotion of Mining and the Advancement of Science: The Chemical Revolution of Mineralogy.Theodore M. Porter - 1981 - Annals of Science 38 (5):543-570.
    (1981). The promotion of mining and the advancement of science: the chemical revolution of mineralogy. Annals of Science: Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 543-570.
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  45. added 2017-07-12
    Interpreting Scientific Growth: A Comment on Derek Price's “Science Since Babylon”.K. E. Studer - 1977 - History of Science 15 (1):44-51.
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  46. added 2017-07-09
    A Revolution Without Tooth and Claw—Redefining the Physical Base Units.Wolfgang Pietsch - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 46:85-93.
    A case study is presented of a recent proposal by the major metrology institutes to redefine four of the physical base units, namely kilogram, ampere, mole, and kelvin. The episode shows a number of features that are unusual for progress in an objective science: for example, the progress is not triggered by experimental discoveries or theoretical innovations; also, the new definitions are eventually implemented by means of a voting process. In the philosophical analysis, I will first argue that the episode (...)
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  47. added 2017-07-09
    Matthew Lund. N. R. Hanson: Observation, Discovery, and Scientific Change. Amherst, NY: Humanity, 2010. Pp. 253. $26.00. [REVIEW]Thomas Nickles - 2012 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 2 (2):364-368.
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  48. added 2017-07-09
    A Plea for a Historical Epistemology of Research.Hans-Jörg Rheinberger - 2012 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 43 (1):105-111.
    The paper approaches the topic of what a general philosophy of science could mean today from the perspective of a historical epistemology. Consequently, in a first step, the paper looks at the notion of generality in the sciences, and how it evolved over time, on the example of the life sciences. In the second part of the paper, the urgency of a general philosophy of science is located in the history of philosophy of science. Two attempts at the beginning of (...)
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  49. added 2017-07-09
    Kuhn's Alternative Path: Science and the Social Resistance to Criticism.Stephanie Solomon - 2010 - Perspectives on Science 18 (3):352-368.
    Popper: I do admit that at any moment we are prisoners caught in the framework of our theories; our expectations; our past experiences; our language. But we are prisoners in a Pickwickian sense: if we try, we can break out of our framework at any time. Admittedly, we shall find ourselves again in a framework, but it will be a better and roomier one; and we can at any moment break out of it again.Kuhn: If that possibility were routinely available, (...)
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  50. added 2017-07-09
    Epistemic Landscapes and the Division of Cognitive Labor.Michael Weisberg & Ryan Muldoon - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (2):225-252.
    Because of its complexity, contemporary scientific research is almost always tackled by groups of scientists, each of which works in a different part of a given research domain. We believe that understanding scientific progress thus requires understanding this division of cognitive labor. To this end, we present a novel agent-based model of scientific research in which scientists divide their labor to explore an unknown epistemic landscape. Scientists aim to climb uphill in this landscape, where elevation represents the significance of the (...)
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1 — 50 / 169