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  1. added 2019-02-01
    Covariance/Invariance: A Cognitive Heuristic in Einstein's Relativity Theory Formation.Andrea Cerroni - 2000 - Foundations of Science 5 (2):209-224.
    Relativity Theory by Albert Einstein has been so far littleconsidered by cognitive scientists, notwithstanding its undisputedscientific and philosophical moment. Unfortunately, we don't have adiary or notebook as cognitively useful as Faraday's. But physicshistorians and philosophers have done a great job that is relevant bothfor the study of the scientist's reasoning and the philosophy ofscience. I will try here to highlight the fertility of a `triangulation'using cognitive psychology, history of science and philosophy of sciencein starting answering a clearly very complex question:why (...)
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  2. added 2019-01-31
    A New Mechanism for Transfer Between Conceptual Domains in Scientific Discovery and Education.Gérard Collet, Andrée Tiberghien & Antoine Cornuéjols - 2000 - Foundations of Science 5 (2):129-155.
    Confronted with problems or situations that do not yield toknown theories and world views, scientists and students are alike. Theyare rarely able to directly build a model or a theory thereof. Rather,they must find ways to make sense of the circumstances using theircurrent knowledge and adjusting what is recognized in the process. Thisway of thinking, using past ways of perceiving the physical world tobuild new ones does not follow a logical path and cannot be described astheory revision. Likewise, in many (...)
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  3. added 2018-12-21
    The Discovery of Argon: A Case for Learning From Data?Aris Spanos - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (3):359-380.
    Rayleigh and Ramsay discovered the inert gas argon in the atmospheric air in 1895 using a carefully designed sequence of experiments guided by an informal statistical analysis of the resulting data. The primary objective of this article is to revisit this remarkable historical episode in order to make a case that the error‐statistical perspective can be used to bring out and systematize (not to reconstruct) these scientists' resourceful ways and strategies for detecting and eliminating error, as well as dealing with (...)
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  4. added 2018-12-21
    ""Repeated Independent Discovery and" Objective Evidence" in Science: An Example From Geology.A. M. C. Sengor - 2006 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 244:113.
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  5. added 2018-12-21
    Fabulous Science: Fact and Fiction in the History of Scientific Discovery.John Waller - 2004 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The great biologist Louis Pasteur suppressed 'awkward' data because it didn't support the case he was making. John Snow, the 'first epidemiologist' was doing nothing others had not done before. Gregor Mendel, the supposed 'founder of genetics' never grasped the fundamental principles of 'Mendelian' genetics. Joseph Lister's famously clean hospital wards were actually notorious dirty. And Einstein's general relativity was only 'confirmed' in 1919 because an eminent British scientist cooked his figures. These are just some of the revelations explored in (...)
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  6. added 2018-12-21
    Histories of Discovery.Diane Greco Josefowicz - 2003 - Perspectives on Science 11 (3):346-364.
  7. added 2018-12-21
    Discoverers' Induction.Laura J. Snyder - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (4):580-604.
    In this paper I demonstrate that, contrary to the standard interpretations, William Whewell's view of scientific method is neither that of the hypothetico-deductivist nor that of the retroductivist. Rather, he offers a unique inductive methodology, which he calls "discoverers' induction." After explicating this methodology, I show that Kepler's discovery of his first law of planetary motion conforms to it, as Whewell claims it does. In explaining Whewell's famous phrase about "happy guesses" in science, I suggest that Whewell intended a distinction (...)
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  8. added 2018-12-21
    The Discovery of Heparin Revisited: The Peptone Connection.James A. Marcum - 1995 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 39 (4):610-625.
  9. added 2018-12-21
    “Scientific Discovery as Problem Solving” by H. A. Simon.W. H. Newton-Smith - 1992 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 6 (1):49 – 52.
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  10. added 2018-12-21
    From the Logic of Mathematical Discovery to the Methodology of Scientific-Research Programs.Yx Zheng - 1990 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (3):377-399.
  11. added 2018-12-21
    Normative Systems of Discovery and Logic of Search.Jan M. Zytkow & Herbert A. Simon - 1988 - Synthese 74 (1):65 - 90.
    New computer systems of discovery create a research program for logic and philosophy of science. These systems consist of inference rules and control knowledge that guide the discovery process. Their paths of discovery are influenced by the available data and the discovery steps coincide with the justification of results. The discovery process can be described in terms of fundamental concepts of artificial intelligence such as heuristic search, and can also be interpreted in terms of logic. The traditional distinction that places (...)
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  12. added 2018-12-10
    From Galileo to Hubble: Copernican Principle as a Philosophical Dogma Defining Modern Astronomy.Spyridon Kakos - 2018 - International Journal of Theology, Philosophy and Science 2 (3):13-37.
    For centuries the case of Galileo Galilei has been the cornerstone of every major argument against the church and its supposedly unscientific dogmatism. The church seems to have condemned Galileo for his heresies, just because it couldn’t and wouldn’t handle the truth. Galileo was a hero of science wrongfully accused and now – at last – everyone knows that. But is that true? This paper tries to examine the case from the point of modern physics and the conclusions drawn are (...)
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  13. added 2018-09-28
    Popper and His Commentators on the Discovery of Neptune: A Close Shave for the Law of Gravitation?Greg Bamford - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (2):207-232.
    Knowledge of residual perturbations in the orbit of Uranus in the early 1840s did not lead to the refutation of Newton's law of gravitation but instead to the discovery of Neptune in 1846. Karl Popper asserts that this case is atypical of science and that the law of gravitation was at least prima facie falsified by these perturbations. I argue that these assertions are the product of a false, a priori methodological position I call, 'Weak Popperian Falsificationism'. Further, on the (...)
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  14. added 2018-09-16
    Inductive Justification and Discovery. On Hans Reichenbach’s Foundation of the Autonomy of the Philosophy of Science.Gregor Schiemann - 2005 - In Schickore J. & Steinle F. (eds.), Revisiting Discovery and Justification. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 23-39.
    I would like to assume that Reichenbach's distinction of Justification and Discovery lives on, and to seek arguments in his texts that would justify their relevance in this field. The persuasive force of these arguments transcends the contingent circumstances apart from which their genesis and local transmission cannot be made understandable. I shall begin by characterizing the context distinction as employed by Reichenbach in "Experience and Prediction" to differentiate between epistemology and science (1). Following Thomas Nickles and Kevin T. Kelly, (...)
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  15. added 2018-09-16
    Criticizing a Difference of Contexts: On Reichenbach’s Distincition Between “Context of Discovery” and “Context of Justification”.Gregor Schiemann - 2002 - In Schickore J. & Steinle F. (eds.), Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook. Max-Planck-Institut. pp. 237-251.
    With his distinction between the "context of discovery" and the "context of justification", Hans Reichenbach gave the traditional difference between genesis and validity a modern standard formulation. Reichenbach's distinction is one of the well-known ways in which the expression "context" is used in the theory of science. My argument is that Reichenbach's concept is unsuitable and leads to contradictions in the semantic fields of genesis and validity. I would like to demonstrate this by examining the different meanings of Reichenbach's context (...)
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  16. added 2018-08-26
    Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science.Steven L. Goldman - 2014 - The European Legacy 19 (3):392-393.
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  17. added 2018-08-26
    Serendipity in Scientific Discovery: A Closer Look.Howard Gest - 1997 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 41 (1):21-28.
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  18. added 2018-08-26
    Anatomy of the Unsought Finding. Serendipity: Origin, History, Domains, Traditions, Appearances, Patterns and Programmability.Pek van Andel - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (2):631-648.
    I define serendipity as the art of making an unsought finding. And I propose an overview of my collection of serendipities, the largest yet assembled, chiefly in science and technology, but also in art, by giving a list of ‘serendipity patterns’. Although my list of ‘patterns’ is just a list and not a classification, it serves to introduce a new and possibly stimulating perspective on the old subject of serendipity. Knowledge of these ‘serendipity patterns’ might help in expecting also the (...)
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  19. added 2018-08-06
    The Pursuit of Knowledge and the Problem of the Unconceived Alternatives.Fabio Sterpetti & Marta Bertolaso - forthcoming - Topoi:1-12.
    In the process of scientific discovery, knowledge ampliation is pursued by means of non-deductive inferences. When ampliative reasoning is performed, probabilities cannot be assigned objectively. One of the reasons is that we face the problem of the unconceived alternatives: we are unable to explore the space of all the possible alternatives to a given hypothesis, because we do not know how this space is shaped. So, if we want to adequately account for the process of knowledge ampliation, we need to (...)
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  20. added 2018-07-27
    Ideation and Appropriation: Wittgenstein on Intellectual Property.Julian Friedland - 2001 - Law and Critique 12 (2).
    This paper provides a critique of the contemporary notion of intellectual property based on the consequences of Wittgenstein's “private language argument”. The reticence commonly felt toward recent applications of patent law, e.g., sports moves, is held to expose erroneous metaphysical assumptions inherent in the spirit of current IP legislation. It is argued that the modern conception of intellectual property as a kind of natural right, stems from the mistaken internalist or Augustinian picture of language that Wittgenstein attempted to diffuse. This (...)
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  21. added 2018-03-21
    The (Ir)Rational Consideration of the Cost of Science in Transition Economies.Quan-Hoang Vuong - 2018 - Nature Human Behaviour 2 (1):5.
    Science makes a substantial contribution to the economy of developing countries such as Vietnam and its costs must be put into perspective, argues Quan-Hoang Vuong.
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  22. added 2018-03-15
    Everyday Practice of Science: Where Intuition and Passion Meeting Objectivity and Logic.Fred Grinnell - 2009 - New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
  23. added 2018-02-17
    Subjectivity and Emotion in Scientific Research.Jeff Kochan - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):354-362.
    A persistent puzzle for philosophers of science is the well-documented appeal made by scientists to their aesthetic emotions in the course of scientific research. Emotions are usually viewed as irremediably subjective, and thus of no epistemological interest. Yet, by denying an epistemic role for scientists’ emotional dispositions, philosophers find themselves in the awkward position of ignoring phenomena which scientists themselves often insist are of importance. This paper suggests a possible solution to this puzzle by challenging the wholesale identification of emotion (...)
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  24. added 2018-02-16
    Reifying Mathematics? Prediction and Symmetry Classification.Sorin Bangu - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 39 (2):239-258.
    In this paper I reconstruct and critically examine the reasoning leading to the famous prediction of the ‘omega minus’ particle by M. Gell-Mann and Y. Ne’eman (in 1962) on the basis of a symmetry classification scheme. While the peculiarity of this prediction has occasionally been noticed in the literature, a detailed treatment of the methodological problems it poses has not been offered yet. By spelling out the characteristics of this type of prediction, I aim to underscore the challenges raised by (...)
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  25. added 2018-01-10
    Einstein, Inventors, and Invention.Thomas P. Hughes - 1993 - Science in Context 6 (1).
  26. added 2017-12-18
    Science as Social Existence: Heidegger and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge.Jeff Kochan - 2017 - Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers.
    Review: 'Half an original interpretation of Heidegger's early work and half an attempt to buttress the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) with a more philosophically rigorous grounding, Science as Social Existence will be of interest not only to Heidegger scholars but to anyone engaged in science and technology studies. [...] This is an informative and original book. Kochan should be praised for his clear, pleasant-to-read prose.' (Michael Butler, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, for CHOICE).
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  27. added 2017-12-11
    "Milton Munitz et le concept-limite d'« illimitation » en cosmologie (1ère partie)" [Milton Munitz on unboundedness in cosmology - Ist Part].Philippe Gagnon - 2017 - Connaître : Cahiers de l'Association Foi Et Culture Scientifique (46):104-117.
    This is the outline: 1. Introduction 2. La compréhension théorique – 2.1 Le dynamisme conceptuel et l'a priori 2.2 L'horizon conceptuel – 3. Compréhension et singularité 4. La production de signifiance 5. La présence du mystère 6. Le problème de la substantialité : l'un et le multiple – 6.1 La notion d'un ordre implicite.
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  28. added 2017-12-07
    On Serendipity in Science: Discovery at the Intersection of Chance and Wisdom.Samantha M. Copeland - 2017 - Synthese:1-22.
    ‘Serendipity’ is a category used to describe discoveries in science that occur at the intersection of chance and wisdom. In this paper, I argue for understanding serendipity in science as an emergent property of scientific discovery, describing an oblique relationship between the outcome of a discovery process and the intentions that drove it forward. The recognition of serendipity is correlated with an acknowledgment of the limits of expectations about potential sources of knowledge. I provide an analysis of serendipity in science (...)
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  29. added 2017-07-30
    HIT and Brain Reward Function: A Case of Mistaken Identity (Theory).Cory Wright, Matteo Colombo & Alexander Beard - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 64:28–40.
    This paper employs a case study from the history of neuroscience—brain reward function—to scrutinize the inductive argument for the so-called ‘Heuristic Identity Theory’ (HIT). The case fails to support HIT, illustrating why other case studies previously thought to provide empirical support for HIT also fold under scrutiny. After distinguishing two different ways of understanding the types of identity claims presupposed by HIT and considering other conceptual problems, we conclude that HIT is not an alternative to the traditional identity theory so (...)
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  30. added 2017-06-18
    Standpoint and Creativity.Miriam Solomon - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (4):226 - 237.
  31. added 2017-06-18
    Frank Sulloway's Born to Rebel.Miriam Solomon - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (1):171.
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  32. added 2017-04-25
    The Pluralist Stance.Stephen H. Kellert, Helen E. Longino & C. Kenneth Waters - 2006 - In ¸ Itekellersetal:Sp.
    This essay introduces the volume Scientific Pluralism (Volume 19 of Minnesota Studies in Philosophy of Science). Varieties of recent pluralisms are surveyed, the difference between monism and pluralism vis a vis the sciences is clarified, and the authors’ notion of scientific pluralism is advanced.
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  33. added 2017-03-16
    The Contexts of Simultaneous Discovery: Slater, Pauling, and the Origins of Hybridisation.S. B. - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 31 (4):451-474.
    Simultaneous discovery in science has been a subject of close historical investigations, not only for assessing claims of priority, which occasionally generate controversy rather than consensus, but also for understanding the cultural and intellectual context of the time. Thomas S. Kuhn is a pioneer in the contextual study of simultaneous discovery, and his paper on the formulation of the first law of thermodynamics has already become a classic.
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  34. added 2017-02-16
    Scientific Revolutions, Specialization and the Discovery of the Structure of DNA: Toward a New Picture of the Development of the Sciences.Politi Vincenzo - 2018 - Synthese 195 (5):2267-2293.
    In his late years, Thomas Kuhn became interested in the process of scientific specialization, which does not seem to possess the destructive element that is characteristic of scientific revolutions. It therefore makes sense to investigate whether and how Kuhn’s insights about specialization are consistent with, and actually fit, his model of scientific progress through revolutions. In this paper, I argue that the transition toward a new specialty corresponds to a revolutionary change for the group of scientists involved in such a (...)
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  35. added 2017-02-09
    Discussion: Analogies as Generalizations.Joseph Agassi - unknown
    Analogies have been traditionally recognized as a proper part of inductive procedures, akin to generalizations. Seldom, however, have they been presented as superior to generalizations, in the attainability of a higher degree of certitude for their conclusions or in other respects. Though Bacon definitely preferred analogy to generalization1, the tradition seems to me to go the other way-until the recent publication of works by Mary B. Hesse ([2], pp.21-28 and passim) and, perhaps, R. Harr6 ([1], pp.23-28 and passim). The aim (...)
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  36. added 2017-02-07
    Serendipity and the Discovery of DNA.Áurea Anguera de Sojo, Juan Ares, María Aurora Martínez, Juan Pazos, Santiago Rodríguez & José Gabriel Zato - 2014 - Foundations of Science 19 (4):387-401.
    This paper presents the manner in which the DNA, the molecule of life, was discovered. Unlike what many people, even biologists, believe, it was Johannes Friedrich Miescher who originally discovered and isolated nuclein, currently known as DNA, in 1869, 75 years before Watson and Crick unveiled its structure. Also, in this paper we show, and above all demonstrate, the serendipity of this major discovery. Like many of his contemporaries, Miescher set out to discover how cells worked by means of studying (...)
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  37. added 2017-02-07
    Anatomy of the Unsought Finding. Serendipity: Orgin, History, Domains, Traditions, Appearances, Patterns and Programmability.Pek Andevanl - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (2):631-648.
    I define serendipity as the art of making an unsought finding. And I propose an overview of my collection of serendipities, the largest yet assembled, chiefly in science and technology, but also in art, by giving a list of ‘serendipity patterns’. Although my list of ‘patterns’ is just a list and not a classification, it serves to introduce a new and possibly stimulating perspective on the old subject of serendipity. Knowledge of these ‘serendipity patterns’ might help in expecting also the (...)
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  38. added 2016-12-21
    The Logic of Scientific Discovery in Critical Realist Social Scientific Research.Jan Wuisman - 2005 - Journal of Critical Realism 4 (2):366-394.
    Critical realism claims to bring a significant improvement to social science, especially in comparison with empiricist and interpretive approaches. So far, however, it has fallen short of the high expectations it raises. Critical realist arguments are convincing on the philosophical or meta-theoretical level but the contributions of critical realism to social science in terms of research activities at the field level are less clear. Nonetheless, there is no way back. Moving forward requires that the practice of doing social scientific research (...)
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  39. added 2016-12-12
    Vier gesprekspunten voor een nieuwe dialoog tussen natuurwetenschappers en theologen.Guido Verstraeten - 1993 - Bijdragen 54 (2):177-191.
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  40. added 2016-12-05
    Why Can't There Be a Logic of Discovery?Mehul Shah - 2004 - Dissertation, City University of New York
    When philosophers of science speak of a "logic of discovery", what they mean is a systematic method for the generation of scientific hypotheses. The task of this dissertation is to examine arguments for and against a logic of discovery and to defend the possibility of a methodological logic of discovery as opposed to a psychological or epistemic logic of discovery. According to a methodological logic of discovery, there are systematic methods for generating hypotheses that promote the long-term goals of science, (...)
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  41. added 2016-12-05
    Rationality and Scientific Discovery.Stephen Toulmin - 1972 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1972:387 - 406.
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  42. added 2016-12-05
    Ontological Induction and the Logical Typology of Scientific Variables.William W. Rozeboom - 1961 - Philosophy of Science 28 (4):337-377.
    It is widely agreed among philosophers of science today that no formal pattern can possibly be found in the origins of scientific theory. There is no such thing as a "logic of discovery," insists this view--a scientific hypothesis is susceptible to methodological critique only in its relation to empirical consequences derived after the hypothesis itself has emerged through a spontaneous creative inspiration. Yet confronted with the tautly directed thrust of theory-building as actually practiced at the cutting edge of scientific research, (...)
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  43. added 2016-11-28
    Discovery Practices in Natural Sciences: From Analogy to Preduction.Andrés Rivadulla - 2008 - Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 33 (1):117-137.
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  44. added 2016-11-28
    Models of Discovery and Other Topics in the Methods of Science.Herbert A. Simon - 1979 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39 (4):608-610.
  45. added 2016-11-21
    Scientific Discovery Case Studies.Thomas Nickles - 1980
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  46. added 2016-11-18
    12. Imagery, Metaphor, and Physical Reality.Arthur I. Miller - 1989 - In Barry Gholson (ed.), Psychology of Science: Contributions to Metascience. Cambridge University Press. pp. 326.
  47. added 2016-11-14
    Scientific Discovery From the Point of View of Acceptance.Eric Martin & Daniel Osherson - unknown
    In the four papers available on our web site (of which this is the first), we propose to develop an inductive logic. By “inductive logic” we mean a set of principles that distinguish between successful and unsuccessful strategies for scientific inquiry. Our logic will have a technical character, since it is built from the concepts and terminology of (elementary) model theory. The reader may therefore wish to know something about the kind of results on offer before investing time in definitions (...)
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  48. added 2016-11-14
    Scientific Discovery From the Perspective of Hypothesis Acceptance.Eric Martin & Daniel Osherson - 2002 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S331-S341.
    A model of inductive inquiry is defined within the context of first‐order logic. The model conceives of inquiry as a game between Nature and a scientist. To begin the game, a nonlogical vocabulary is agreed upon by the two players, along with a partition of a class of countable structures for that vocabulary. Next, Nature secretly chooses one structure from some cell of the partition. She then presents the scientist with a sequence of facts about the chosen structure. With each (...)
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  49. added 2016-11-14
    Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery.L. Magnani, N. J. Nersessian & P. Thagard (eds.) - 1999 - Kluwer/Plenum.
    The book Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery, aims to explain how specific modeling practices employed by scientists are productive methods of ...
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  50. added 2016-11-10
    The Process of Discovery.Andrew Lugg - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (2):207-220.
    The main argument of this paper is that philosophical difficulties regarding scientific discovery arise mainly because philosophers base their arguments on a flawed picture of scientific research. Careful examination of N. R. Hanson's treatment of Kepler's discovery not only puts the rationality of this discovery beyond question, it also reveals what its rationality consists in. We can retrieve the point stressed by Hanson concerning the rational character of discoveries such as Kepler's even as we reject the type of "logical" analysis (...)
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