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  1. The Epigenetic Landscape in the Course of Time: Conrad Hal Waddington’s Methodological Impact on the Life Sciences.Jan Baedke - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):756-773.
    It seems that the reception of Conrad Hal Waddington’s work never really gathered speed in mainstream biology. This paper, offering a transdisciplinary survey of approaches using his epigenetic landscape images, argues that (i) Waddington’s legacy is much broader than is usually recognized—it is widespread across the life sciences (e.g. stem cell biology, developmental psychology and cultural anthropology). In addition, I will show that (ii) there exist as yet unrecognized heuristic roles, especially in model building and theory formation, which Waddington’s images (...)
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  2. Thing Knowledge: A Philosophy of Scientific Instruments.Davis Baird - 2004 - University of California Press.
    Western philosophers have traditionally concentrated on theory as the means for expressing knowledge about a variety of phenomena. This absorbing book challenges this fundamental notion by showing how objects themselves, specifically scientific instruments, can express knowledge. As he considers numerous intriguing examples, Davis Baird gives us the tools to "read" the material products of science and technology and to understand their place in culture. Making a provocative and original challenge to our conception of knowledge itself, _Thing Knowledge _demands that we (...)
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  3. Scientific Instruments, Scientific Progress and the Cyclotron.Davis Baird & Thomas Faust - 1990 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (2):147-175.
  4. Great Pyramid Metrology and the Material Politics of Basalt.Michael J. Barany - 2010 - Spontaneous Generations 4 (1):45-60.
    Astronomer Charles Piazzi Smyth’s 1864–65 expedition to measure the Great Pyramid of Giza was planned around a system of linear measures designed to guarantee the validity of his measurements and settle ongoing uncertainties as to the Pyramid’s true size. When the intended system failed to come together, Piazzi Smyth was forced to improvise a replacement that presented a fundamental challenge to the metrological enterprise upon which his system had been based. The astronomer’s new system centered around a small lump of (...)
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  5. Scientific Evidence: Creating and Evaluating Experimental Instruments and Research Techniques.William Bechtel - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:559 - 572.
    The production of evidence for scientific hypotheses and theories often depends upon complex instruments and techniques for employing them. An important epistemological question arises as to how the reliability of these instruments and techniques is assessed. To address that question, this paper examines the introduction of electron microscopy and cell fractionation in cell biology. One important claim is that scientists often arrive at their techniques for employing instruments like the electron microscope and the ultracentrifuge by tinkering and that they evaluate (...)
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  6. Scientific Instruments in Art and HistoryHenri Michel R. E. W. Maddison Francis R. Maddison.Silvio A. Bedini - 1968 - Isis 59 (2):213-214.
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  7. The Universe Unveiled: Instruments and Images Through History. [REVIEW]Jim Bennett - 2002 - British Journal for the History of Science 35 (2):213-250.
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  8. Science as Socially Distributed Cognition: Bridging Philosophy and Sociology of Science.Matthew J. Brown - 2011 - In Karen François, Benedikt Löwe, Thomas Müller & Bart van Kerkhove (eds.), Foundations of the Formal Sciences VII, Studies in Logic. College Publications.
    I want to make plausible the following claim:Analyzing scientific inquiry as a species of socially distributed cognition has a variety of advantages for science studies, among them the prospects of bringing together philosophy and sociology of science. This is not a particularly novel claim, but one that faces major obstacles. I will retrace some of the major steps that have been made in the pursuit of a distributed cognition approach to science studies, paying special attention to the promise that such (...)
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  9. Studies in the History of Scientific Instruments. [REVIEW]D. J. Bryden - 1991 - British Journal for the History of Science 24 (4):490-491.
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  10. Instruments Van Marum's Scientific Instruments in Teyler's Museum. By G. L'E. Turner and T. H. Levere. Volume IV of Martinus Van Marum: Life and Work, Ed. By E. Lefebvre and J. G. De Bruijn. Leyden: Noordhoff Intertional, 1973. Pp. 401. 65 Hfl. [REVIEW]D. J. Bryden - 1976 - British Journal for the History of Science 9 (1):69.
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  11. Scientific Instruments Scientific Instruments of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries and Their Makers. By Maurice Daumas. Trans, and Ed. By Mary Holbrook. London: Batsford, 1972. Pp. Vi + 361. £10. [REVIEW]D. J. Bryden - 1974 - British Journal for the History of Science 7 (1):87.
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  12. Invisible Connections, Instruments, Institutions and Science.R. Bud, S. Cozzens & Brian J. Ford - 1995 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 17 (1):173-206.
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  13. Extended Thing Knowledge.Mathieu Charbonneau - 2010 - Spontaneous Generations 4 (1):116-128.
    This paper aims at extending the notion of thing knowledge put forth by Davis Baird. His Thing Knowledge (Baird 2004) proposes that scientific instruments constitute scientific knowledge and that to conceive scientific instruments as such brings about a new and better understanding of scientific development. By insisting on what “truth does for us,” Baird shows that the functional properties of truth are shared by the common scientific instrument. The traditional definition of knowledge as justified true belief would only apply to (...)
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  14. The Scientific Instruments in Holbein's Ambassadors: A Re-Examination.Elly Dekker & Kristen Lippincott - 1999 - Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 62:93-125.
  15. People as Scientific Instruments.Maarten Derksen - 2010 - Spontaneous Generations 4 (1):21-29.
    People are common instruments in the social sciences. They may act as experimenter, receiving and instructing the participants; they may be a stooge, a confederate of the experimenter who is part of the experimental manipulation; they may function as raters of their own personality or that of others; or they may conduct interviews and do observations. In most social scientific research, people are necessary to elicit, record, or measure the phenomena under study. They are an essential instrument in most social (...)
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  16. El diseño de simulaciones digitales: una perspectiva desde las prácticas científicas.Juan M. Durán, Penélope Lodeyro & Maximiliano Bozzoli - 2010 - In Pío García & Alba Massolo (eds.), Epistemología e historia de la ciencia: Selección de trabajos de las XX jornadas. Editorial Universidad Nacional de Cȯrdoba. pp. 204-210.
  17. The Theory-Ladenness of Observations, the Role of Scientific Instruments, and the Kantian a Priori.Ragnar Fjelland - 1991 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 5 (3):269 – 280.
    Abstract During the last decades it has become widely accepted that scientific observations are ?theory?laden?. Scientists ?see? the world with their theories or theoretical presuppositions. In the present paper it is argued that they ?see? with their scientific instruments as well, as the uses of scientific instruments is an important characteristic of modern natural science. It is further argued that Euclidean geometry is intimately linked to technology, and hence that it plays a fundamental part in the construction and operation of (...)
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  18. Antique Scientific Instruments. [REVIEW]Robert Fox - 1982 - British Journal for the History of Science 15 (3):310-310.
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  19. Instruments Gerard L'E. Turner, Antique Scientific Instruments. Poole: Blandford Press, 1980. Pp. 168. £3.95/£2.95.Robert Fox - 1982 - British Journal for the History of Science 15 (3):310.
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  20. Exploratory Experiments.L. R. Franklin - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):888-899.
    Philosophers of experiment have acknowledged that experiments are often more than mere hypothesis-tests, once thought to be an experiment's exclusive calling. Drawing on examples from contemporary biology, I make an additional amendment to our understanding of experiment by examining the way that `wide' instrumentation can, for reasons of efficiency, lead scientists away from traditional hypothesis-directed methods of experimentation and towards exploratory methods.
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  21. Thing Knowledge: A Philosophy of Scientific Instruments. [REVIEW]David Gooding - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Science 39 (4):598-599.
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  22. Who Needs Scientific Instruments.H. Grob B. And Hooijmaijers (ed.) - 2005 - Museum Boerhaave.
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  23. Theory-Ladenness and Scientific Instruments in Experimentation.Michael Heidelberger - manuscript
    Since the late 1950s one of the most important and influential views of post-positivist philosophy of science has been the theory-ladenness of observation. It comes in at least two forms: either as a psychological law pertaining to human perception (whether scientific or not) or as conceptual insight concerning the nature and functioning of scientific language and its meaning. According to its psychological form, perceptions of scientists, as perceptions of humans generally, are guided by prior beliefs and expectations, and perception has (...)
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  24. Bart Grob and Hans Hooijmaijers , Who Needs Scientific Instruments? Conference on Scientific Instruments and Their Users, 20–22 October 2005. Leiden: Museum Boerhaave, 2006. Pp. 272. ISBN 906292-158-2. No Price Given. [REVIEW]Hester Higton - 2008 - British Journal for the History of Science 41 (3).
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  25. Who Needs Scientific Instruments? Conference on Scientific Instruments and Their Users, 20–22 October 2005. [REVIEW]Hester Higton - 2008 - British Journal for the History of Science 41 (3):458-459.
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  26. Instruments of Translation. [REVIEW]Hester Higton - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Science 39 (2):286-287.
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  27. A Catalogue Raisonné Of Scientific Instruments From The Louvain School, 1530 To 1600. [REVIEW]Hester Higton - 2005 - British Journal for the History of Science 38 (2):225-226.
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  28. Scientific Instruments: Originals and Imitations. [REVIEW]Hester Higton - 2002 - British Journal for the History of Science 35 (2):213-250.
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  29. Scientific Instruments and the Senses: Towards an Anthropological Historiography of the Natural Sciences.Werner Kutschmann - 1986 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 1 (1):106 – 123.
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  30. XI.—Scientific Instruments.J. A. Lauwerys - 1938 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 38 (1):217-240.
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  31. Scientific Instruments.J. A. Lauwerys - 1937 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 38:217 - 240.
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  32. Antique Medical Instruments. [REVIEW]C. J. Lawrence - 1980 - British Journal for the History of Science 13 (2):181-182.
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  33. Growing Weed, Producing Knowledge An Epistemic History of Arabidopsis Thaliana.Sabina Leonelli - 2007 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (2):193 - 223.
    Arabidopsis is currently the most popular and well-researched model organism in plant biology. This paper documents this plant's rise to scientific fame by focusing on two interrelated aspects of Arabidopsis research. One is the extent to which the material features of the plant have constrained research directions and enabled scientific achievements. The other is the crucial role played by the international community of Arabidopsis researchers in making it possible to grow, distribute and use plant specimen that embody these material features. (...)
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  34. Visualisierung Und Erkenntnis. Bildverstehen Und Bildverwenden in Natur- Und Geisteswissenschaften.Dimitri Liebsch & Nicola Mößner (eds.) - 2012 - Herbert von Halem Verlag.
    In der Wissenschaft spielen Visualisierungen eine immer wichtigere Rolle. Sie sind zum einen Gegenstand der Forschung und zum anderen unverzichtbares Hilfsmittel bei der Präsentation und Distribution von Forschungsergebnissen. Beides stellt neue Anforderungen an den Wissenschaftler und seine praktische wie auch theoretische Arbeit und lässt nach einer kritischen Reflexion dieses Bildhandelns fragen. Was zeigen uns MRT-Bilder in der Medizin wirklich? Wie hat die Weiterentwicklung der Mikroskopie-Technologie unsere Vorstellung von der menschlichen Zelle verändert? Welche Rolle können Bilder bei der Vermittlung von Wissen (...)
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  35. Why Was M. S. Tswett's Chromatographic Adsorption Analysis Rejected?Jonathan Livengood - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (1):57-69.
    The present paper claims that M. S. Tswett’s chromatographic adsorption analysis, which today is a ubiquitous and instrumentally sophisticated chemical technique, was either ignored or outright rejected by chemists and botanists in the first three decades of the twentieth century because it did not make sense in terms of accepted chemical theory or practice. Evidence for this claim is culled from consideration of the botanical and chemical context of Tswett’s technique as well as an analysis of the protracted debate over (...)
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  36. Scientific Collections as Material Heritage.David Ludwig - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (4):652–659.
    The purpose of this article is twofold: on the one hand, we present the outlines of a history of university collections in Germany. On the other hand, we discuss this history as a case study of the changing attitudes of the sciences towards their material heritage. Based on data from 1094 German university collections, we distinguish three periods that are by no means homogeneous but offer a helpful starting point for a discussion of the entangled institutional and epistemic factors in (...)
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  37. University Collections as Archives of Scientific Practice -.David Ludwig & Cornelia Weber - 2013 - Revista Electrónica de Fuentes y Archivosmore 4.
    Elimination controversies are ubiquitous in philosophy and the human sciences. For example, it has been suggested that humanraces, hysteria, intelligence, mental disorder, propositional attitudes such as beliefs and desires, the self, and the super-ego should beeliminated from the list of respectable entities in the human sciences. I argue that eliminativist proposals are often presented in theframework of an oversimplified ‘‘phlogiston model’’ and suggest an alternative account that describes ontological elimination on a gradualscale between criticism of empirical assumptions and conceptual choices.
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  38. Nineteenth-Century Scientific Instruments. [REVIEW]Anita Mcconnell - 1985 - British Journal for the History of Science 18 (1):121-121.
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  39. Seeing and Believing: Galileo, Aristotelians, and the Mountains on the Moon.David Marshall Miller - 2013 - In Daniel De Simone & John Hessler (eds.), The Starry Messenger. Levenger Press. pp. 131-145.
  40. What is Scientific Progress? Lessons From Scientific Practice.Moti Mizrahi - 2013 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 44 (2):375-390.
    Alexander Bird argues for an epistemic account of scientific progress, whereas Darrell Rowbottom argues for a semantic account. Both appeal to intuitions about hypothetical cases in support of their accounts. Since the methodological significance of such appeals to intuition is unclear, I think that a new approach might be fruitful at this stage in the debate. So I propose to abandon appeals to intuition and look at scientific practice instead. I discuss two cases that illustrate the way in which scientists (...)
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  41. Visual Data – Reasons to Be Relied On?Nicola Mößner - 2017 - In Nicola Mößner & Alfred Nordmann (eds.), Reasoning in Measurement. New York: Routledge. pp. 99-110.
    In today’s science, the output of measurement processes are often visual representations of the data detected. Moreover, we find such visual data as parts of scientific reasoning in different contexts. In this article, we will take a look at two of them. On the one hand, visual representations are used as a kind of surrogate for the real object to ask questions about it – we will call this the exploratory use of visual data. On the other hand, visualisations are (...)
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  42. Bild in der Wissenschaft.Nicola Mößner - 2013 - GIB - Glossar der Bildphilosophie.
  43. Observing by Hand: Sketching the Nebulae in the Nineteenth Century.Omar W. Nasim - 2013 - University of Chicago Press.
    Today we are all familiar with the iconic pictures of the nebulae produced by the Hubble Space Telescope’s digital cameras. But there was a time, before the successful application of photography to the heavens, in which scientists had to rely on handmade drawings of these mysterious phenomena. Observing by Hand sheds entirely new light on the ways in which the production and reception of handdrawn images of the nebulae in the nineteenth century contributed to astronomical observation. Omar W. Nasim investigates (...)
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  44. Musa Musaei: Studies on Scientific Instruments and Collections in Honour of Mara Miniati. [REVIEW]David Pantalony - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Science 39 (1):127-128.
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  45. Computer Simulation, Measurement, and Data Assimilation.Wendy S. Parker - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv037.
    This article explores some of the roles of computer simulation in measurement. A model-based view of measurement is adopted and three types of measurement—direct, derived, and complex—are distinguished. It is argued that while computer simulations on their own are not measurement processes, in principle they can be embedded in direct, derived, and complex measurement practices in such a way that simulation results constitute measurement outcomes. Atmospheric data assimilation is then considered as a case study. This practice, which involves combining information (...)
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  46. On the Genealogy of Concepts and Experimental Practices: Rethinking Georges Canguilhem's Historical Epistemology.Méthot Pierre-Olivier - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A.
  47. Thing Knowledge: A Philosophy of Scientific Instruments.Joseph C. Pitt - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (4):645-647.
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  48. A Collection of Armillary Spheres and Other Antique Scientific Instruments.Derek J. Price - 1954 - Annals of Science 10 (2):172-187.
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  49. Towards a Notion of Intervention in Big-Data Biology and Molecular Medicine.Emanuele Ratti & Federico Boem - forthcoming - In Marco Nathan & Giovanni Boniolo (eds.), Philosophy of Molecular Medicine - Foundational Issues in Research and Practice. Routledge.
    We claim that in contemporary studies in molecular biology and biomedicine, the nature of ‘manipulation’ and ‘intervention’ has changed. Traditionally, molecular biology and molecular studies in medicine are considered experimental sciences, whereas experiments take the form of material manipulation and intervention. On the contrary “big science” projects in biology focus on the practice of data mining of biological databases. We argue that the practice of data mining is a form of intervention although it does not require material manipulation. We also (...)
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  50. Scientific Instruments: Knowledge, Practice, and Culture [Editor's Introduction].Isaac Record - 2010 - Spontaneous Generations 4 (1):1-7.
    To one side of the wide third-floor hallway of Victoria College, just outside the offices of the Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, lies the massive carcass of a 1960s-era electron microscope. Its burnished steel carapace has lost its gleam, but the instrument is still impressive for its bulk and spare design: binocular viewing glasses, beam control panel, specimen tray, and a broad work surface. Edges are worn, desiccated tape still feebly holds instructive reminders near control (...)
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