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  1. added 2018-10-15
    Was There a Scientific ’68? Its Repercussion on Action Research and Mixing Methods.José Andrés-Gallego - 2018 - Arbor 194 (787):436: 1-10.
    The author asks whether there was a “scientific ‘68”, and focuses on aspects of two specific methodological proposals defined in the 1940s and 50s by the terms “action research” and “mixing methods”, applied particularly to social sciences. In the first, the climate surrounding the events of 1968 contributed to heightening the participative element to be found –by definition– in “action research”; that is: the importance of making the research subjects themselves participants in the design, execution and application of the study (...)
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  2. added 2018-06-07
    A Unified Cognitive Model of Visual Filling-In Based on an Emergic Network Architecture.David Pierre Leibovitz - 2013 - Dissertation, Carleton University
    The Emergic Cognitive Model (ECM) is a unified computational model of visual filling-in based on the Emergic Network architecture. The Emergic Network was designed to help realize systems undergoing continuous change. In this thesis, eight different filling-in phenomena are demonstrated under a regime of continuous eye movement (and under static eye conditions as well). -/- ECM indirectly demonstrates the power of unification inherent with Emergic Networks when cognition is decomposed according to finer-grained functions supporting change. These can interact to raise (...)
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  3. added 2018-06-06
    What’s Wrong With Science? Towards a People’s Rational Science of Delight and Compassion, Second Edition.Nicholas Maxwell - 2009 - London: Pentire Press.
    What ought to be the aims of science? How can science best serve humanity? What would an ideal science be like, a science that is sensitively and humanely responsive to the needs, problems and aspirations of people? How ought the institutional enterprise of science to be related to the rest of society? What ought to be the relationship between science and art, thought and feeling, reason and desire, mind and heart? Should the social sciences model themselves on the natural sciences: (...)
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  4. added 2018-05-14
    Systemic Localisation of the Subject in Psychological Research: Structural and Ontological Visualisation.Vitalii Shymko - 2016 - Bulletin of Kiev Taras Shevchenko University (Military-Special Sciences) 34 (1):47-51.
    The article proposes systematisation and development of the discourse of the East European methodological traditions regarding application of the systematic approach as a way of subject localisation in psychological research. In particular, the author’s version of systematic localisation of psychological research subjects by means of structural and ontological visualisations has been developed. The procedure proposed for systematic localisation of the researched subject includes four subsequent stages: 1) fixation of the borders and structure of the ontological field which is being studied; (...)
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  5. added 2018-05-03
    An Atheistic Defence of Christian Science.Monton Bradley - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 5 (3):43--54.
    Should the Christian community engage in Christian science – doing science starting from the standpoint of the Christian evidence base? Plantinga asks this question, and I argue that the answer is ‘yes’. Moreover, this is an answer that both Christians and atheists can agree upon. Scientific progress should not be shackled by methodological naturalism; instead we need an ecumenical approach to science, which will allow for various high-level research programmes to count as science (including Christian science). If one does science (...)
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  6. added 2018-03-30
    Ontological Imperialism (2000).Barry Smith - manuscript
    Plenary Talk Held at GIScience 2000: First International Conference on Geographic Information Science, Savannah, Georgia.
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  7. added 2018-02-17
    The Urgent Need for an Academic Revolution: The Rational Pursuit of Wisdom.Nicholas Maxwell - 2010 - In Charles Tandy (ed.), Death And Anti-Death, Volume 7: Nine Hundred Years After St. Anselm (1033-1109. Ria University Press.
    We are in a state of impending crisis. And the fault lies in part with academia. For two centuries or so, academia has been devoted to the pursuit of knowledge and technological know-how. This has enormously increased our power to act which has, in turn, brought us both all the great benefits of the modern world and the crises we now face. Modern science and technology have made possible modern industry and agriculture, the explosive growth of the world’s population, global (...)
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  8. added 2018-02-17
    Distributed Cognition: A Methodological Note.David Kirsh - 2006 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 14 (2):249-262.
    Humans are closely coupled with their environments. They rely on being `embedded' to help coordinate the use of their internal cognitive resources with external tools and resources. Consequently, everyday cognition, even cognition in the absence of others, may be viewed as partially distributed. As cognitive scientists our job is to discover and explain the principles governing this distribution: principles of coordination, externalization, and interaction. As designers our job is to use these principles, especially if they can be converted to metrics, (...)
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  9. added 2017-11-28
    Armchair Philosophy Naturalized.Sebastian Lutz - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Carnap suggests that philosophy can be construed as being engaged solely in conceptual engineering. I argue that since many results of the sciences can be construed as stemming from conceptual engineering as well, Carnap’s account of philosophy can be methodologically naturalistic. This is also how he conceived of his account. That the sciences can be construed as relying heavily on conceptual engineering is supported by empirical investigations into scientific methodology, but also by a number of conceptual considerations. I present a (...)
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  10. added 2017-10-26
    Paradigmatische Fälle. Konstruktion, Narration und Verallgemeinerung von Fall-Wissen in den Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften.Katherina Kinzel & Ruben Hackler (eds.) - 2016 - Basel: Schwabe.
    Fallgeschichten werden seit dem 18. Jahrhundert zunehmend genutzt, um juristisches, psychologisches und medizinisches Wissen einer grösseren Öffentlichkeit zu vermitteln. In den letzten zehn Jahren haben sie auch in den Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften mehr Aufmerksamkeit erfahren. Die Diskussion über paradigmatische Fälle in diesem Band zielt darauf ab, Fallgeschichten in ihrer Funktion als besonders anschauliche oder lehrreiche Beispiele in verschiedenen historischen Kontexten zu untersuchen und zu vergleichen. Die in diesem Heft versammelten Texte gehen der Frage nach, wie Fälle dazu beitragen, Debatten zu (...)
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  11. added 2017-10-17
    Common Method Variance & Bias dalam Penelitian Psikologis. Juneman - 2013 - Jurnal Pengukuran Psikologi Dan Pendidikan Indonesia 2 (5):364-381.
    The issue of common method variance and bias in Indonesia still has not gained much attention; even the terminology is less popular, except among psychometric enthusiasts and experts. In fact, the potential for common method variance and bias infiltrating in research results is very high, especially in studies that use a single method, a single source, and concurrent design, which are highly favored by psychological lecturers and researchers in Indonesia. This paper is a critical review, exposing the debate and serious (...)
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  12. added 2017-09-21
    Metóda, problém a úloha (Method, Problem and Task).František Gahér Marko & Vladimír - 2017 - Bratislava: Univerzita Komenského.
  13. added 2017-08-14
    Strong and Weak Methods.Vojtech Filkorn - 1989 - In Jens Erik Fenstad, Ivan Timofeevich Frolov & Risto Hilpinen (eds.), Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science Viii: Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, Moscow, 1987. Sole Distributors for the U.S.A. And Canada, Elsevier Science.
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  14. added 2017-07-14
    Doing Things Twice: Strategies to Identify Studies for Targeted Validation.Gopal P. Sarma - forthcoming - Arxiv Preprint Arxiv:1703.01601.
    The “reproducibility crisis” has been a highly visible source of scientific controversy and dispute. Here, I propose and review several avenues for identifying and prioritizing research studies for the purpose of targeted validation. Of the various proposals discussed, I identify scientific data science as being a strategy that merits greater attention among those interested in reproducibility. I argue that the tremendous potential of scientific data science for uncovering high-value research studies is a significant and rarely discussed benefit of the transition (...)
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  15. added 2017-07-14
    Scientific Data Science and the Case for Open Access.Gopal P. Sarma - forthcoming - Arxiv Preprint Arxiv:1611.00097.
    “Open access” has become a central theme of journal reform in academic publishing. In this article, I examine the consequences of an important technological loophole in which publishers can claim to be adhering to the principles of open access by releasing articles in proprietary or “locked” formats that cannot be processed by automated tools, whereby even simple copy and pasting of text is disabled. These restrictions will prevent the development of an important infrastructural element of a modern research enterprise, namely, (...)
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  16. added 2017-07-14
    Should We Train Scientific Generalists?Gopal Sarma - 2016 - The Winnower 1.
    I examine the topic of training scientific generalists. To focus the discussion, I propose the creation of a new graduate program, analogous in structure to existing MD/PhD programs, aimed at training a critical mass of scientific researchers with substantial intellectual breadth. In addition to completing the normal requirements for a PhD, students would undergo an intense, several year training period designed to expose them to the core vocabulary of multiple subjects at the graduate level. After providing some historical and philosophical (...)
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  17. added 2017-07-14
    Scientific Auditing Firms.Gopal P. Sarma - 2016 - Progress 5.
    Recent analyses have brought to light a startling reality about contemporary science, namely, low rates of reproducibility in research studies across many disciplines. On the other hand, the legitimately world-changing advances that have taken place in the last half-century have also resulted in theoretical knowledge and experimental capacity so advanced that outstanding and meticulously performed science can often be difficult to understand and to interpret to all but a few specialists in a field. In anticipating the future needs of a (...)
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  18. added 2017-07-14
    Is There Value in Training Scientific Generalists For Positions at the Edge of Academia?Gopal P. Sarma - 2016 - The Winnower 6.
    Contemporary scientific research faces major cultural and institutional hurdles. Some of the primary challenges include an exploding knowledge base and organizational complexity of many scientific projects, the overproduction of PhDs relative to the availability of faculty positions, and protracted educational trajectories for many aspiring researchers. Perhaps the most serious set of consequences caused by the fierce competition of modern science are low rates of reproducibility in research studies across many disciplines, a startling reality which undermines the scientific process and institutional (...)
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  19. added 2017-07-14
    Training Scientific Generalists: Response to Comments and Additional Thoughts.Gopal P. Sarma - 2016 - The Winnower 7.
    In several recent articles, I proposed the creation of new graduate programs aimed at training scientific generalists. Here, I collect and respond to a number of comments and criticisms raised in response to these proposals.
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  20. added 2017-07-14
    Reconsidering Written Language.Gopal P. Sarma - 2015 - Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems 13 (3):397--404.
    A number of elite thinkers in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries pursued an agenda which historian Paolo Rossi calls the "quest for a universal language," a quest which was deeply interwoven with the emergence of the scientific method. From a modern perspective, one of the many surprising aspects of these efforts is that they relied on a diverse array of memorization techniques as foundational elements. In the case of Leibniz's universal calculus, the ultimate vision was to create a (...)
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  21. added 2017-06-18
    Frank Sulloway's Born to Rebel.Miriam Solomon - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (1):171.
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  22. added 2017-06-14
    Imagination: A Sine Qua Non of Science.Michael T. Stuart - 2017 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy (49):9-32.
    What role does the imagination play in scientific progress? After examining several studies in cognitive science, I argue that one thing the imagination does is help to increase scientific understanding, which is itself indispensable for scientific progress. Then, I sketch a transcendental justification of the role of imagination in this process.
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  23. added 2017-06-07
    How Empirical is Contemporary Logical Empiricism?L. Jonathan Cohen - 1975 - Philosophia 5 (3):299-317.
    There is a certain dominant tradition, school, ambiance or intellectual community in contemporary philosophy of science which can conveniently be labelled logical empiricism. Now a curious and (I believe) hitherto unremarked change occurred in the accepted methodology of logical empiricism shortly after the end of World War II. Before then accepted forms of argument for philosophical theses about the logic, analysis, or rational reconstruction of science fell into two main categories. Some arguments appealed to familiar or historically attestable facts about (...)
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  24. added 2017-05-30
    Scientific Empiricism.Charles W. Morris - 1938 - In Rudolf Carnap, Otto Neurath & Charles W. Morris (eds.), Encyclopedia and Unified Science. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press. pp. 63-75.
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  25. added 2017-03-02
    Scientific Method in Brief, by Hugh G. Gauch, Jr. [REVIEW]Kevin McCain - 2013 - Teaching Philosophy 36 (3):310-313.
  26. added 2016-12-12
    What’s Wrong With Aim-Oriented Empiricism?Nicholas Maxwell - 2015 - Acta Baltica Historiae Et Philosophiae Scientiarum 3 (2):5-31.
    For four decades it has been argued that we need to adopt a new conception of science called aim-oriented empiricism. This has far-reaching implications and repercussions for science, the philosophy of science, academic inquiry in general, conception of rationality, and how we go about attempting to make progress towards as good a world as possible. Despite these far-reaching repercussions, aim-oriented empiricism has so far received scant attention from philosophers of science. Here, sixteen objections to the validity of the argument for (...)
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  27. added 2016-12-08
    Sober as a Judge.Gordon Belot - 2016 - Metascience 25 (3):387-392.
    In Ockham's Razors: A User's Guide, Elliott Sober argues that parsimony considerations are epistemically relevant on the grounds that certain methods of model selection, such as the Akaike Information Criterion, exhibit good asymptotic behaviour and take the number of adjustable parameters in a model into account. I raise some worries about this form of argument.
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  28. added 2016-12-08
    Part-Whole Science.Rasmus Winther - 2011 - Synthese 178 (3):397-427.
    A scientific explanatory project, part-whole explanation, and a kind of science, part-whole science are premised on identifying, investigating, and using parts and wholes. In the biological sciences, mechanistic, structuralist, and historical explanations are part-whole explanations. Each expresses different norms, explananda, and aims. Each is associated with a distinct partitioning frame for abstracting kinds of parts. These three explanatory projects can be complemented in order to provide an integrative vision of the whole system, as is shown for a detailed case study: (...)
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  29. added 2016-11-14
    The Objectivity of a Methodology.Michael Martin - 1973 - Philosophy of Science 40 (3):447-450.
    In this paper I consider critically Richard Rudner's account of the objectivity of a methodology. I show that Rudner's analysis provides neither a sufficient condition nor a necessary condition for one method being more objective than another.
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  30. added 2016-11-14
    Problem-Centering Vs. Means-Centering in Science.A. H. Maslow - 1946 - Philosophy of Science 13 (4):326-331.
  31. added 2016-10-12
    The Realistic Empiricism of Mach, James, and Russell: Neutral Monism Reconceived ERIC C. BANKS Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014; 217 Pp.; $95.00. [REVIEW]Jamie Shaw - 2018 - Dialogue 57 (3):648-650.
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  32. added 2016-09-01
    Sodobne Teorije Znanosti.Andrej Ule (ed.) - 1992 - Znanstveno in Publicisticno Srediésce.
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  33. added 2016-05-09
    Heuristics and Meta-Heuristics in Scientific Judgement.Spencer Phillips Hey - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (2):471-495.
    Despite the increasing recognition that heuristics may be involved in myriad scientific activities, much about how to use them prudently remains obscure. As typically defined, heuristics are efficient rules or procedures for converting complex problems into simpler ones. But this increased efficiency and problem-solving power comes at the cost of a systematic bias. As Wimsatt showed, biased modelling heuristics can conceal errors, leading to poor decisions or inaccurate models. This liability to produce errors presents a fundamental challenge to the philosophical (...)
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  34. added 2016-04-07
    A Simple Model of Scientific Progress - with Examples.Luigi Scorzato - 2016 - In Laura Felline, Antonio Ledd, Francesco Paoli & Emanuele Rossanese (eds.), SILFS 3 - New Directions in Logic and Philosophy of Science. College Publications. pp. 45-56.
    One of the main goals of scientific research is to provide a description of the empirical data which is as accurate and comprehensive as possible, while relying on as few and simple assumptions as possible. In this paper, I propose a definition of the notion of few and simple assumptions that is not affected by known problems. This leads to the introduction of a simple model of scientific progress that is based only on empirical accuracy and conciseness. An essential point (...)
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  35. added 2016-03-04
    Feminism As Method.Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 1995 - Philosophical Topics 23 (2):189-220.
  36. added 2016-01-25
    Per Galileo.Ludovico Geymonat & Mario Quaranta (eds.) - 1981 - Bertani.
  37. added 2016-01-25
    Attualità delle indicazioni metodologiche galileiane.Ludovico Geymonat - 1967 - Atti Del Simposio Internazionale Su Andquot;Galileo Galilei Nella Storia E Nella Filosofia Della Scienza" (1964) - a Cura Del Gruppo Italiano di Storia Della Scienza, Firenze:205-215.
  38. added 2015-11-02
    Descartes and His Contemporaries: Meditations, Objections, and Replies. [REVIEW]Gary Hatfield - 1997 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 35 (4):624-626.
    Review of Roger Ariew and Marjorie Grene, editors, _Descartes and His Contemporaries: Meditations, Objections, and Replies_. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Pp. vii + 261. Cloth, $45.00. Paper, $17.95.
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  39. added 2015-10-17
    Science, Certainty, and Descartes.Gary Hatfield - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:249 - 262.
    During the 1630s Descartes recognized that he could not expect all legitimate claims in natural science to meet the standard of absolute certainty. The realization resulted from a change in his physics, which itself arose not through methodological reflections, but through developments in his substantive metaphysical doctrines. Descartes discovered the metaphysical foundations of his physics in 1629-30; as a consequence, the style of explanation employed in his physical writings changed. His early methodological conceptions, as preserved in the Rules and sketched (...)
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  40. added 2015-10-13
    Formal Epistemology and the New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning.Niki Pfeifer & Igor Douven - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology (2):1-23.
    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of classical logic, used by more traditional approaches to the psychology of reasoning. This paper presents a new interdisciplinary research program which involves both formal and experimental work. To illustrate the program, the paper discusses recent work on the (...)
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  41. added 2015-10-02
    Experts in Science: A View From the Trenches.Carlo Martini - 2014 - Synthese 191 (1):3-15.
    In this paper I analyze four so-called “principles of expertise”; that is, good epistemic practices that are normatively motivated by the epistemological literature on expert judgment. I highlight some of the problems that the four principles of expertise run into, when we try to implement them in concrete contexts of application (e.g. in science committees). I suggest some possible alternatives and adjustments to the principles, arguing in general that the epistemology of expertise should be informed both by case studies and (...)
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  42. added 2015-09-06
    A Plurality of Pluralisms: Collaborative Practice in Archaeology.Alison Wylie - 2015 - In Jonathan Y. Tsou, Alan Richardson & Flavia Padovani (eds.), Objectivity in Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 189-210.
    Innovative modes of collaboration between archaeologists and Indigenous communities are taking shape in a great many contexts, in the process transforming conventional research practice. While critics object that these partnerships cannot but compromise the objectivity of archaeological science, many of the archaeologists involved argue that their research is substantially enriched by them. I counter objections raised by internal critics and crystalized in philosophical terms by Boghossian, disentangling several different kinds of pluralism evident in these projects and offering an analysis of (...)
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  43. added 2015-08-04
    A New Interpretation of the Representational Theory of Measurement.Conrad Heilmann - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):787-797.
    On the received view, the Representational Theory of Measurement reduces measurement to the numerical representation of empirical relations. This account of measurement has been widely criticized. In this article, I provide a new interpretation of the Representational Theory of Measurement that sidesteps these debates. I propose to view the Representational Theory of Measurement as a library of theorems that investigate the numerical representability of qualitative relations. Such theorems are useful tools for concept formation that, in turn, is one crucial aspect (...)
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  44. added 2015-07-13
    Anarchism as Metaphilosophy.Lajos L. Brons - 2015 - The Science of Mind 53:139-158.
    Philosophy once started as the critical reflection on relatively ordinary human concerns. Increasing specialization has moved the discipline farther and farther away from these concerns, however, undermining its relevance outside the academy, but has also resulting in an ever increasing fragmentation. This fragmentation has further divided the field into a large number of esoteric communities that hardly understand each other. "Further divided", because philosophy was already divided into schools and traditions that seem to speak mutually unintelligible languages. In addition to (...)
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  45. added 2014-09-25
    Robust and Discordant Evidence: Methodological Lessons From Clinical Research.Spencer Phillips Hey - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (1):55-75.
    The concordance of results that are “robust” across multiple scientific modalities is widely considered to play a critical role in the epistemology of science. But what should we make of those cases where such multimodal evidence is discordant? Jacob Stegenga has recently argued that robustness is “worse than useless” in these cases, suggesting that “different kinds of evidence cannot be combined in a coherent way.” In this article I respond to this critique and illustrate the critical methodological role that robustness (...)
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  46. added 2014-09-19
    Cartwright’s Approach to Invariance Under Intervention.Paweł Kawalec - 2013 - Zagadnienia Naukoznawstwa 49 (198):321-333.
    N. Cartwright’s results on invariance under intervention and causality (2003) are reconsidered. Procedural approach to causality elicited in this paper and contrasted with Cartwright’s apparently philosophical one unravels certain ramifications of her results. The procedural approach seems to license only a constrained notion of intervention and in consequence the “correctness to invariance” part of Cartwright’s first theorem fails for a class of cases. The converse “invariance to correctness” part of the theorem relies heavily on modeling assumptions which prove to be (...)
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  47. added 2014-07-12
    Moderately Pluralistic Methodology.Pawel Kawalec - 2012 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 60 (4):233-247.
    The paper outlines and discusses the major tenets of moderately pluralistic methodology. The latter is juxtaposed to J. Życiński’s principle of natural interdisciplinarity. It instantiates scientific pluralism as a domain-specific agenda for research. The symbolic and causal understanding are integrated in this methodological conception by means of a specific kind of counterfactual reasoning, which is coined the delimiting counterfactual. It makes the moderately pluralistic methodology applicable to non-experimental research. -/- Streszczenie Tytuł: “Umiarkowanie pluralistyczna metodologia” -/- Artykuł prezentuje i omawia zasadnicze (...)
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  48. added 2014-04-06
    Determinism and Total Explanation in the Biological and Behavioral Sciences.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2014 - Encyclopedia of Life Sciences.
    Should we think of our universe as law-governed and “clockwork”-like or as disorderly and “soup”-like? Alternatively, should we consciously and intentionally synthesize these two extreme pictures? More concretely, how deterministic are the postulated causes and how rigid are the modeled properties of the best statistical methodologies used in the biological and behavioral sciences? The charge of this entry is to explore thinking about causation in the temporal evolution of biological and behavioral systems. Regression analysis and path analysis are simply explicated (...)
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  49. added 2014-04-02
    Disagreement in Scientific Ontologies.David Ludwig - 2013 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie (1):1-13.
    The aim of this article is to discuss the nature of disagreement in scientific ontologies in the light of case studies from biology and cognitive science. I argue that disagreements in scientific ontologies are usually not about purely factual issues but involve both verbal and normative aspects. Furthermore, I try to show that this partly non-factual character of disagreement in scientific ontologies does not lead to a radical deflationism but is compatible with a “normative ontological realism.” Finally, I argue that (...)
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  50. added 2014-03-28
    Has Science Established That the Universe is Comprehensible?Nicholas Maxwell - 1999 - Cogito 13 (2):139-145.
    Many scientists, if pushed, may be inclined to hazard the guess that the universe is comprehensible, even physically comprehensible. Almost all, however, would vehemently deny that science has already established that the universe is comprehensible. It is, nevertheless, just this that I claim to be the case. Once one gets the nature of science properly into perspective, it becomes clear that the comprehensibility of the universe is as secure an item of current scientific knowledge as anything theoretical in science can (...)
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