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Summary Modeling is an increasingly important method in many fields of science. Scientific models are taken to be only partially similar to the phenomena they are used to study. Several philosophical questions result. For one, philosophers investigate how it is that models represent phenomena despite their differences, and what is responsible for models' epistemic success. This dovetails with questions about the nature of the representation relation. Philosophers also investigate abstraction and idealization in modeling, and some accord a further role to fictions. Finally, models are also significant in a different sense for the semantic view of theories. 
Key works Hesse 1963; Van Fraassen Bas 1980; Wimsatt (1987); Giere 1988; Morrison & Morgan 1999; Bailer-Jones 2009; Weisberg 2013.
Introductions Frigg and Hartmann (2006)
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603 found
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Material to categorize
  1. Theories and Models in Scientific Processes. HerfelWilliam (ed.) - 1995 - Rodopi.
  2. Models of Moral Activity.Alexander Razin - 2006 - Philosophy Now 54:16-17.
  3. Scientific Representation: A Bibliography.Mauricio Suárez - unknown
    Scientific representation is a booming field nowadays within the philosophy of science, with many papers published regularly on the topic every year, and several yearly conferences and workshops held on related topics. Historically, the topic originates in two different strands in 20th-century philosophy of science. One strand begins in the 1950s, with philosophical interest in the nature of scientific theories. As the received or “syntactic” view gave way to a “semantic” or “structural” conception, representation progressively gained the center stage. Yet, (...)
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  4. The Positivist Model of Scientific Theories.Frederick Suppe - 1999 - In Robert Klee (ed.), Scientific Inquiry: Readings in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford University Press. pp. 16.
  5. Representation and Invariance of Scientific Structures.Patrick Suppes - 2002
  6. Models of Scientific Explanation.Paul Thagard & Abninder Litt - 2008 - In Ron Sun (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 549--564.
  7. Structuralism About Scientific Representation.Martin Thomson-Jones - 2011 - In Alisa Bokulich & Peter Bokulich (eds.), Scientific Structuralism. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 119--141.
  8. Missing Systems and the Face Value Practice.Martin Thomson-Jones - 2010 - Synthese 172 (2):283 - 299.
    Call a bit of scientific discourse a description of a missing system when (i) it has the surface appearance of an accurate description of an actual, concrete system (or kind of system) from the domain of inquiry, but (ii) there are no actual, concrete systems in the world around us fitting the description it contains, and (iii) that fact is recognised from the outset by competent practitioners of the scientific discipline in question. Scientific textbooks, classroom lectures, and journal articles abound (...)
  9. Continuous Grey Scales Versus Sharp Contrasts: Styles of Representation in Italian Clinical Cytogenetics Laboratories. [REVIEW]Mauro Turrini - 2012 - Human Studies 35 (1):1-25.
    In some circumstances, scientists of the same discipline visualize and view differently the same scientific object. The question of representational difference , which has usually been connected to scientific revolutions or controversies, is framed here using the concept of “style,” addressing the plurality of scientific traditions within a well-established scientific field. Using ethnomethodology we will examine the divergences of representational practices that, beyond the apparent consensus of a scientific community, are present throughout the procedure of chromosomes preparation. The ethnographic data (...)
  10. Modeling, Simulation, and Embryology.F. H. D. van Batenburg - 1982 - Acta Biotheoretica 31 (4):245-248.
    A delightful book to get the whole picture of simulation applications in developmental biology and easily readable for those who would like to overlook the field in one quick sweep. If you would like to get a more detailed perspective, a great number of literature references provides this opportunity.
  11. Composing Models.Jan van Eijck & Yanjing Wang - 2011 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 21 (3-4):397-425.
    • We study a new composition operation on (epistemic) multiagent models and update actions that takes vocabulary extensions into account.
  12. Science as Representation: Flouting the Criteria.Bas C. van Fraassen - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):794-804.
    Criteria of adequacy for scientific representation of the phenomena pertain to accuracy and truth. But that representation is selective and may require distortion even in the selected parameters; this point is intimately connected with the fact that representation is intentional, and its adequacy relative to its particular purpose. Since observation and measurement are perspectival and the appearances to be saved are perspectival measurement outcomes, the question whether this “saving” is an explanatory relation provides a new focus for the realist/antirealist debate. (...)
  13. Simulation informatique et pluriformalisation des objets composites.Franck Varenne - 2009 - Philosophia Scientae 13:135-154.
    A recent evolution of computer simulations has led to the emergence of complex computer simulations. In particular, the need to formalize composite objects (those objects that are composed of other objects) has led to what the author suggests calling pluriformalizations, i.e. formalizations that are based on distinct sub-models which are expressed in a variety of heterogeneous symbolic languages. With the help of four case-studies, he shows that such pluriformalizations enable to formalize distinctly but simultaneously either different aspects or different parts (...)
  14. Les explications partielles potentielles : entre capacités et possibilités.Philippe Verreault-Julien - 2010 - Ithaque 7:69-87.
    N. Emrah Aydinonat offre une caractérisation des explications par la main invisible. Celles-ci seraient des explications partielles potentielles et seraient en mesure de nous indiquer des capacités à l’œuvre dans le monde et élargiraient notre horizon intellectuel en conceptualisant des possibilités jusqu’alors inédites. Je montre que Nancy Cartwright offre un argument permettant de douter de cette première possibilité. La science économique n’ayant que peu de principes sûrs à sa disposition et reposant ainsi sur des hypothèses auxiliaires, il est impossible d’effectuer (...)
  15. Modes, Media, and Formats of Scientific Representation.M. Vorms & T. Knuuttila - forthcoming - Erkenntnis: An International Journal of Analytic Philosophy.
  16. Formats of Representation in Scientific Theorizing.Marion Vorms - 2011 - In Paul Humphreys & Cyrille Imbert (eds.), Models, Simulations, and Representations. Routledge.
    This paper is intended to sketch the definition of a methodological tool -- the notion of a format of representation -- for the study of scientific theorising. One of its main assumption is that a philosophical study of theorising needs to pay attention to other types of units of analysis than the traditional ones, namely, theories and models approached in a logical and structural way, since scientific reasoning is always led on concrete representational devices and depends upon their specific properties. (...)
  17. Models: Representation and Scientific Understanding.M. W. Wartofsky - 1983 - Crítica: Revista Hispanoamericana de Filosofía 15 (43):151-152.
  18. Explanatory Idealizations.Andrew Wayne - unknown
    A signal development in contemporary physics is the widespread use, in explanatory contexts, of highly idealized models. This paper argues that some highly idealized models in physics have genuine explanatory power, and it extends the explanatory role for such idealizations beyond the scope of previous philosophical work. It focuses on idealizations of nonlinear oscillator systems.
  19. Theoretical Technologies in an “Experimental” Setting: Empirical Modeling of Proteinic Objects and Simulation of Their Dynamics Within Scientific Collaborations Around a Supercomputer.Frederic Wieber - unknown
    This paper examines, as a case study, some modeling and simulating practices in protein chemistry. In this field, theorists try to grasp proteinic objects by constructing models of their structures and by simulating their dynamical properties. The kind of models they construct and the necessity of performing simulations are linked with the molecular complexity of proteins. Two main types of problems emerge from this complexity. First, experimental problems arise when scientists want to perform on (and to adapt to) proteins some (...)
  20. I Models.John Woods - unknown
    The use of models in the construction of scientific theories is as widespread as it is philosophically interesting (and, one might say, vexing).1 In neither philosophical nor scientific practice do we find a univocal concept of model.2 But there is one established usage to which we want to direct our particular attention in this paper, in which a model is constituted by the theorist’s idealizations and abstractions. Idealizations are expressed by statements known to be false. Abstractions are achieved by suppressing (...)
  21. Reflexive, Symmetric and Transitive Scientific Representations.Aboutorab Yaghmaie - unknown
    Theories of scientific representation, following Chakrawartty's categorization, are divided into two groups. Whereas cognitive-functional views emphasize agents' intentions, informational theories stress the objective relation between represented and representing. In the first part, a modified structuralist theory is introduced that takes into account agents' intentions. The second part is devoted to dismissing a criticism against the structural account of representation on which similarity as the backbone of representation raises serious problems, since it has definite logical features, i.e. reflexivity, symmetry and transitivity, (...)
  22. The Dictates of Method and Policy: Interpretational Structures in the Representation of Scientific Work. [REVIEW]Steven Yearley - 1988 - Human Studies 11 (2-3):341 - 359.
The Nature of Models
  1. Models and the Dynamics of Theories.Paulo Abrantes - 2007 - Philósophos - Revista de Filosofia 9 (2).
    : This paper gives a historical overview of the ways various trends in the philosophy of science dealt with models and their relationship with the topics of heuristics and theoretical dynamics. First of all, N. Campbell’s account of analogies as components of scientific theories is presented. Next, the notion of ‘model’ in the reconstruction of the structure of scientific theories proposed by logical empiricists is examined. This overview finishes with M. Hesse’s attempts to develop Campbell’s early ideas in terms of (...)
  2. Models and Analogies: A Reply to Girill.Peter Achinstein - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (2):235-240.
  3. Theoretical Models.Peter Achinstein - 1965 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 16 (62):102-120.
  4. Models, Analogies, and Theories.Peter Achinstein - 1964 - Philosophy of Science 31 (4):328-350.
    Recent accounts of scientific method suggest that a model, or analogy, for an axiomatized theory is another theory, or postulate set, with an identical calculus. The present paper examines five central theses underlying this position. In the light of examples from physical science it seems necessary to distinguish between models and analogies and to recognize the need for important revisions in the position under study, especially in claims involving an emphasis on logical structure and similarity in form between theory and (...)
  5. Models of God.Explanatory Adequacy - 2013 - In Jeanine Diller & Asa Kasher (eds.), Models of God and Alternative Ultimate Realities. Springer. pp. 43.
  6. Representation of Models of Full Theories.Andrew Adler - 1972 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 18 (12):183-188.
  7. Representation of Models of Full Theories.Andrew Adler - 1972 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 18 (12):183-188.
  8. Interpreting Reality: Models and Reference.Evandro Agazzi - 1998 - Logique Et Analyse 41:343-363.
  9. Modeling of the Backscatter Behaviour of Typical Antipersonnel Mines by Computer Simulations and Expertimental Tests.Isam Alawneh - unknown
    The results from calculations of the backscattered electric fields from Antipersonnel landmines as a function of frequency may be called the fingerprints characteristics of the specific antipersonnel land mine. To model these mines, two numerical methods have been used, these methods are the FDTD and the MoM. The calculation of the signatures show significant characteristic signatures of the different types of mines as a function of frequency, the dielectric properties of the explosive, the geometrical shape, small changes in mine construction (...)
  10. Making Models Count.Anna Alexandrova - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (3):383-404.
    What sort of claims do scientific models make and how do these claims then underwrite empirical successes such as explanations and reliable policy interventions? In this paper I propose answers to these questions for the class of models used throughout the social and biological sciences, namely idealized deductive ones with a causal interpretation. I argue that the two main existing accounts misrepresent how these models are actually used, and propose a new account. *Received July 2006; revised August 2008. †To contact (...)
  11. Scientific Models and Human Morals.Gordon W. Allport - 1947 - Psychological Review 54 (4):182-192.
  12. The Validity of Unique Mathematical Models in Science.Eugen Altschul & Erwin Biser - 1948 - Philosophy of Science 15 (1):11-24.
  13. From Similarity to Homomorphism: Toward a Pragmatic Account of Representation in Art and Science, 1880-1914.Chiara Ambrosio - unknown
    The years 1880-1914 were a time of intense experimentation in the visual arts. Representative conventions became variable, and artists deliberately departed from a concept of depiction considered as physical resemblance or photographic similarity. Visual representations progressed toward a conceptualization of figures and objects that transcended perceptual data, and the rendering of pictorial objects turned into an experiment involving complex visualization processes. This paper explores the interplay between artistic and scientific representative practices between 1880 and 1914. I argue that science and (...)
  14. Theories and Their Models.D. A. Anapolitanos - 1989 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 20 (2):201-211.
    Diese Abhandlung diskutiert und kritisiert einige Aspekte der syntaktischen Auffassung der wissenschaftlichen Theorien und tritt dafür ein, daß die einzig mögliche Alternative eine modell-theoretische Annäherung ist.
  15. Fashioning Descriptive Models in Biology: Of Worms and Wiring Diagrams.Rachel A. Ankeny - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):272.
    The biological sciences have become increasingly reliant on so-called 'model organisms'. I argue that in this domain, the concept of a descriptive model is essential for understanding scientific practice. Using a case study, I show how such a model was formulated in a preexplanatory context for subsequent use as a prototype from which explanations ultimately may be generated both within the immediate domain of the original model and in additional, related domains. To develop this concept of a descriptive model, I (...)
  16. What's so Special About Model Organisms?Rachel A. Ankeny & Sabina Leonelli - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (2):313-323.
    This paper aims to identify the key characteristics of model organisms that make them a specific type of model within the contemporary life sciences: in particular, we argue that the term “model organism” does not apply to all organisms used for the purposes of experimental research. We explore the differences between experimental and model organisms in terms of their material and epistemic features, and argue that it is essential to distinguish between their representational scope and representational target. We also examine (...)
  17. Models and Analogies in Science.G. W. R. Ardley - 1965 - Philosophical Studies 14:231-232.
  18. Models and Modeling, 1950-2000-Models and Modeling, 1950-2000: New Practices, New Implications.Michel Armatte & Amy Dahan Dalmedico - 2004 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 57 (2):243-304.
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  19. How Models Fail.Eckhart Arnold - 1st ed. 2015 - In Catrin Misselhorn (ed.), Collective Agency and Cooperation in Natural and Artificial Systems. Springer Verlag.
    Simulation models of the Reiterated Prisoner's Dilemma (in the following: RPD-models) are since 30 years considered as one of the standard tools to study the evolution of cooperation (Rangoni 2013; Hoffmann 2000). A considerable number of such simulation models has been produced by scientists. Unfortunately, though, none of these models has empirically been verified and there exists no example of empirical research where any of the RPD-models has successfully been employed to a particular instance of cooperation. Surprisingly, this has not (...)
  20. Models in Science.P. Auger & C. Bougarel - 1965 - Diogenes 13 (52):1-13.
  21. The Epigenetic Landscape in the Course of Time: Conrad Hal Waddington’s Methodological Impact on the Life Sciences.Jan Baedke - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):756-773.
    It seems that the reception of Conrad Hal Waddington’s work never really gathered speed in mainstream biology. This paper, offering a transdisciplinary survey of approaches using his epigenetic landscape images, argues that (i) Waddington’s legacy is much broader than is usually recognized—it is widespread across the life sciences (e.g. stem cell biology, developmental psychology and cultural anthropology). In addition, I will show that (ii) there exist as yet unrecognized heuristic roles, especially in model building and theory formation, which Waddington’s images (...)
  22. Models and the Mosaic of Scientific Knowledge. The Case of Immunology.Tudor M. Baetu - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):49-56.
    A survey of models in immunology is conducted and distinct kinds of models are characterized based on whether models are material or conceptual, the distinctiveness of their epistemic purpose, and the criteria for evaluating the goodness of a model relative to its intended purpose. I argue that the diversity of models in interdisciplinary fields such as immunology reflects the fact that information about the phenomena of interest is gathered from different sources using multiple methods of investigation. To each model is (...)
  23. Scientific Models in Philosophy of Science.Daniela M. Bailer-Jones - 2013 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Scientists have used models for hundreds of years as a means of describing phenomena and as a basis for further analogy. In _Scientific Models in Philosophy of Science, _Daniela Bailer-Jones assembles an original and comprehensive philosophical analysis of how models have been used and interpreted in both historical and contemporary contexts. Bailer-Jones delineates the many forms models can take, and how they are put to use. She examines early mechanical models employed by nineteenth-century physicists such as Kelvin and Maxwell, describes (...)
  24. Scientific Models in Philosophy of Science.Daniela M. Bailer-Jones - 2009 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Scientists have used models for hundreds of years as a means of describing phenomena and as a basis for further analogy. In _Scientific Models in Philosophy of Science, _Daniela Bailer-Jones assembles an original and comprehensive philosophical analysis of how models have been used and interpreted in both historical and contemporary contexts. Bailer-Jones delineates the many forms models can take, and how they are put to use. She examines early mechanical models employed by nineteenth-century physicists such as Kelvin and Maxwell, describes (...)
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  25. Scientists' Thoughts on Scientific Models.Daniela M. Bailer-Jones - 2002 - Perspectives on Science 10 (3):275-301.
    : This paper contains the analysis of nine interviews with UK scientists on the topic of scientific models. Scientific models are an important, very controversially discussed topic in philosophy of science. A reasonable expectation is that philosophical conceptions of models ought to be in agreement with scientific practice. Questioning practicing scientists on their use of and views on models provides material against which philosophical positions can be measured.
  26. Cellular Automata, Modeling, and Computation.Anouk Barberousse, Sara Franceschelli & Cyrille Imbert - unknown
    Cellular Automata (CA) based simulations are widely used in a great variety of domains, fromstatistical physics to social science. They allow for spectacular displays and numerical predictions. Are they forall that a revolutionary modeling tool, allowing for “direct simulation”, or for the simulation of “the phenomenon itself”? Or are they merely models "of a phenomenological nature rather than of a fundamental one”? How do they compareto other modeling techniques? In order to answer these questions, we present a systematic exploration of (...)
  27. Models as Fictions.Anouk Barberousse & Pascal Ludwig - unknown
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  28. Models of Man. [REVIEW]Barry Barnes - 1979 - British Journal for the History of Science 12 (1):104-104.
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