Scientific Practice

Edited by Luana Poliseli (Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research)
About this topic
Summary In Philosophy of Science, 'scientific practice' refers to activities whose aim is the achievement of scientific goals. More specifically, the category of scientific practice covers everything scientists do when they engage in the production of scientific knowledge. These activities include discovering, experimenting, measuring, modeling, observing, predicting, simulating, and so on, as well as using instruments in the pursuit of scientific goals. In recent years, there has been a shift in Philosophy of Science from an emphasis on scientific theories to an emphasis on actual scientific practices (see, for example, the mission statement of the Society for Philosophy of Science in Practice at http://www.philosophy-science-practice.org/en/).
Key works Some key works include Kuhn 1962, Hacking 1983, Longino 1990, Solomon 1994, Wylie 2002, Baird 2002, Chang 2004, and Douglas 2009.
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  1. Return of the organism? The concept in plant biology, now and then.Özlem Yilmaz - 2024 - Theoretical and Experimental Plant Physiology (Special Issue: Advances in Philo).
  2. Wissenschaftliche Lehrbücher – Warum Revolutionen unsichtbar sind.Nicola Mößner - forthcoming - In Markus Seidel (ed.), Klassiker auslegen: Thomas S. Kuhn: Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen. de Gruyter.
  3. Klassiker auslegen: Thomas S. Kuhn: Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen.Markus Seidel (ed.) - forthcoming - de Gruyter.
  4. Reciprocal Ethics: The Formal Science of Ethics.Stein Michael Hansen - manuscript
    Reciprocal Ethics is a novel ethical framework rooted in praxeology, the study of purposeful action. It represents an entirely new paradigm in moral philosophy, placing interaction at the core of universal ethics. Traditional ethical theories often divorce thought from action. Reciprocal Ethics contends that they are two aspects of the same phenomenon in the human experience, removing the traditional boundary between theoretical and practical ethics. The system categorizes all social interaction as either “self-directed” or “other-directed”, and by introducing the concept (...)
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  5. Leadership in Science and Technology: A Reference Handbook.William Sims Bainbridge (ed.) - 2012 - SAGE.
    "This 2-volume set within the SAGE Reference Series on Leadership tackles issues relevant to leadership in the realm of science and technology. To encompass the key topics in this arena, this handbook features 100 topics arranged under eight headings. Volume 1 concentrates on general principles of science and technology leadership and includes sections on social-scientific perspectives on S&T leadership; key scientific concepts about leading and innovating in S&T; characteristics of S&T leaders and their environments; and strategies, tactics, and tools of (...)
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  6. The Principle of Dynamic Holism: Guiding Methodology for Investigating Cognition in Nonneuronal Organisms.Matthew Sims - 2023 - Philosophy of Science 91 (2):430 - 448.
    Basal cognition investigates cognition working upward from nonneuronal organisms. Because basal cognition is committed to empirically testable hypotheses, a methodological challenge arises: how can experiments avoid using zoocentric assumptions that ignore the ecological contexts that might elicit cognitively driven behavior in nonneuronal organisms? To meet this challenge, I articulate the principle of dynamic holism (PDH), a methodological principle for guiding research on nonneuronal cognition. I describe PDH’s relation to holistic research programs in human-focused cognitive science and psychology then present an (...)
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  7. Elektronisches Publizieren und Bewertung wissenschaftlicher Expertise.Nicola Mößner & Klaus Erlach - 2024 - Zenodo.
    Das Positionspapier adressiert Probleme und Schwierigkeiten, die sich aus dem elektronischen Publizieren und den derzeitigen bibliometrischen Bewertungsverfahren wissenschaftlicher Expertise ergeben. Hierzu zählen u.a. der ‚Markt‘ der Informationen (Stichwort: Verlagsoligopole), das Wissenschaftler:innen-Tracking und die Metrisierung der Wissenschaft. -/- Es richtet sich insbesondere an Vertreter:innen die akademischen Philosophie als Fachdisziplin. Das Papier enthält Empfehlungen dazu, wie die identifizierten Problempunkte innerhalb der Disziplin lösungsorientiert angegangen werden können. Folgende Punkte werden zur Diskussion gestellt: -/- - Diamond-Open-Access im Bereich des elektronischen Publizierens: Infrastruktur in die (...)
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  8. مجلة كراسات تربوية.العدد(12).يناير.2024.مجموعة من المؤلفين - 2024 - maroc المغرب. Rabat الرباط: ROA PRINT مطبعة رؤى برينت. Edited by الصديق الصادقي العماري.
    إن وسم الأدب بالظاهرة الاجتماعية العامة ارتگز بالأساس على العلاقة الوثيقة التي تربط الأدب بالمجتمع في ظل الح قائق الاجتماعية التي تواجه المؤلِّف باعتباره كائناً اجتماعيا. وقد شكلت سوسيولوجيا والأدب والتواصل هماً معرفيا لدى النقاد والمؤلفين، وجعلت من حقلها مكاناً خصباً للبحث والتحليل خصوصا في عصرنا الحالي، فتعددت مقاربات الأدب، وتنوعت مناهج التواصل، فيما رسمت براديغمات رئي سة خطابات السوسيولوجيا، وحدت مواقعها وعلاقاتها بالمجتمع. وخضعت لمقاربات منهجية كثيرة غلب عليها الوصف والتصنيف على الرغم من تطورها واعتمادها على منظور تحلیل ی (...)
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  9. La Falacia de Apelación a los Natural.Gustavo E. Romero - 2023 - Infoalimentos 12716 ( 18 Octubre 2023):1-7.
    En este artículo se presenta una caracterización del concepto de falacia, con énfasis en la llamada ‘falacia de apelación a lo natural’. Se explica el alcance de esta falacia, y su peligrosidad, en particular en el ámbito de las ciencias de la salud y de alimentos.
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  10. A Framework for Inductive Reasoning in Model-Based Science.M. M. Barroso Rojo - 2023 - Revista de Humanidades de Valparaíso (23):259-285.
    This paper argues that the linguistic approach to analyzing induction, according to which induction is a type of inference or argument composed of statements or propositions, is unsuitable to account for scientific reasoning. Consequently, a novel approach to induction in model-based science is suggested. First, in order to show their adherence to the linguistic treatment of induction, two strategies are reviewed: (i) Carnap and Reichenbach’s attempts to justify induction and (ii) Norton’s recent material theory of induction. Second, three reasons are (...)
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  11. Cognitive Metascience: A New Approach to the Study of Theories.Miłkowski Marcin - 2023 - Przeglad Psychologiczny 66 (1):185-207.
    In light of the recent credibility crisis in psychology, this paper argues for a greater emphasis on theorizing in scientific research. Although reliable experimental evidence, preregistration, methodological rigor, and new computational frameworks for modeling are important, scientific progress also relies on properly functioning theories. However, the current understanding of the role of theorizing in psychology is lacking, which may lead to future crises. Theories should not be viewed as mere speculations or simple inductive generalizations. To address this issue, the author (...)
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  12. Interdisciplinarity in the Making: Models and Methods in Frontier Science.Nancy J. Nersessian - 2022 - Cambridge, MA: MIT.
    A cognitive ethnography of how bioengineering scientists create innovative modeling methods. In this first full-scale, long-term cognitive ethnography by a philosopher of science, Nancy J. Nersessian offers an account of how scientists at the interdisciplinary frontiers of bioengineering create novel problem-solving methods. Bioengineering scientists model complex dynamical biological systems using concepts, methods, materials, and other resources drawn primarily from engineering. They aim to understand these systems sufficiently to control or intervene in them. What Nersessian examines here is how cutting-edge bioengineering (...)
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  13. The Psychologist’s Green Thumb.Sophia Crüwell - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    The ‘psychologist’s green thumb’ refers to the argument that an experimenter needs an indeterminate set of skills to successfully replicate an effect. This argument is sometimes invoked by psychological researchers to explain away failures of independent replication attempts of their work. In this paper, I assess the psychologist’s green thumb as a candidate explanation for individual replication failure and argue that it is potentially costly for psychology as a field. I also present other, more likely reasons for these replication failures. (...)
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  14. Data, Representation, and Evidential Values in Biology.Jinyeong Gim - 2023 - Korean Journal for the Philosophy of Science 26 (2):31-58.
    Leonelli (2016) suggested a relational view of data against a representational view by emphasizing data-centric biology rather than the theory-centric tradition in the philosophy of science. This is because the first view allows for data journeys across laboratories using public database resources, whereas the second does not. This paper examines Leonelli’s strategies to defend the relational view of data. Contrary to Leonelli’s intention, it indicates that her strategies led to unnecessary misunderstandings of the relationships among data, representation, and evidential values. (...)
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  15. Hasty Generalizations Are Pervasive in Experimental Philosophy: A Systematic Analysis.Uwe Peters & Olivier Lemeire - 2023 - Philosophy of Science.
    Scientists may sometimes generalize from their samples to broader populations when they have not yet sufficiently supported this generalization. Do such hasty generalizations also occur in experimental philosophy? To check, we analyzed 171 experimental philosophy studies published between 2017 and 2023. We found that most studies tested only Western populations but generalized beyond them without justification. There was also no evidence that studies with broader conclusions had larger, more diverse samples, but they nonetheless had higher citation impact. Our analyses reveal (...)
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  16. On the Ambivalence of Control in Experimental Investigation of Historically Contingent Processes.Eric Desjardins, Derek Oswick & Craig W. Fox - 2023 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 17 (1):130-153.
    Historical contingency is commonly associated with unpredictability and outcome variability. As such, it can be seen as an undesirable aspect of experimental investigations. Many might agree that experimental methodologies that include enough control help to by-pass this problem and thereby make for more secure knowledge. Against this received view, we argue that, for at least some historically contingent processes, an over-emphasis on control might mislead by obscuring the very object of investigation or by preventing fruitful discoveries. In discussing cases from (...)
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  17. Scientific progress, normative discussions, and the pragmatic account of definitions of life.Ludo L. J. Schoenmakers - 2023 - Synthese 201 (4):1-20.
    Discussions on the status of definitions of life have long been dominated by a position known as definitional pessimism. Per the definitional pessimist, there is no point in trying to define life. This claim is defended in different ways, but one of the shared assumptions of all definitional pessimists is that our attempts to define life are attempts to provide a list of all necessary and sufficient conditions for something to count as alive. In other words, a definition of life (...)
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  18. Digitale Praxis – Fallstrick für Normen im Wissenschaftsalltag?Nicola Mößner - 2023 - Prae|Faktisch. Ein Philosophieblog.
    ‚Wie sehr vertrauen Sie Wissenschaft und Forschung?‘ – eine Frage, die nicht erst seit der Corona-Pandemie viel diskutiert wird. Manch einer würde kritisch korrigieren: ‚Vertrauen Sie überhaupt in Wissenschaft und Forschung?‘ Schlagwörter wie Vertrauens- und Glaubwürdigkeitskrise kommen damit in den Sinn. Oft angeführt wird hier der normative Rahmen wissenschaftlicher Praxis, auf welchen sich das Vertrauen dennoch stützen könne. Was passiert aber, wenn die zugrunde liegende Praxis massiv durch die zunehmende Digitalisierung ihrer Prozesse verändert wird?
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  19. Help with Data Management for the Novice and Experienced Alike.Steve Elliott, Kate MacCord & Jane Maienschein - 2022 - In Grant Ramsey & Andreas de Block (eds.), The dynamics of science: computational frontiers in history and philosophy of science. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 132–43.
    With the powerful analyses and resources they enable, digital humanities tools have captivated researchers from many different fields who want to use them to study science. Digital tools, as well as funding agencies, research communities, and academic administrators, require researchers to think carefully about how they conceptualize, manage, and store data, and about what they plan to do with that data once a given project is over. The difficulties of developing strategies to address these problems can prevent new researchers from (...)
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  20. Joint representation: Modeling a phenomenon with multiple biological systems.Yoshinari Yoshida - 2023 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 99:67-76.
    Biologists often study particular biological systems as models of a phenomenon of interest even if they already know that the phenomenon is produced by diverse mechanisms and hence none of those systems alone can sufficiently represent it. To understand this modeling practice, the present paper provides an account of how multiple model systems can be used to study a phenomenon that is produced by diverse mechanisms. Even if generalizability of results from a single model system is significantly limited, generalizations concerning (...)
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  21. Naturvetenskap vs. Humanvetenskap: Myt, Metodologi och Ontologi.R. D. Ingthorsson - manuscript
    Jag tror att det är ett misstag att kräva av humanvetenskaperna (d.v.s. humaniora, samhälls- och beteendevetenskaperna) att de imiterar naturvetenskapernas forskningsmetodik. Humanvetenskaperna studerar meningsfulla fenomen vilkas natur är på ett grundläggande sätt annorlunda än de blott fysiska fenomen som naturvetenskapen studerar. Den största skillnaden är att meningsfulla fenomen inte uppenbarligen är lagbundna på samma sätt som fysiska fenomen och uppvisar därför inte samma regelbundenhet och förutsägbarhet som fysiska fenomen. För att studera meningsfulla fenomen krävs därför andra forskningsmetoder. Trots att humanvetenskaperna (...)
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  22. Meat we don't greet: How sausages can save pigs or how effacing livestock makes room for emancipation.Sophia Efstathiou - 2021 - In Arve Hansen & Karen Lykke Syse (eds.), Changing Meat Cultures: Food Practices, Global Capitalism, and the Consumption of Animals. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 102-112.
    I propose that the intensification of meat production ironically makes meat concepts available to be populated by plants. I argue that what I call “technologies of effacement” facilitate the intensification of animal farming and slaughter by blocking face-to-face encounters between animals and people (Levinas 1969; Efstathiou 2018, 2019). My previous ethnographic work on animal research identifies technologies of effacement as including (a) architectures and the built environment, (b) entry and exit rules, (c) special garments, (d) naming and labeling procedures, and (...)
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  23. On the pursuitworthiness of qualitative methods in empirical philosophy of science.Nora Hangel & Christopher ChoGlueck - 2023 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 98 (C):29-39.
    While the pursuitworthiness of philosophical ideas has changed over time, philosophical practice and methodology have not kept pace. The worthiness of a philosophical pursuit includes not only the ideas and objectives one pursues but also the methods with which one pursues them. In this paper, we articulate how empirical approaches benefit philosophy of science, particularly advocating for the use of qualitative methods for understanding the social and normative aspects of scientific inquiry. After situating qualitative methods within empirical philosophy of science, (...)
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  24. Introduction to 'Scientific Testimony: Its roles in science and society'.Mikkel Gerken - 2022 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    This is the Introduction and Chapter 1.1 of the book ‘Scientific Testimony. Its roles in science and society’ (OUP 2022). The introduction contains a brief survey of the book’s chapters and main conclusions, which I hope will be useful to the curious ones.
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  25. From Biological Practice to Scientific Metaphysics. Minnesota Studies in Philosophy of Science, Vol. 23.William Bausman, Janella Baxter & Oliver Lean (eds.) - 2024 - Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Numerous scholarly works focus solely on scientific metaphysics or biological practice, but few attempt to bridge the two subjects. This volume, the latest in the Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science series, explores what a scientific metaphysics grounded in biological practices could look like and how it might impact the way we investigate the world around us. From Biological Practice to Scientific Metaphysics examines how to reconcile the methods of biological practice with the methods of metaphysical cosmology, notably regarding (...)
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  26. Databases, Science Communication, and the Division of Epistemic Labour.Nicola Mößner - 2022 - Axiomathes 32 (Suppl. 3):853–870.
    There are many ways in which biases can enter processes of scientific reasoning. One of these is what Ludwik Fleck has called a “harmony of illusions”. In this paper, Fleck’s ideas on the relevance of social mechanisms in epistemic processes and his detailed description of publication processes in science will be used as a starting point to investigate the connection between cognitive processes, social dynamics, and biases in this context. Despite its usefulness as a first step towards a more detailed (...)
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  27. Scientific reasoning : explanation, confirmation bias, and scientific practice.Barabara Koslowski - 2013 - In Gregory J. Feist & Michael E. Gorman (eds.), Handbook of the psychology of science. New York: Springer Pub. Company, LLC.
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  28. A Way Through the Global Techno-Scientific Culture.Sheldon Richmond - 2020 - Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Sholars Publishing.
    Computers are supposed to be smart, yet they frustrate both ordinary users and computer technologists. Why are people frustrated by smart machines? Computers don’t fit people. People think in terms of comparisons, stories, and analogies, and seek feedback, whereas computers are based on a fundamental design that does not fit with analogical and feedback thinking. They impose a binary, an all-or-nothing, approach to everything. Moreover, the social world and institutions that have developed around computer technology hide and reinforce the lack (...)
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  29. Returning to scientific practice: a new reflection on philosophy of science.Zhu Xu - 2019 - New York, NY: Routledge. Edited by Tong Wu.
    Introduction : towards philosophy of scientific practice -- The origin of the concept of practice -- Scientific practice: significance, types and scopes -- The nature of scientific practice -- The nature of knowledge : the local knowledge -- Knowledge and power -- The contextual normativity of scientific practice -- Philosophy of scientific practice and naturalism (I) -- Philosophy of scientific practices and naturalism (II) -- Philosophy of scientific practice and relativism -- Partner of philosophy of scientific practice : philosophy of (...)
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  30. Erkenntnis und Interesse in der digitalisierten Wissenschaftskommunikation.Nicola Mößner & Klaus Erlach - 2022 - In Nicola Mößner & Klaus Erlach (eds.), Kalibrierung der Wissenschaft – Auswirkungen der Digitalisierung auf die wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis. Bielefeld, Germany: transcript. pp. 7-19.
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  31. Ciencia ciudadana: pluralidad científica y pensamiento crítico.Mario Gensollen & Marc Jiménez-Rolland - 2022 - CIENCIA Ergo-Sum 29 (2):e164.
    Se explora cómo la ciencia ciudadana promueve una mejora epistémica tanto en las instituciones científicas como en la sociedad a gran escala. En este sentido, se ofrece una caracterización de la ciencia ciudadana y a partir de ella se muestra cómo la participación de no especialistas contribuye al fortalecimiento epistémico a través de la pluralidad. Además, se examina cómo la inclusión de miembros de la sociedad en la investigación científica es capaz de promover la mejora epistémica de individuos mediante la (...)
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  32. Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft. Zum Spannungsverhältnis zweier Erfahrungsweisen.Gregor Schiemann - 2021 - Berlin: De Gruyter.
    Das Verhältnis von Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft befindet sich mit ungewissem Ausgang in stetiger Bewegung. In diesem Prozess ist das treibende Element die Wissenschaft, die Technisierungen ermöglicht und mit ihren Erkenntnissen die Welt überzieht. Trotz der fortschreitenden Verwissenschaftlichung hat sich die Lebenswelt jedoch ihre Eigenständigkeit bewahrt. Die vorliegenden Studien tragen zur Aufklärung dieses erstaunlichen Phänomens bei. Sie weisen Strukturdifferenzen der beiden Erfahrungsweisen auf und zeigen, wie sie mit- und gegeneinander existieren. Zugleich wird deutlich, dass ein Ende der lebensweltlichen Eigenständigkeit einen fundamentalen (...)
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  33. Limits of Conceivability in the Study of the Future. Lessons from Philosophy of Science.Veli Virmajoki - forthcoming - Futures.
    In this paper, the epistemological and conceptual limits of our ability to conceive and reason about future possibilities are analyzed. It is argued that more attention should be paid in futures studies on these epistemological and conceptual limits. Drawing on three cases from philosophy of science, the paper argues that there are deep epistemological and conceptual limits in our ability to conceive and reason about alternatives to the current world. The nature and existence of these limits are far from obvious (...)
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  34. Epistemic Equality: Distributive Epistemic Justice in the Context of Justification.Boaz Miller & Meital Pinto - 2022 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 32 (2):173-203.
    Social inequality may obstruct the generation of knowledge, as the rich and powerful may bring about social acceptance of skewed views that suit their interests. Epistemic equality in the context of justification is a means of preventing such obstruction. Drawing on social epistemology and theories of equality and distributive justice, we provide an account of epistemic equality. We regard participation in, and influence over a knowledge-generating discourse in an epistemic community as a limited good that needs to be justly distributed (...)
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  35. For the sake of the mind, cancel Kahneman!Venkata Rayudu Posina - manuscript
    Kahneman's 'Asian disease' has nothing to do with Asians or their diseases; it is disrespectful of the basic principles of psychology. The attendant research--fooling people--is not science. Here I show how to build a science of the mind.
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  36. Abject Object Relations and Epistemic Engagement in Clinical Practice.Helene Scott-Fordsmand - 2021 - Philosophy of Medicine 2 (2).
    This article engages with medical practice to develop a philosophically informed understanding of epistemic engagement in medicine, and epistemic object relations more broadly. I take my point of departure in the clinical encounter and draw on French psychoanalytical theory to develop and expand a taxonomy already proposed by Karin Knorr-Cetina. In so doing, I argue for the addition of an abject-type object relation; that is, the encounter with objects that transgress frameworks and disrupt further investigation, hence preventing dynamic engagement and (...)
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  37. Mitleser aufgepasst! Von der Informationsanalyse zum Wissenschaftlertracking.Nicola Mößner - 2022 - Jahrbuch Technikphilosophie - Wissenschaftler-Tracking.
  38. From Physical Possibility to Probability and Back. Reichenbach’s Account of Coordination.Flavia Padovani - 2021 - In Sebastian Lutz & Adam T. Tuboly (eds.), Logical Empiricism and the Physical Sciences. From Philosophy of Nature to Philosophy of Physics. London, UK: pp. 336-353.
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  39. Coordination and Measurement: What We Get Wrong about What Reichenbach Got Right.Flavia Padovani - 2017 - European Studies in Philosophy of Science 5:49-60.
    In his Scientific Representation (2008), van Fraassen argues that measuring is a form of representation. In fact, every measurement pinpoints its target in accordance with specific operational rules within an already-constructed theoretical space, in which certain conceptual interconnections can be represented. Reichenbach’s 1920 account of coordination is particularly interesting in this connection. Even though recent reassessments of this account do not do full justice to some important elements lying behind it, they do have the merit of focusing on a different (...)
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  40. In Defense of Uniformitarianism.Bruce L. Gordon - 2013 - Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 65 (2).
    The practice of science rests on the assumption of dependable regularity in the behavior of the physical world. It presumes that the world has an investigable causal structure and that scientific experimentation, observation, and theorizing provide a reliable pathway to its discernment. This much is not in dispute. What is in dispute is what warrants the metaphysical and methodological assumption—essential to the heuristic utility of science—that nature is uniform in such a way that the present can serve as a key (...)
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  41. Statistical Thinking between Natural and Social Sciences and the Issue of the Unity of Science: from Quetelet to the Vienna Circle.Donata Romizi - 2012 - In Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao J. Gonzalez, Stephan Hartmann, Michael Stöltzner & Marcel Weber (eds.), Probabilities, Laws, and Structures. Springer.
    The application of statistical methods and models both in the natural and social sciences is nowadays a trivial fact which nobody would deny. Bold analogies even suggest the application of the same statistical models to fields as different as statistical mechanics and economics, among them the case of the young and controversial discipline of Econophysics . Less trivial, however, is the answer to the philosophical question, which has been raised ever since the possibility of “commuting” statistical thinking and models between (...)
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  42. Goal-directed Uses of the Replicability Concept (Preprint).Eden Tariq Smith, Hannah Fraser, Steven Kambouris, Fallon Mody, Martin Bush & Fiona Fidler - forthcoming - In Corrine Bloch-Mullins & Theodore Arabatzis (eds.), Concepts, Induction, and the Growth of Scientific Knowledge.
    The replicability of a research claim is often positioned as an important step in establishing the credibility of scientific research. This expectation persists despite ongoing disagreements over how to characterise replication practices in various contexts. Rather than attempt to explain or resolve these disagreements, we propose that there is value in exploring the variable uses of the replicability concept. To this end, we treat the replicability concept as a goal-directed tool for studying scientific practices. This approach extends scholarship on the (...)
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  43. Modelling Efficient Team Structures in Biology.Vlasta Sikimić & Ole Herud-Sikimić - 2022 - Journal of Logic and Computation.
    We used agent-based modelling to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of several management styles in biology, ranging from centralized to egalitarian ones. In egalitarian groups, all team members are connected with each other, while in centralized ones, they are only connected with the principal investigator. Our model incorporated time constraints, which negatively influenced weakly connected groups such as centralized ones. Moreover, our results show that egalitarian groups outperform others if the questions addressed are relatively simple or when the communication among (...)
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  44. Incentives for Research Effort: An Evolutionary Model of Publication Markets with Double-Blind and Open Review.Mantas Radzvilas, Francesco De Pretis, William Peden, Daniele Tortoli & Barbara Osimani - 2023 - Computational Economics 61:1433-1476.
    Contemporary debates about scientific institutions and practice feature many proposed reforms. Most of these require increased efforts from scientists. But how do scientists’ incentives for effort interact? How can scientific institutions encourage scientists to invest effort in research? We explore these questions using a game-theoretic model of publication markets. We employ a base game between authors and reviewers, before assessing some of its tendencies by means of analysis and simulations. We compare how the effort expenditures of these groups interact in (...)
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  45. When ecology and philosophy meet: constructing explanation and assessing understanding in scientific practice.Luana Poliseli - 2018 - Dissertation, Federal University of Bahia
    Philosophy of Science in Practice (PoSiP) has the “practice of science” as its object of research. Notwithstanding, it does not possess yet any general or specific methodology in order to achieve its goal. Instead of sticking to one protocol, PoSiP takes advantage of a set of approaches from different fields. This thesis takes as a starting point a collaborative and interdisciplinary research between two Ph.D. students from distinct areas: ecology and philosophy. This collaboration showed how a scientist could benefit from (...)
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  46. How to Improve Research Funding in Academia? Lessons From the COVID-19 Crisis.Vlasta Sikimić - 2022 - Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics 7.
    Private funding of life sciences has been extensively criticized as lacking objectivity (e.g., Bekelman et al. 2003). However, it is also important to point out that public funding of life sciences faces many objections. In order to improve the system of publicly funded life sciences and its ability to respond to global health challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic, we should focus on several aspects. First of all, providing existential stability for researchers, in turn, could result in the decrease of (...)
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  47. Reconciling Regulation with Scientific Autonomy in Dual-Use Research.Nicholas G. Evans, Michael J. Selgelid & Robert Mark Simpson - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):72-94.
    In debates over the regulation of communication related to dual-use research, the risks that such communication creates must be weighed against against the value of scientific autonomy. The censorship of such communication seems justifiable in certain cases, given the potentially catastrophic applications of some dual-use research. This conclusion however, gives rise to another kind of danger: that regulators will use overly simplistic cost-benefit analysis to rationalize excessive regulation of scientific research. In response to this, we show how institutional design principles (...)
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  48. Realism for Realistic People: A New Pragmatist Philosophy of Science.Hasok Chang - 2022 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this innovative book, Hasok Chang constructs a philosophy of science for 'realistic people' interested in understanding and promoting the actual practices of inquiry in science and other knowledge-focused areas of life. Inspired by pragmatist philosophy, he reconceives the very notions of reality and truth on the basis of his concept of the 'operational coherence' of epistemic activities, and offers new pragmatist conceptions of truth and reality as operational ideals achievable in actual scientific practice. Rejecting the version of scientific realism (...)
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  49. Isolation, not locality.Heather Demarest & Michael Townsen Hicks - 2020 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 103 (3):607-619.
    There is a long tradition of preferring local theories to ones that posit lawful or causal influence at a spacetime distance. In this paper, we argue against this preference. We argue that nonlocality is scientifically unobjectionable and that nonlocal theories can be known. Scientists can gather evidence for them and confirm them in much the same way that they do for local theories. We think these observations point to a deeper constraint on scientific theorizing and experimentation: the (quasi‐) isolation of (...)
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  50. De onoplosbare spanning in expertise-gebaseerd beleid.Maarten Van Dyck & Massimiliano Simons - 2021 - Filosofie-Tijdschrift 31 (6):18-21.
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