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  1. added 2020-05-20
    Navigating Conflicts of Justice in the Use of Race and Ethnicity in Precision Medicine.G. Owen Schaefer, Tai E. Shyong & Shirley Hsiao-Li Sun - forthcoming - Bioethics (Early View).
    Given the sordid history of injustices linking genetics to race and ethnicity, considerations of justice are central to ensuring the responsible development of precision medicine programmes around the world. While considerations of justice may be in tension with other areas of concern, such as scientific value or privacy, there are also be tensions between different aspects of justice. This paper focuses on three particular aspects of justice relevant to this context: social justice, distributive justice and human rights. The implications of (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-10
    Fighting Risk with Risk: Solar Radiation Management, Regulatory Drift, and Minimal Justice.Jonathan Wolff - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-20.
  3. added 2020-05-07
    Public Interest in Health Data Research: Laying Out the Conceptual Groundwork.Angela Ballantyne & G. Owen Schaefer - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106152.
    The future of health research will be characterised by three continuing trends: rising demand for health data; increasing impracticability of obtaining specific consent for secondary research; and decreasing capacity to effectively anonymise data. In this context, governments, clinicians and the research community must demonstrate that they can be responsible stewards of health data. IRBs and RECs sit at heart of this process because in many jurisdictions they have the capacity to grant consent waivers when research is judged to be of (...)
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  4. added 2020-04-27
    For Clinical Research: A Formula for Improved Prognosis.K. A. Gruber - 1988 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (4):612.
  5. added 2020-04-26
    [History of the Research on Differentiating Hepatitis A and B].J. L. Meyer - 1991 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 14 (1):93-111.
    The numerous researches devoted to 'jaundice' during the Second World War have brought to light the existence of an infectious type of hepatic jaundice or 'homologous serum jaundice' following parenteral injection of vaccines containing human serum and blood transfusions, which were carried out on a large scale at the time. This type of serum jaundice was then gradually differentiated from 'catarrhal', contagious or epidemic jaundice by clinical trials along with large series of animal studies. Finally, the epidemiological, clinical and biological (...)
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  6. added 2020-04-26
    The Philosophy of Medicine: Clinical Science and its Ethics.D. A. Moros - 1987 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (1):134.
    Of central concern to the philosophy of medicine is an understanding of the relationship that arises between science and ethics when decisions involve human beings. To examine this relationship, we must consider the status of claims to medical knowledge and whether there exists within medical practice a style of collecting and analyzing data and mak- ing therapeutic decisions that is properly called science. Since ideally, in medicine, knowledge guides practice, to a significant extent our factual claims will legislate our behavior (...)
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  7. added 2020-04-26
    Medical Research Within the European Economic Communities.B. Sørensen - 1986 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29 (3 Pt 2):S70.
  8. added 2020-04-24
    Validation of the Mapping of Innovative Methods and Research Integrity Curricula.Lisa Häberlein, Paula-Manuela Cengiz, Iliyana Demirova, Agnieszka Dwojak-Matras, Mette Winge Jacobsen, Agnieszka Koterwas, Belén Lopez, Teodor Metodiev & Maria Palianopoulou - 2019 - Research Ideas and Outcomes (RIO) 5.
    This document is an up-to-date map on curricula in which research integrity (RI) or research ethics (RE) is currently included. It contains a collection of curricula in which RI/RE or associated fields are mentioned from the Path2Integrity partner countries Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Poland and Spain. Moving forward, the Path2Integrity training programme for educators will develop research integrity courses for trainers using this map as a reference. In this way, the project aims to support educators in closing possible gaps. At a (...)
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  9. added 2020-04-24
    Collaboration and Mobility in Biomedical Research: Role of the European Medical Research Councils.H. Danielsson - 1985 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29 (3 Pt 2):S47 - 56.
  10. added 2020-04-18
    Commentary: The Randomized Clinical Trial: For Whose Benefit?Arthur Schafer - forthcoming - IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
  11. added 2020-04-18
    The Illusion of Evidence-Based Medicine: Exposing the Crisis of Credibility in Clinical Research.Leemon McHenry & Jon Jureidini - forthcoming - Adelaide SA, Australia: Wakefield Press.
    We live in an age alleged devoted to evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based medicine, however, depends on reliable data and if the data are largely, if not completely, manipulated by the manufacturer of pharmaceuticals, then the data are not reliable. Evidence-based medicine is an illusion. -/- This book raises and attempts to answer the following questions: What are the ways in which the profit motive of industry undermines the integrity of science? How is science protected from corporate malfeasance in a capitalist economy? (...)
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  12. added 2020-03-16
    Extrapolating From Laboratory Behavioral Research on Non-Human Primates is Unjustified.Parker Crutchfield - forthcoming - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    Conducting research on animals is supposed to be valuable because it provides information on how human mechanisms work. But for the use of animal models to be ethically justified, it must be epistemically justified. The inference from an observation about an animal model to a conclusion about humans must be warranted for the use of animals to be moral. When researchers infer from animals to humans, it’s an extrapolation. Often non-human primates are used as animal models in laboratory behavioral research. (...)
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  13. added 2020-03-10
    Visions of a Martian Future.Konrad Szocik, Steven Abood, Chris Impey, Mark Shelhamer, Jacob Haqq-Misra, Erik Persson, Lluis Oviedo, Klara Anna Capova, Martin Braddock, Margaret Boone Rappaport & Christopher Corbally - 2020 - Futures 117.
    As we look beyond our terrestrial boundary to a multi-planetary future for humankind, it becomes paramount to anticipate the challenges of various human factors on the most likely scenario for this future: permanent human settlement of Mars. Even if technical hurdles are circumvented to provide adequate resources for basic physiological and psychological needs, Homo sapiens will not survive on an alien planet if a dysfunctional psyche prohibits the utilization of these resources. No matter how far we soar into the stars, (...)
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  14. added 2020-03-10
    An Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research.Vicki Xafis, G. Owen Schaefer, Markus K. Labude, Iain Brassington, Angela Ballantyne, Hannah Yeefen Lim, Wendy Lipworth, Tamra Lysaght, Cameron Stewart, Shirley Sun, Graeme T. Laurie & E. Shyong Tai - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (3):227-254.
    Ethical decision-making frameworks assist in identifying the issues at stake in a particular setting and thinking through, in a methodical manner, the ethical issues that require consideration as well as the values that need to be considered and promoted. Decisions made about the use, sharing, and re-use of big data are complex and laden with values. This paper sets out an Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research developed by a working group convened by the Science, Health and (...)
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  15. added 2020-03-10
    Ethics in the Era of Big Data.G. Owen Schaefer - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (2):169-171.
  16. added 2020-03-10
    Afterword.Tony Milligan, Klara Anna Capova, David Dunér & Erik Persson - 2018 - In Klara Anna Capova, Erik Persson, Tony Milligan & David Duner (eds.), Astrobiology and Society in Europe Today. Springer. pp. 55-60.
  17. added 2020-02-17
    Comparative Effectiveness Research: Decision-Based Evidence.Charles Joseph Kowalski & Adam Joel Mrdjenovich - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (2):224-248.
    Survival of the fittest in evolutionary biology has a counterpart in the evolution of research paradigms. It’s called survival of the funded, and there is a sense in which paradigms are even more adaptable than species. Whereas species may become extinct if their fitness declines below a critical threshold, paradigms can rise again, perhaps with a new name, following fiscal collapse, provided only that funding is once again made available.A current example is the born-again concept of comparative effectiveness research , (...)
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  18. added 2020-02-14
    The Relevance of Modern Clinical Trial Methodology to the Practice of Medicine.Jacob E. Bearman & Byron Wm Brown - 1967 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 10 (2):259-268.
  19. added 2020-02-13
    Understanding Research Misconduct: A Comparative Analysis of 120 Cases of Professional Wrongdoing.James Dubois, Emily E. Anderson, John Chibnall, Kelly Carroll, Tyler Gibb, Chiji Ogbuka & Timothy Rubbelke - 2013 - Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance 5 (20):320-338.
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  20. added 2020-02-09
    Identifying the Human Research Subject in Cluster Randomized Controlled Trials.Howard Mann & Maria Reyes - 2008 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 30 (5):14-18.
    A cluster randomized controlled trial is a research design in which organizational, social, or geographically defined units, rather than individuals, are randomized between or among comparator interventions. Interventions are often targeted at caregivers rather than those receiving care. Applying the definition of a “research subject” found in the U.S. federal regulations governing human subjects research may yield counterintuitive results. We explicate the identification of research subjects by evaluating different types of cluster trials and provide examples to illustrate the relevant concepts. (...)
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  21. added 2020-02-09
    Deception in the Single-Blind Run-In Phase of Clinical Trials.Howard Mann - 2007 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 29 (2).
    A single-blind run-in phase is often employed in randomized controlled trials. During these types of trials, all participants are given a placebo but are not informed of this fact. In many trials, participants who are judged to be “placebo responders” or who don’t follow instructions for taking the drug are excluded from further participation at the conclusion of this phase. Because participants are not informed of these procedures, this represents the use of deception in research.
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  22. added 2020-02-09
    Randomization in Experimental Design.Zeno Gerhard Swijtink - 1982 - Dissertation, Stanford University
    Experimental randomization is defended as a procedure to select an allocation of treatments in comparative experiments. To be convincing, a comparative experiment should allow many alternative allocations of treatments over experimental units, that look equally informative "on paper," but may have underlying differences. Randomization prevents these underlying differences to be causally influential when an allocation is chosen for implementation. Randomization helps prevent bias. ;Both Bayesian criticisms of randomization and what seems to be the opinion of the early Fisher are rejected. (...)
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  23. added 2020-02-09
    Claude Bernard's Revised Edition of His "Introduction a l'Etude de la Medecine Experimentale".Claude Bernard & Paul Cranefield - 1979 - Journal of the History of Biology 12 (1):210-210.
  24. added 2020-02-08
    Icons of Disease a Philosophical Inquiry Into the Semantics, Phenomenology and Ontology of the Clinical Conceptions of Disease.Per Sundström - 1987
  25. added 2020-02-08
    ENGLHARDT, H. T. And SPICKER, S. F. : "Evaluation and Explanation in the Biomedical Sciences" and "Philosophical Dimensions of the Neuro-Medical Sciences". [REVIEW]Caroline Whitbeck - 1978 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29:399.
  26. added 2020-02-06
    Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology.Robert Arp, Barry Smith & Andrew D. Spear - 2015 - Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    In the era of “big data,” science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of (...)
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  27. added 2020-02-05
    Comments on Scientific Process in Clinical Research.Baruch S. Blumberg - 1980 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 24 (1):15-30.
  28. added 2020-01-29
    The History of Yellow Fever. An Essay on the Birth of Tropical Medicine.Ronald Singer - 1992 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 35 (2):309-309.
  29. added 2020-01-29
    Doctors, Patients, and Placebos.Louis Lasagna - 1988 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (2):309-311.
  30. added 2020-01-29
    Invalidity of Using So-Called Starling Curves in Clinical Medicine.Mark D. Altschule - 1983 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 26 (2):171-187.
  31. added 2020-01-29
    A Descriptive, Research-Justified Data Base for Clinical Psychiatry: Would It Change Things?Michael T. McGuire - 1978 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 21 (2):240-257.
  32. added 2020-01-29
    Myocardial Infarction, Experimental Cardiac Necroses, and Potassium.Plinio Prioreschi - 1966 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 9 (3):369-376.
  33. added 2020-01-29
    Searchers and Researchers.Selman A. Waksman - 1964 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 7 (3):309-320.
    Science cannot be based on dogma or authority of any kind, nor on any intuition or revelation, unless indeed it be of the Book of Nature that lies open before our eyes. We need not dwell on the processes of acquiring knowledge by observation, experiment, and inductive and deductive reasoning. The study of scientific method both in theory and practice is of great importance. It is inherent in the philosophy that the record may be imperfect and the conceptions erroneous; the (...)
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  34. added 2020-01-29
    Editorial: Congressional Support for Medical Research.J. I. D. - 1963 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 6 (3):277-279.
  35. added 2020-01-29
    Heredity Counseling Edited by Helen G. Hammons.Kimball C. Atwood - 1960 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 3 (3):440-440.
  36. added 2020-01-29
    Principles of Research in Biology and Medicine by Dwight J. Ingle.Paul L. Munson - 1959 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 2 (3):373-374.
  37. added 2020-01-29
    Etiologic Factors in Obesity and Leanness.Jay Tepperman - 1958 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 1 (3):293-306.
  38. added 2020-01-22
    Humanistic Perspectives in Medical Ethics Edited by Maurice B. Visscher.Dwight J. Ingle - 1973 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 16 (3):482-483.
  39. added 2020-01-22
    Choleranomalies: The Unhistory of Medicine as Exemplified by Cholera.Norman Howard-Jones - 1972 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 15 (3):422-434.
  40. added 2020-01-22
    Medicine's Role in Comprehensive Care.Donald G. Bates - 1972 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 15 (3):317-325.
  41. added 2020-01-21
    Modern Medicine's Shortcomings: Can We Really Conquer Disease?David P. Goldblatt - 1977 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 20 (3):450-456.
  42. added 2020-01-20
    Ethical Issues In Drug Testing, Approval, and Pricing: The Clot-Dissolving Drugs By Baruch A. Brody.John Lantos - 1997 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 40 (3):463-464.
  43. added 2020-01-20
    Technology in the Hospital: Transforming Patient Care in the Early Twentieth Century by Joel Howell.John Lantos - 1997 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 40 (3):457-459.
  44. added 2020-01-20
    The Public Character of Scientific Medicine.William A. Silverman - 1983 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 26 (3):343-353.
  45. added 2020-01-20
    Job Plodd, Pathologist: His Trials and Tribulations by Alvan G. Foraker.William B. Bean - 1977 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 20 (3):467-469.
  46. added 2020-01-20
    Ethical Constraints and Imperatives in Medical Research by Maurice B. Visscher.Dwight J. Ingle - 1976 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 19 (3):445-446.
  47. added 2020-01-20
    Stress Without Distress By Hans Selye.Dwight J. Ingle - 1975 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 18 (3):427-427.
  48. added 2020-01-20
    Hypercalcemia Associated with Chronic Renal Failure: A Unifying Hypothesis.David S. David - 1974 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 17 (3):361-370.
  49. added 2020-01-20
    Gnotobiotics: A New Discipline in Biological and Medical Research.Thomas G. Ward & P. C. Trexler - 1958 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 1 (4):447-456.
  50. added 2020-01-10
    Critical Review of Sampling Procedures in the Context of Sierra Leone's Low Literacy (and Under-Resourced) Research Communities.Emerson Abraham Jackson - 2018 - Economic Insights -Trends and Challenges 8 (70):35-44.
    This article has provided a critical review of sampling procedures in the context of Sierra Leone. The basics of the two major types of sampling procedures (probability and non-probability) have been explained, with a view of shedding light on their usage to assist researchers in their pursuance of addressing proposed hypothetical statements. Problems associated with low literacy rate in Sierra Leone have been highlighted as a major concern, more so in the process of ensuring ethical code of conducts are adhered (...)
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