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  1. added 2019-01-17
    Metalogic and the Overgeneration Argument.Salvatore Florio & Luca Incurvati - 2019 - Mind:1-33.
    A prominent objection against the logicality of second-order logic is the so-called Overgeneration Argument. However, it is far from clear how this argument is to be understood. In the first part of the article, we examine the argument and locate its main source, namely, the alleged entanglement of second-order logic and mathematics. We then identify various reasons why the entanglement may be thought to be problematic. In the second part of the article, we take a metatheoretic perspective on the matter. (...)
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  2. added 2018-11-11
    The Innocence of Truth in Semantic Paradox.Eric Guindon - forthcoming - Erkenntnis.
    According to some philosophers, the Liar paradox arises because of a mistaken theory of truth. Its lesson is that we must reject some instances of the naive propositional truth-schema ⌜It is true that φ if and only if φ⌝. In this paper, I construct a novel semantic paradox in which no principle even analogous to the truth-schema plays any role. I argue that this undermines the claim that we ought to respond to the Liar by revising our theory of truth.
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  3. added 2018-09-04
    Reply to Hintikka and Sandu: Frege and Second-Order Logic.Jnr Richard G. Heck & Jason Stanley - 1993 - Journal of Philosophy 90 (8):416-424.
    Hintikka and Sandu had argued that 'Frege's failure to grasp the idea of the standard interpretation of higher-order logic turns his entire foundational project into a hopeless daydream' and that he is 'inextricably committed to a non-standard interpretation' of higher-order logic. We disagree.
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  4. added 2018-02-18
    Neutrosophy in Arabic Philosophy (Arabic version).Salah Osman & Florentin Smarandache - 2007 - Alexandria, Egypt: Al Maaref Establishment Press.
    لأننا نعيش في عالم يكتنفه الغموض من كل جانب؛ عالم تتسم معرفتنا لأحداثه ووقائعه بالتناقض واللاتحديد، وتُفصح قضايانا اللغوية الواصفة له عن الصدق تارة وعن الكذب تارة أخرى، فنحن في حاجة إلى فلسفة جديدة تعكس حقيقة رؤيتنا النسبية لهذا العالم وقصور معرفتنا به؛ ونحن في حاجة إلى نسقٍِ منطقي يُلائم معطياته غير المكتملة ويُشبع معالجاتنا لها، سواء على مستوى ممارسات الحياة اليومية أو على مستوى الممارسة العلمية بمختلف أشكالها. والفلسفة التي يقترحها هذا الكتاب هي «النيوتروسوفيا»؛ تلك النظرية التي قدمها الفيلسوف (...)
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  5. added 2016-12-08
    Second-Order Quantifier Elimination in Higher-Order Contexts with Applications to the Semantical Analysis of Conditionals.Dov M. Gabbay & Andrzej Szałas - 2007 - Studia Logica 87 (1):37-50.
    Second-order quantifier elimination in the context of classical logic emerged as a powerful technique in many applications, including the correspondence theory, relational databases, deductive and knowledge databases, knowledge representation, commonsense reasoning and approximate reasoning. In the current paper we first generalize the result of Nonnengart and Szałas [17] by allowing second-order variables to appear within higher-order contexts. Then we focus on a semantical analysis of conditionals, using the introduced technique and Gabbay’s semantics provided in [10] and substantially using a third-order (...)
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  6. added 2016-11-30
    What Russell Should Have Said to Burali–Forti.Salvatore Florio & Graham Leach-Krouse - 2017 - Review of Symbolic Logic 10 (4):682-718.
    The paradox that appears under Burali-Forti’s name in many textbooks of set theory is a clever piece of reasoning leading to an unproblematic theorem. The theorem asserts that the ordinals do not form a set. For such a set would be—absurdly—an ordinal greater than any ordinal in the set of all ordinals. In this article, we argue that the paradox of Burali-Forti is first and foremost a problem about concept formation by abstraction, not about sets. We contend, furthermore, that some (...)
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  7. added 2016-09-21
    Reply to Fritz.Timothy Williamson - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):610-612.
  8. added 2016-09-21
    Reply to Goodman.Timothy Williamson - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):640-653.
  9. added 2016-09-01
    Structure and Categoricity: Determinacy of Reference and Truth Value in the Philosophy of Mathematics.Tim Button & Sean Walsh - 2016 - Philosophia Mathematica 24 (3):283-307.
    This article surveys recent literature by Parsons, McGee, Shapiro and others on the significance of categoricity arguments in the philosophy of mathematics. After discussing whether categoricity arguments are sufficient to secure reference to mathematical structures up to isomorphism, we assess what exactly is achieved by recent ‘internal’ renditions of the famous categoricity arguments for arithmetic and set theory.
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  10. added 2016-03-22
    Plurals and Modals.Øystein Linnebo - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):654-676.
    Consider one of several things. Is the one thing necessarily one of the several? This key question in the modal logic of plurals is clarified. Some defenses of an affirmative answer are developed and compared. Various remarks are made about the broader philosophical significance of the question.
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  11. added 2015-10-20
    Logic, Essence, and Modality — Review of Bob Hale's Necessary Beings. [REVIEW]Christopher Menzel - 2015 - Philosophia Mathematica 23 (3):407-428.
    Bob Hale’s distinguished record of research places him among the most important and influential contemporary analytic metaphysicians. In his deep, wide ranging, yet highly readable book Necessary Beings, Hale draws upon, but substantially integrates and extends, a good deal his past research to produce a sustained and richly textured essay on — as promised in the subtitle — ontology, modality, and the relations between them. I’ve set myself two tasks in this review: first, to provide a reasonably thorough (if not (...)
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  12. added 2015-09-05
    Strong Normalization of a Symmetric Lambda Calculus for Second-Order Classical Logic.Yoriyuki Yamagata - 2002 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 41 (1):91-99.
    We extend Barbanera and Berardi’s symmetric lambda calculus to second order classical propositional logic and prove its strong normalization.
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  13. added 2015-04-19
    Second-Order Logic.John Corcoran - 2001 - In M. Zeleny (ed.), Logic, Meaning, and Computation: Essays in Memory of Alonzo Church. KLUKER. pp. 61–76.
    “Second-order Logic” in Anderson, C.A. and Zeleny, M., Eds. Logic, Meaning, and Computation: Essays in Memory of Alonzo Church. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2001. Pp. 61–76. -/- Abstract. This expository article focuses on the fundamental differences between second- order logic and first-order logic. It is written entirely in ordinary English without logical symbols. It employs second-order propositions and second-order reasoning in a natural way to illustrate the fact that second-order logic is actually a familiar part of our traditional intuitive logical framework and (...)
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  14. added 2015-03-22
    Neo-Logicism and its Logic.Panu Raatikainen - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic.
    The rather unrestrained use of second-order logic in the neo-logicist program is critically examined. It is argued in some detail that it brings with it genuine set-theoretical existence assumptions, and that the mathematical power that Hume’s Principle seems to provide, in the derivation of Frege’s Theorem, comes largely from the “logic” assumed rather than from Hume’s principle. It is shown that Hume’s principle is in reality not stronger than the very weak Robinson Arithmetic Q. Consequently, only few rudimentary facts of (...)
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  15. added 2015-01-30
    CORCORAN'S 27 ENTRIES IN THE 1999 SECOND EDITION.John Corcoran - 1999 - In Robert Audi (ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. CAMBRIDGE UP. pp. 65-941.
    Corcoran’s 27 entries in the 1999 second edition of Robert Audi’s Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy [Cambridge: Cambridge UP]. -/- ancestral, axiomatic method, borderline case, categoricity, Church (Alonzo), conditional, convention T, converse (outer and inner), corresponding conditional, degenerate case, domain, De Morgan, ellipsis, laws of thought, limiting case, logical form, logical subject, material adequacy, mathematical analysis, omega, proof by recursion, recursive function theory, scheme, scope, Tarski (Alfred), tautology, universe of discourse. -/- The entire work is available online free at more than (...)
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  16. added 2014-12-03
    String Theory.John Corcoran, William Frank & Michael Maloney - 1974 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 39 (4):625-637.
    For each positive n , two alternative axiomatizations of the theory of strings over n alphabetic characters are presented. One class of axiomatizations derives from Tarski's system of the Wahrheitsbegriff and uses the n characters and concatenation as primitives. The other class involves using n character-prefixing operators as primitives and derives from Hermes' Semiotik. All underlying logics are second order. It is shown that, for each n, the two theories are definitionally equivalent [or synonymous in the sense of deBouvere]. It (...)
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  17. added 2014-06-16
    Modalising Plurals.Simon Hewitt - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (5):853-875.
    There has been very little discussion of the appropriate principles to govern a modal logic of plurals. What debate there has been has accepted a principle I call (Necinc); informally if this is one of those then, necessarily: this is one of those. On this basis Williamson has criticised the Boolosian plural interpretation of monadic second-order logic. I argue against (Necinc), noting that it isn't a theorem of any logic resulting from adding modal axioms to the plural logic PFO+, and (...)
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  18. added 2014-04-02
    Second-Order Arithmetic Sans Sets.L. Berk - 2013 - Philosophia Mathematica 21 (3):339-350.
    This paper examines the ontological commitments of the second-order language of arithmetic and argues that they do not extend beyond the first-order language. Then, building on an argument by George Boolos, we develop a Tarski-style definition of a truth predicate for the second-order language of arithmetic that does not involve the assignment of sets to second-order variables but rather uses the same class of assignments standardly used in a definition for the first-order language.
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  19. added 2014-04-02
    Second Order Logic or Set Theory?Jouko Väänänen - 2012 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (1):91-121.
    We try to answer the question which is the “right” foundation of mathematics, second order logic or set theory. Since the former is usually thought of as a formal language and the latter as a first order theory, we have to rephrase the question. We formulate what we call the second order view and a competing set theory view, and then discuss the merits of both views. On the surface these two views seem to be in manifest conflict with each (...)
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  20. added 2014-03-30
    Modal Deduction in Second-Order Logic and Set Theory - II.Johan van Benthem, Giovanna D'Agostino, Angelo Montanari & Alberto Policriti - 1998 - Studia Logica 60 (3):387-420.
    In this paper, we generalize the set-theoretic translation method for poly-modal logic introduced in [11] to extended modal logics. Instead of devising an ad-hoc translation for each logic, we develop a general framework within which a number of extended modal logics can be dealt with. We first extend the basic set-theoretic translation method to weak monadic second-order logic through a suitable change in the underlying set theory that connects up in interesting ways with constructibility; then, we show how to tailor (...)
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  21. added 2014-03-30
    Higher-Order Quantification and Ontological Commitment.Peter Simons - 1997 - Dialectica 51 (4):255–271.
    George Boolos's employment of plurals to give an ontologically innocent interpretation of monadic higher‐order quantification continues and extends a minority tradition in thinking about quantification and ontological commitment. An especially prominent member of that tradition is Stanislaw Leśniewski, and shall first draw attention to this work and its relation to that of Boolos. Secondly I shall stand up briefly for plurals as logically respectable expressions, while noting their limitations in offering ontologically deflationary accounts of higher‐order quantification. Thirdly I shall focus (...)
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  22. added 2014-03-29
    On the Expressiveness of Frame Satisfiability and Fragments of Second-Order Logic.Thomas Eiter & Georg Gottlob - 1998 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 63 (1):73-82.
    It was conjectured by Halpern and Kapron (Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, vol. 69, 1994) that frame satisfiability of propositional modal formulas is incomparable in expressive power to both Σ 1 1 (Ackermann) and Σ 1 1 (Bernays-Schonfinkel). We prove this conjecture. Our results imply that Σ 1 1 (Ackermann) and Σ 1 1 (Bernays-Schonfinkel) are incomparable in expressive power, already on finite graphs. Moreover, we show that on ordered finite graphs, i.e., finite graphs with a successor, Σ 1 (...)
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  23. added 2014-03-28
    Toward a Theory of Second-Order Consequence.Agustin Rayo & Gabriel Uzquiano - 1999 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 40 (3):315-325.
    There is little doubt that a second-order axiomatization of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory plus the axiom of choice (ZFC) is desirable. One advantage of such an axiomatization is that it permits us to express the principles underlying the first-order schemata of separation and replacement. Another is its almost-categoricity: M is a model of second-order ZFC if and only if it is isomorphic to a model of the form Vκ, ∈ ∩ (Vκ × Vκ) , for κ a strongly inaccessible ordinal.
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  24. added 2014-03-27
    Topological Completeness for Higher-Order Logic.S. Awodey & C. Butz - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (3):1168-1182.
    Using recent results in topos theory, two systems of higher-order logic are shown to be complete with respect to sheaf models over topological spaces- so -called "topological semantics." The first is classical higher-order logic, with relational quantification of finitely high type; the second system is a predicative fragment thereof with quantification over functions between types, but not over arbitrary relations. The second theorem applies to intuitionistic as well as classical logic.
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  25. added 2014-03-26
    Counterexamples of the 0-1 Law for Fragments of Existential Second-Order Logic: An Overview.Jean-Marie le Bars - 2000 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (1):67-82.
    We propose an original use of techniques from random graph theory to find a Monadic ∑ 1 1 sentence without an asymptotic probability. Our result implies that the 0-1 law fails for the logics ∑ 1 1 and ∑ 1 1 . Therefore we complete the classification of first-order prefix classes with or without equality, according to the existence of the 0-1 law for the corresponding ∑ 1 1 fragment. In addition, our counterexample can be viewed as a single explanation (...)
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  26. added 2014-03-25
    Second-Order Logic and Foundations of Mathematics.Jouko Vaananen - 2001 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 7 (4):504-520.
    We discuss the differences between first-order set theory and second-order logic as a foundation for mathematics. We analyse these languages in terms of two levels of formalization. The analysis shows that if second-order logic is understood in its full semantics capable of characterizing categorically central mathematical concepts, it relies entirely on informal reasoning. On the other hand, if it is given a weak semantics, it loses its power in expressing concepts categorically. First-order set theory and second-order logic are not radically (...)
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  27. added 2014-03-25
    Consistent Fragments of Grundgesetze and the Existence of Non-Logical Objects.Kai F. Wehmeier - 1999 - Synthese 121 (3):309-328.
    In this paper, I consider two curious subsystems ofFrege's Grundgesetze der Arithmetik: Richard Heck's predicative fragment H, consisting of schema V together with predicative second-order comprehension (in a language containing a syntactical abstraction operator), and a theory T in monadic second-order logic, consisting of axiom V and 1 1-comprehension (in a language containing anabstraction function). I provide a consistency proof for the latter theory, thereby refuting a version of a conjecture by Heck. It is shown that both Heck and T (...)
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  28. added 2014-03-22
    Plural Quantification.Øystein Linnebo - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Ordinary English contains different forms of quantification over objects. In addition to the usual singular quantification, as in 'There is an apple on the table', there is plural quantification, as in 'There are some apples on the table'. Ever since Frege, formal logic has favored the two singular quantifiers ∀x and ∃x over their plural counterparts ∀xx and ∃xx (to be read as for any things xx and there are some things xx). But in recent decades it has been argued (...)
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  29. added 2014-03-22
    Querying Linguistic Treebanks with Monadic Second-Order Logic in Linear Time.Stephan Kepser - 2004 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (4):457-470.
    In recent years large amounts of electronic texts have become available. While the first of these corpora had only a low level of annotation, the more recent ones are annotated with refined syntactic information. To make these rich annotations accessible for linguists, the development of query systems has become an important goal. One of the main difficulties in this task consists in the choice of the right query language, a language which at the same time should be powerful enough to (...)
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  30. added 2014-03-22
    Do Not Claim Too Much: Second-Order Logic and First-Order Logic.Stewart Shapiro - 1999 - Philosophia Mathematica 7 (1):42-64.
    The purpose of this article is to delimit what can and cannot be claimed on behalf of second-order logic. The starting point is some of the discussions surrounding my Foundations without Foundationalism: A Case for Secondorder Logic.
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  31. added 2014-03-21
    First Order Quantifiers in Monadic Second Order Logic.H. Jerome Keisler & Wafik Boulos Lotfallah - 2004 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 69 (1):118-136.
    This paper studies the expressive power that an extra first order quantifier adds to a fragment of monadic second order logic, extending the toolkit of Janin and Marcinkowski [JM01]. We introduce an operation $esists_{n}(S)$ on properties S that says "there are n components having S". We use this operation to show that under natural strictness conditions, adding a first order quantifier word u to the beginning of a prefix class V increases the expressive power monotonically in u. As a corollary, (...)
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  32. added 2014-03-21
    On Spectra of Sentences of Monadic Second Order Logic with Counting.E. Fischer & J. A. Makowsky - 2004 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 69 (3):617-640.
    We show that the spectrum of a sentence ϕ in Counting Monadic Second Order Logic (CMSOL) using one binary relation symbol and finitely many unary relation symbols, is ultimately periodic, provided all the models of ϕ are of clique width at most k, for some fixed k. We prove a similar statement for arbitrary finite relational vocabularies τ and a variant of clique width for τ-structures. This includes the cases where the models of ϕ are of tree width at most (...)
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  33. added 2014-03-21
    ‘Neo-Logicist‘ Logic is Not Epistemically Innocent.Stewart Shapiro & Alan Weir - 2000 - Philosophia Mathematica 8 (2):160--189.
    The neo-logicist argues tliat standard mathematics can be derived by purely logical means from abstraction principles—such as Hume's Principle— which are held to lie 'epistcmically innocent'. We show that the second-order axiom of comprehension applied to non-instantiated properties and the standard first-order existential instantiation and universal elimination principles are essential for the derivation of key results, specifically a theorem of infinity, but have not been shown to be epistemically innocent. We conclude that the epistemic innocence of mathematics has not been (...)
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  34. added 2014-03-19
    Expressivity of Second Order Propositional Modal Logic.Balder Ten Cate - 2006 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (2):209-223.
    We consider second-order propositional modal logic (SOPML), an extension of the basic modal language with propositional quantifiers introduced by Kit Fine in 1970. We determine the precise expressive power of SOPML by giving analogues of the Van Benthem–Rosen theorem and the Goldblatt Thomason theorem. Furthermore, we show that the basic modal language is the bisimulation invariant fragment of SOPML, and we characterize the bounded fragment of first-order logic as being the intersection of first-order logic and SOPML.
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  35. added 2014-03-19
    Nominalism Through de-Nominalization.Agustin Rayo & Stephen Yablo - 2001 - Noûs 35 (1):74–92.
  36. added 2014-03-12
    Speaking with Shadows: A Study of Neo-Logicism.Fraser MacBride - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (1):103-163.
    According to the species of neo-logicism advanced by Hale and Wright, mathematical knowledge is essentially logical knowledge. Their view is found to be best understood as a set of related though independent theses: (1) neo-fregeanism-a general conception of the relation between language and reality; (2) the method of abstraction-a particular method for introducing concepts into language; (3) the scope of logic-second-order logic is logic. The criticisms of Boolos, Dummett, Field and Quine (amongst others) of these theses are explicated and assessed. (...)
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  37. added 2014-03-10
    When Best Theories Go Bad.David Manley - 2009 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 78 (2):392-405.
    It is common for contemporary metaphysical realists to adopt Quine's criterion of ontological commitment while at the same time repudiating his ontological pragmatism. 2 Drawing heavily from the work of others—especially Joseph Melia and Stephen Yablo—I will argue that the resulting approach to meta-ontology is unstable. In particular, if we are metaphysical realists, we need not accept ontological commitment to whatever is quantified over by our best first-order theories.
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  38. added 2014-03-07
    Pure Second-Order Logic with Second-Order Identity.Alexander Paseau - 2010 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 51 (3):351-360.
    Pure second-order logic is second-order logic without functional or first-order variables. In "Pure Second-Order Logic," Denyer shows that pure second-order logic is compact and that its notion of logical truth is decidable. However, his argument does not extend to pure second-order logic with second-order identity. We give a more general argument, based on elimination of quantifiers, which shows that any formula of pure second-order logic with second-order identity is equivalent to a member of a circumscribed class of formulas. As a (...)
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  39. added 2013-11-20
    Somehow Things Do Not Relate: On the Interpretation of Polyadic Second-Order Logic.Marcus Rossberg - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 44 (3):341-350.
    Boolos has suggested a plural interpretation of second-order logic for two purposes: to escape Quine’s allegation that second-order logic is set theory in disguise, and to avoid the paradoxes arising if the second-order variables are given a set-theoretic interpretation in second-order set theory. Since the plural interpretation accounts only for monadic second-order logic, Rayo and Yablo suggest an new interpretation for polyadic second-order logic in a Boolosian spirit. The present paper argues that Rayo and Yablo’s interpretation does not achieve the (...)
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  40. added 2013-02-16
    Spectra of Formulae with Henkin Quantifiers.Joanna Golinska-Pilarek & Konrad Zdanowski - 2003 - In A. Rojszczak, J. Cachro & G. Kurczewski (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of Logic and Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    It is known that various complexity-theoretical problems can be translated into some special spectra problems. Thus, questions about complexity classes are translated into questions about the expressive power of some languages. In this paper we investigate the spectra of some logics with Henkin quantifiers in the empty vocabulary.
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  41. added 2012-07-12
    The Identity of Individuals in a Strict Functional Calculus of Second Order.Ruth C. Barcan - 1947 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 12 (1):12-15.
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  42. added 2012-01-12
    How Set Theory Impinges on Logic.Jesus Mosterin - unknown
    Standard (classical) logic is not independent of set theory. Which formulas are valid in logic depends on which sets we assume to exist in our set-theoretical universe. Second-order logic is just set theory in disguise. The typically logical notions of validity and consequence are not well defined in second-order logic, at least as long as there are open issues in set theory. Such contentious issues in set theory as the axiom of choice, the continuum hypothesis or the existence of inaccessible (...)
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  43. added 2011-05-31
    Second-Order Logic.Jeffrey Ketland - unknown
    Second-order logic is the extension of first-order logic obtaining by introducing quantification of predicate and function variables.
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  44. added 2011-05-31
    Foundations Without Foundationalism: A Case for Second-Order Logic Stewart Shapiro Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991, Xx + 277 Pp. [REVIEW]James Robert Brown - 1996 - Dialogue 35 (3):624-.
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  45. added 2011-05-31
    Pure Second-Order Logic.Nicholas Denyer - 1992 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 33 (2):220-224.
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  46. added 2011-05-31
    A Note on the Hanf Number of Second-Order Logic.Matt Kaufmann - 1985 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 26 (4):305-308.
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  47. added 2011-05-31
    Two Lambda-Extensions of the Theory of Homogeneous Simple Types as a Second-Order Logic.Nino Cocchiarella - 1985 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 26 (4):377-407.
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  48. added 2011-05-31
    The Theory of Homogeneous Simple Types as a Second-Order Logic.Nino Cocchiarella - 1979 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 20 (3):505-524.
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  49. added 2011-05-31
    A Substitution Free Axiom Set for Second Order Logic.Nino Cocchiarella - 1969 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 10 (1):18-30.
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  50. added 2011-05-31
    Completeness and Hauptsatz for Second Order Logic.Dag Prawitz - 1967 - Theoria 33 (3):246-258.
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