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Summary Several kinds of semantics for modal logic have been proposed, the most popular of which is Kripke semantics. (This is sometimes called possible worlds semantics, although the formal semantics doesn’t require us to think of the entities in its domain as possible worlds.) In Kripke semantics, models comprise a domain of entities, variously called pointssituationsscenarios or possible worlds, with one or more accessible relations between them. The truth-value of a sentence at a possible world w may depend on the truth-value of other sentences at worlds accessible from w. In modal logics, for example, ‘necessarily, A’ is true at a worldw iff A is true at all worlds u accessible from w, and ‘possibly, A’ is true at w iff A is true at some world u accessible from w. This approach can be applied to other kinds of modalities, including ‘agent a knows that’ in modal epistemic logics. One can also give algebraic, topological and categorical semantics for modal logics, in place of Kripke semantics. These approaches have intrinsic mathematical interest, but have received less attention in the philosophical literature (perhaps because they do not provide an analysis of modal concepts in the way that possible worlds semantics does).
Key works Possible worlds semantics was first presented as a formal semantics for modal logic in Kripke 1959, 1963 and for intuitionistic logic in Kripke 1963Carnap 1947 was an important precursor to possible worlds semantics. Hintikka 1962, 1967 develops the possible worlds semantics and applies it to epistemic concepts. van Benthem 1983 is the classic investigation of the relationship between accessibility relations in the semantics and modal axioms. Lewis 1968 develops counterpart theory in the context of (first-order) possible worlds semantics. Lewis 1986 argues for an extreme realist philosophical interpretation of the possible worlds semantics.
Introductions Girle 2003 and Girle 2000 are introductory textbooks on possible worlds and modal logic. Priest 2001 is a general introduction to propositional modal, intuitionistic and relevant logics. Cresswell & Hughes 1996 is a classic textbook in modal logic. Sider 2010 includes a good presentation of quantified first-order logic.
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  1. The Logic of Logical Necessity.Andrew Bacon & Kit Fine - manuscript
    Prior to Kripke's seminal work on the semantics of modal logic, McKinsey offered an alternative interpretation of the necessity operator, inspired by the Bolzano-Tarski notion of logical truth. According to this interpretation, `it is necessary that A' is true just in case every sentence with the same logical form as A is true. In our paper, we investigate this interpretation of the modal operator, resolving some technical questions, and relating it to the logical interpretation of modality and some views in (...)
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  2. A Model-Theoretic Account of Columnar Higher-Order Vagueness.Susanne Bobzien - manuscript
    ABSTRACT: Paper currently being revised.
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  3. Logics of Formal Inconsistency Enriched with Replacement: An Algebraic and Modal Account.Walter Carnielli, Marcelo E. Coniglio & David Fuenmayor - manuscript
    One of the most expected properties of a logical system is that it can be algebraizable, in the sense that an algebraic counterpart of the deductive machinery could be found. Since the inception of da Costa's paraconsistent calculi, an algebraic equivalent for such systems have been searched. It is known that these systems are non self-extensional (i.e., they do not satisfy the replacement property). More than this, they are not algebraizable in the sense of Blok-Pigozzi. The same negative results hold (...)
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  4. An Epistemicist Solution to the Alethic Paradoxes.Hasen Khudairi - manuscript
    This paper targets a series of potential issues for the discussion of, and modal resolution to, the alethic paradoxes advanced by Scharp (2013). I aim, then, to provide a novel, epistemicist treatment of the alethic paradoxes. In response to Curry's paradox, the epistemicist solution that I advance enables the retention of both classical logic and the traditional rules for the alethic predicate: truth-elimination and truth-introduction. By availing of epistemic modal logic, the epistemicist approach permits, further, of a descriptively adequate explanation (...)
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  5. Truth and Subjunctive Theories of Knwledge: No Luck?Johannes Stern - manuscript
    The paper explores applications of Kripke's theory of truth to semantics for anti-luck epistemology, that is, to subjunctive theories of knowledge. Subjunctive theories put forward modal or subjunctive conditions to rule out knowledge by mere luck as to be found in Gettier-style counterexamples to the analysis of knowledge as justified true belief. Because of the subjunctive nature of these conditions the resulting semantics turns out to be non-monotone, even if it is based on non-classical evaluation schemes such as strong Kleene (...)
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  6. 'First-Order Modal Logic', to Appear in V. Hendricks & SA Pedersen, Eds.,'40 Years of Possible Worlds', Special Issue Of.H. Arlo-Costa - forthcoming - Studia Logica.
  7. The Barcan Formulas and Necessary Existence: The View From Quarc.Hanoch Ben-Yami - forthcoming - Synthese:1-36.
    The Modal Predicate Calculus gives rise to issues surrounding the Barcan formulas, their converses, and necessary existence. I examine these issues by means of the Quantified Argument Calculus, a recently developed, powerful formal logic system. Quarc is closer in syntax and logical properties to Natural Language than is the Predicate Calculus, a fact that lends additional interest to this examination, as Quarc might offer a better representation of our modal concepts. The validity of the Barcan formulas and their converses is (...)
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  8. Inquisitive Intuitionistic Logic.Wesley H. Holliday - forthcoming - In Nicola Olivetti & Rineke Verbrugge (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Vol. 11. London: College Publications.
    Inquisitive logic is a research program seeking to expand the purview of logic beyond declarative sentences to include the logic of questions. To this end, inquisitive propositional logic extends classical propositional logic for declarative sentences with principles governing a new binary connective of inquisitive disjunction, which allows the formation of questions. Recently inquisitive logicians have considered what happens if the logic of declarative sentences is assumed to be intuitionistic rather than classical. In short, what should inquisitive logic be on an (...)
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  9. The Logic of Sequence Frames.Fabio Lampert - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-44.
    This paper investigates and develops generalizations of two-dimensional modal logics to any finite dimension. These logics are natural extensions of multidimensional systems known from the literature on logics for a priori knowledge. We prove a completeness theorem for propositional n-dimensional modal logics and show them to be decidable by means of a systematic tableau construction.
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  10. Epistemic Logic Without Closure.Stephan Leuenberger & Martin Smith - forthcoming - Synthese.
    All standard epistemic logics legitimate something akin to the principle of closure, according to which knowledge is closed under competent deductive inference. And yet the principle of closure, particularly in its multiple premise guise, has a somewhat ambivalent status within epistemology. One might think that serious concerns about closure point us away from epistemic logic altogether—away from the very idea that the knowledge relation could be fruitfully treated as a kind of modal operator. This, however, need not be so. The (...)
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  11. Impossible Worlds, by Francesco Berto and Mark Jago. [REVIEW]Koji Tanaka - forthcoming - Mind.
    Book Review of Impossible Worlds, by Francesco Berto and Mark Jago. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.
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  12. From Ideal Worlds to Ideality.Craig Warmke - forthcoming - Journal of the American Philosophical Association.
    In common treatments of deontic logic, the obligatory is what's true in all deontically ideal possible worlds. In this article, I offer a new semantics for Standard Deontic Logic with Leibnizian intensions rather than possible worlds. Even though the new semantics furnishes models that resemble Venn diagrams, the semantics captures the strong soundness and completeness of Standard Deontic Logic. Since, unlike possible worlds, many Leibnizian intensions are not maximally consistent entities, we can amend the semantics to invalidate the inference rule (...)
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  13. Another Problem in Possible World Semantics.Yifeng Ding & Wesley H. Holliday - 2020 - In Nicola Olivetti & Rineke Verbrugge (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Vol. 13. London: College Publications.
    In "A Problem in Possible-World Semantics," David Kaplan presented a consistent and intelligible modal principle that cannot be validated by any possible world frame (in the terminology of modal logic, any neighborhood frame). However, Kaplan's problem is tempered by the fact that his principle is stated in a language with propositional quantification, so possible world semantics for the basic modal language without propositional quantifiers is not directly affected, and the fact that on careful inspection his principle does not target the (...)
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  14. Updating Data Semantics.Anthony S. Gillies - 2020 - Mind 129 (513):1-41.
    This paper has three main goals. First, to motivate a puzzle about how ignorance-expressing terms like maybe and if interact: they iterate, and when they do they exhibit scopelessness. Second, to argue that there is an ambiguity in our theoretical toolbox, and that exposing that opens the door to a solution to the puzzle. And third, to explore the reach of that solution. Along the way, the paper highlights a number of pleasing properties of two elegant semantic theories, explores some (...)
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  15. A Note on the Issue of Cohesiveness in Canonical Models.Matteo Pascucci - 2020 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 29 (3):331-348.
    In their presentation of canonical models for normal systems of modal logic, Hughes and Cresswell observe that some of these models are based on a frame which can be also thought of as a collection of two or more isolated frames; they call such frames ‘non-cohesive’. The problem of checking whether the canonical model of a given system is cohesive is still rather unexplored and no general decision procedure is available. The main contribution of this article consists in introducing a (...)
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  16. A Decidable Multi-Agent Logic for Reasoning About Actions, Instruments, and Norms.Kees van Berkel, Tim Lyon & Francesco Olivieri - 2020 - In Mehdi Dastani, Huimin Dong & Leon van der Torre (eds.), Logic and Argumentation. pp. 219 - 241.
    We formally introduce a novel, yet ubiquitous, category of norms: norms of instrumentality. Norms of this category describe which actions are obligatory, or prohibited, as instruments for certain purposes. We propose the Logic of Agency and Norms (LAN) that enables reasoning about actions, instrumentality, and normative principles in a multi-agent setting. Leveraging LAN , we formalize norms of instrumentality and compare them to two prevalent norm categories: norms to be and norms to do. Last, we pose principles relating the three (...)
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  17. The Logic of Imagination Acts: A Formal System for the Dynamics of Imaginary Worlds.Joan Casas-Roma, Antonia Huertas & M. Elena Rodríguez - 2019 - Erkenntnis:1-29.
    Imagination has received a great deal of attention in different fields such as psychology, philosophy and the cognitive sciences, in which some works provide a detailed account of the mechanisms involved in the creation and elaboration of imaginary worlds. Although imagination has also been formalized using different logical systems, none of them captures those dynamic mechanisms. In this work, we take inspiration from the Common Frame for Imagination Acts, that identifies the different processes involved in the creation of imaginary worlds, (...)
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  18. Swap Structures Semantics for Ivlev-Like Modal Logics.Marcelo E. Coniglio & Ana Claudia Golzio - 2019 - Soft Computing 23 (7):2243-2254.
    In 1988, J. Ivlev proposed some (non-normal) modal systems which are semantically characterized by four-valued non-deterministic matrices in the sense of A. Avron and I. Lev. Swap structures are multialgebras (a.k.a. hyperalgebras) of a special kind, which were introduced in 2016 by W. Carnielli and M. Coniglio in order to give a non-deterministic semantical account for several paraconsistent logics known as logics of formal inconsistency, which are not algebraizable by means of the standard techniques. Each swap structure induces naturally a (...)
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  19. A Note on Algebraic Semantics for S5 with Propositional Quantifiers.Wesley H. Holliday - 2019 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 60 (2):311-332.
    In two of the earliest papers on extending modal logic with propositional quantifiers, R. A. Bull and K. Fine studied a modal logic S5Π extending S5 with axioms and rules for propositional quantification. Surprisingly, there seems to have been no proof in the literature of the completeness of S5Π with respect to its most natural algebraic semantics, with propositional quantifiers interpreted by meets and joins over all elements in a complete Boolean algebra. In this note, we give such a proof. (...)
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  20. A Note on Algebraic Semantics for $Mathsf{S5}$ with Propositional Quantifiers.Wesley H. Holliday - 2019 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 60 (2):311-332.
    In two of the earliest papers on extending modal logic with propositional quantifiers, R. A. Bull and K. Fine studied a modal logic S5Π extending S5 with axioms and rules for propositional quantification. Surprisingly, there seems to have been no proof in the literature of the completeness of S5Π with respect to its most natural algebraic semantics, with propositional quantifiers interpreted by meets and joins over all elements in a complete Boolean algebra. In this note, we give such a proof. (...)
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  21. Complete Additivity and Modal Incompleteness.Wesley H. Holliday & Tadeusz Litak - 2019 - Review of Symbolic Logic 12 (3):487-535.
    In this article, we tell a story about incompleteness in modal logic. The story weaves together an article of van Benthem, “Syntactic aspects of modal incompleteness theorems,” and a longstanding open question: whether every normal modal logic can be characterized by a class of completely additive modal algebras, or as we call them, ${\cal V}$-baos. Using a first-order reformulation of the property of complete additivity, we prove that the modal logic that starred in van Benthem’s article resolves the open question (...)
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  22. Automating Agential Reasoning: Proof-Calculi and Syntactic Decidability for STIT Logics.Tim Lyon & Kees van Berkel - 2019 - In M. Baldoni, M. Dastani, B. Liao, Y. Sakurai & R. Zalila Wenkstern (eds.), PRIMA 2019: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems. 93413 Cham, Germany: Springer. pp. 202-218.
    This work provides proof-search algorithms and automated counter-model extraction for a class of STIT logics. With this, we answer an open problem concerning syntactic decision procedures and cut-free calculi for STIT logics. A new class of cut-free complete labelled sequent calculi G3LdmL^m_n, for multi-agent STIT with at most n-many choices, is introduced. We refine the calculi G3LdmL^m_n through the use of propagation rules and demonstrate the admissibility of their structural rules, resulting in auxiliary calculi Ldm^m_nL. In the single-agent case, we (...)
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  23. Cut-Free Calculi and Relational Semantics for Temporal STIT Logics.Tim Lyon & Kees van Berkel - 2019 - In Francesco Calimeri, Nicola Leone & Marco Manna (eds.), Logics in Artificial Intelligence. Springer International Publishing. pp. 803 - 819.
    We present cut-free labelled sequent calculi for a central formalism in logics of agency: STIT logics with temporal operators. These include sequent systems for Ldm , Tstit and Xstit. All calculi presented possess essential structural properties such as contraction- and cut-admissibility. The labelled calculi G3Ldm and G3Tstit are shown sound and complete relative to irreflexive temporal frames. Additionally, we extend current results by showing that also Xstit can be characterized through relational frames, omitting the use of BT+AC frames.
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  24. A Neutral Temporal Deontic STIT Logic.Kees van Berkel & Tim Lyon - 2019 - In P. Blackburn, E. Lorini & M. Guo (eds.), Logic, Rationality, and Interaction. Berlin, Heidelberg: pp. 340-354.
    In this work we answer a long standing request for temporal embeddings of deontic STIT logics by introducing the multi-agent STIT logic TDS . The logic is based upon atemporal utilitarian STIT logic. Yet, the logic presented here will be neutral: instead of committing ourselves to utilitarian theories, we prove the logic TDS sound and complete with respect to relational frames not employing any utilitarian function. We demonstrate how these neutral frames can be transformed into utilitarian temporal frames, while preserving (...)
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  25. Still in the Mood: The Versatility of Subjunctive Markers in Modal Logic.Kai F. Wehmeier & Helge Rückert - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):361-377.
    We investigate and compare two major approaches to enhancing the expressive capacities of modal languages, namely the addition of subjunctive markers on the one hand, and the addition of scope-bearing actuality operators, on the other. It turns out that the subjunctive marker approach is not only every bit as versatile as the actuality operator approach, but that it in fact outperforms its rival in the context of cross-world predication.
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  26. Boxes and Diamonds. An Open Introduction to Modal Logic.Richard Zach - 2019
    A textbook for modal and other intensional logics based on the Open Logic Project. It covers normal modal logics, relational semantics, axiomatic and tableaux proof systems, intuitionistic logic, and counterfactual conditionals.
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  27. Partial Semantics for Quantified Modal Logic.Eric Johannesson - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 47 (6):1049-1060.
    When it comes to Kripke-style semantics for quantified modal logic, there’s a choice to be made concerning the interpretation of the quantifiers. The simple approach is to let quantifiers range over all possible objects, not just objects existing in the world of evaluation, and use a special predicate to make claims about existence. This is the constant domain approach. The more complicated approach is to assign a domain of objects to each world. This is the varying domain approach. Assuming that (...)
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  28. Existential Import and Relations of Categorical and Modal Categorical Statements.Jiri Raclavsky - 2018 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 27 (3): 271-300.
    I examine the familiar quadruple of categorical statements “Every F is/is not G.”, “Some F is/is not G.” as well as the quadruple of their modal versions “Necessarily, every F is/is not G.”, “Possibly, some F is/is not G.”. I focus on their existential import and its impact on the resulting Squares of Opposition. Though my construal of existential import follows modern approach, I add some extra details which are enabled by framing my definition of existential import within expressively rich (...)
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  29. Структурно-семантична організація лексико-семантичного мікрополя «повага» в сучасній українській мові.Kateryna Blyzniuk - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:132-139.
    У статті проаналізовано лексемний і семний склад мікрополя «повага», а також його системну організацію в українській мові. Компоненти значення, що функціонують у мікрополі, відбиваають семантику поваги, пошани щодо об’єкта почуття, яким для лексико-семантичного поля «патріотизм» виступають Батьківщина, власний народ, його закони, традиції, історія тощо.
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  30. Modelling Belief Revision Via Belief Bases Using Situation Semantics.Ayse Sena Bozdag - 2017 - Dissertation, Bogazici University
    The belief base approach to belief representation and belief dynamics is developed as an alternative to the belief set approaches, which are pioneered by the AGM model. The belief base approach models collections of information and expectations of an agent as possibly incomplete and possibly inconsistent foundations for her beliefs. Nevertheless, the beliefs of an agent are always consistent; this is ensured by a sophisticated inference relation. Belief changes take place on the information base instead of on the belief set, (...)
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  31. Modal Logic S4 as a Paraconsistent Logic with a Topological Semantics.Marcelo E. Coniglio & Leonardo Prieto-Sanabria - 2017 - In Carlos Caleiro, Francisco Dionisio, Paula Gouveia, Paulo Mateus & João Rasga (eds.), Logic and Computation: Essays in Honour of Amilcar Sernadas. London, UK: College Publications. pp. 171-196.
    In this paper the propositional logic LTop is introduced, as an extension of classical propositional logic by adding a paraconsistent negation. This logic has a very natural interpretation in terms of topological models. The logic LTop is nothing more than an alternative presentation of modal logic S4, but in the language of a paraconsistent logic. Moreover, LTop is a logic of formal inconsistency in which the consistency and inconsistency operators have a nice topological interpretation. This constitutes a new proof of (...)
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  32. Perspectival Logic of Acceptance and Rejection.Alessandro Giordani - 2017 - Logique and Analyse:265-283.
    This paper aims at developing a logical theory of perspectival epistemic attitudes. After presenting a standard framework for modeling acceptance, where the epistemic space of an agent coincides with a unique epistemic cell, more complex systems are introduced, which are characterized by the existence of many connected epistemic cells, and different possible attitudes towards a proposition, both positive and negative, are discussed. In doing that, we also propose some interesting ways in which the systems can be interpreted on well known (...)
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  33. Dov Gabbay, Reactive Kripke Semantics. [REVIEW]Valentin Goranko - 2017 - Studia Logica 105 (2):431-437.
  34. On the Modal Logic of Subset and Superset: Tense Logic Over Medvedev Frames.Wesley Holliday - 2017 - Studia Logica 105 (1):13-35.
    Viewing the language of modal logic as a language for describing directed graphs, a natural type of directed graph to study modally is one where the nodes are sets and the edge relation is the subset or superset relation. A well-known example from the literature on intuitionistic logic is the class of Medvedev frames $\langle W,R\rangle$ where $W$ is the set of nonempty subsets of some nonempty finite set $S$, and $xRy$ iff $x\supseteq y$, or more liberally, where $\langle W,R\rangle$ (...)
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  35. Лінгвальне віддзеркалення оцінного ставлення до опонента в контексті перейменувальної кампанії.Olha Kyryliuk - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:29-35.
    У статті йдеться про особливості мовного віддзеркалення взаємного ставлення учасників дискусії в умовах обговорення суспільно-політичної ситуації. У ході аналізу окреслено основні психологічні прийоми маніпуляцій суспільною думкою за допомогою мовних одиниць. Встановлено екстра- та інтралінгвальні чинники, що впливають на вибір того чи того номінатива.
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  36. A Purely Recombinatorial Puzzle.Fritz Peter - 2017 - Noûs 51 (3):547-564.
    A new puzzle of modal recombination is presented which relies purely on resources of first-order modal logic. It shows that naive recombinatorial reasoning, which has previously been shown to be inconsistent with various assumptions concerning propositions, sets and classes, leads to inconsistency by itself. The context sensitivity of modal expressions is suggested as the source of the puzzle, and it is argued that it gives us reason to reconsider the assumption that the notion of metaphysical necessity is in good standing.
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  37. Two Standard and Two Modal Squares of Opposition.Jiri Raclavsky - 2017 - In The Square of Opposition: A Cornerstone of Thought. 93413 Cham, Německo: pp. 119-142.
    In this study, we examine modern reading of the Square of Opposition by means of Tichý's Transparent intensional logic. Explicit use of possible world semantics helps us to sharply discriminate between standard and modal readings of categorial statements. We thus get two basic versions of the Square, whereas the Modal Square has not been fully introduced in the contemporary debate yet. Some properties ascribed by mediaeval logicians to the Square require a shift from its Standard to Modal version. Not inevitably, (...)
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  38. A Bimodal Perspective on Possibility Semantics.Johan van Benthem, Nick Bezhanishvili & Wesley H. Holliday - 2017 - Journal of Logic and Computation 27 (5):1353–1389.
    In this article, we develop a bimodal perspective on possibility semantics, a framework allowing partiality of states that provides an alternative modelling for classical propositional and modal logics. In particular, we define a full and faithful translation of the basic modal logic K over possibility models into a bimodal logic of partial functions over partial orders, and we show how to modulate this analysis by varying across logics and model classes that have independent topological motivations. This relates the two realms (...)
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  39. Worlds and Models in Bayart and Carnap.Max Cresswell - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Logic 13 (1).
    In the early days of the semantics for modal logic the `possible worlds' were thought of as models or interpretations. This was particularly so when the interpretation was of emph{logical} necessity or possibility, where this was understood in terms of validity. Arnould Bayart in 1958 may have been the first modal logician to argue explicitly against the identification of necessity and validity. This note contrasts his semantics with that provided by Rudolf Carnap in 1946, and examines Bayart's proof that if (...)
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  40. Embedded Counterfactuals and Possible Worlds Semantics.Charles Cross - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (3):665-673.
    Stephen Barker argues that a possible worlds semantics for the counterfactual conditional of the sort proposed by Stalnaker and Lewis cannot accommodate certain examples in which determinism is true and a counterfactual Q > R is false, but where, for some P, the compound counterfactual P > (Q > R) is true. I argue that the completeness theorem for Lewis’s system VC of counterfactual logic shows that Stalnaker–Lewis semantics does accommodate Barker’s example, and I argue that its doing so should (...)
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  41. Errata and Addenda to ‘Finite Non-Deterministic Semantics for Some Modal Systems’.Marcelo E. Coniglio, Luis Fariñas del Cerro & Newton M. Peron - 2016 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 26 (4):336-345.
    In this note, an error in the axiomatization of Ivlev’s modal system Sa+ which we inadvertedly reproduced in our paper “Finite non-deterministic semantics for some modal systems”, is fixed. Additionally, some axioms proposed in were slightly modified. All the technical results in which depend on the previous axiomatization were also fixed. Finally, the discussion about decidability of the level valuation semantics initiated in is taken up. The error in Ivlev’s axiomatization was originally pointed out by H. Omori and D. Skurt (...)
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  42. Basic Action Deontic Logic.Alessandro Giordani & Ilaria Canavotto - 2016 - In O. Roy, T. Allard & W. Malte (eds.), Deontic Logic and Normative Systems. College Publications. pp. 80-92.
    The aim of this paper is to introduce a system of dynamic deontic logic in which the main problems related to the de finition of deontic concepts, especially those emerging from a standard analysis of permission in terms of possibility of doing an action without incurring in a violation of the law, are solved. The basic idea is to introduce two crucial distinctions allowing us to differentiate (i) what is ideal with respect to a given code, which fixes the types (...)
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  43. Philosophical Applications of Modal Logic.Lloyd Humberstone - 2016 - College Publications.
  44. The Problem of Cross-World Predication.Alexander Kocurek - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (6):697-742.
    While standard first-order modal logic is quite powerful, it cannot express even very simple sentences like “I could have been taller than I actually am” or “Everyone could have been smarter than they actually are”. These are examples of cross-world predication, whereby objects in one world are related to objects in another world. Extending first-order modal logic to allow for cross-world predication in a motivated way has proven to be notoriously difficult. In this paper, I argue that the standard accounts (...)
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  45. Vagueness & Modality—An Ecumenical Approach.Jon Erling Litland & Juhani Yli-Vakkuri - 2016 - Philosophical Perspectives 30 (1):229-269.
    How does vagueness interact with metaphysical modality and with restrictions of it, such as nomological modality? In particular, how do definiteness, necessity (understood as restricted in some way or not), and actuality interact? This paper proposes a model-theoretic framework for investigating the logic and semantics of that interaction. The framework is put forward in an ecumenical spirit: it is intended to be applicable to all theories of vagueness that express vagueness using a definiteness (or: determinacy) operator. We will show how (...)
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  46. A Unified Semantics for a Family of Modal Logics with Propositional Constants.Matteo Pascucci - 2016 - Logica Universalis 10 (1):45-66.
    This article concerns the metatheory of a class of modal logics whose language includes propositional constants of various kinds. The main novelties are the use of general frames with specific restrictions and the definition of the strict range of a formula. Many examples from the literature are treated within the framework provided and some traditional model-theoretic issues such as preservation results concerning the validity of formulas and definability results concerning frame properties are addressed.
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  47. Chalmers, semantiikka ja välttämättömyys.Panu Raatikainen - 2016 - In Mahdollisuus. Helsinki: Suomen Filosofinen Yhdistys.
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  48. Between the Actual and the Trivial World.Maciej Sendłak - 2016 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 23 (2):162-176.
    The subject of this paper is the notion of similarity between the actual and impossible worlds. Many believe that this notion is governed by two rules. Ac-cording to the first rule, every non-trivial world is more similar to the actual world than the trivial world is. The second rule states that every possible world is more similar to the actual world than any impossible world is. The aim of this paper is to challenge both of these rules. We argue that (...)
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  49. Modal Semantics Without Worlds.Craig Warmke - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (11):702-715.
    Over the last half century, possible worlds have bled into almost every area of philosophy. In the metaphysics of modality, for example, philosophers have used possible worlds almost exclusively to illuminate discourse about metaphysical necessity and possibility. But recently, some have grown dissatisfied with possible worlds. Why are horses necessarily mammals? Because the property of being a horse bears a special relationship to the property of being a mammal, they say. Not because every horse is a mammal in every possible (...)
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  50. Reply to Yli-Vakkuri.Timothy Williamson - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):839-851.
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