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  1. added 2018-12-14
    Playing With The Past.Erik M. Champion - 2010 - London: Springer.
    How can we increase awareness and understanding of other cultures using interactive digital visualizations of past civilizations? In order to answer the above question, this book first examines the needs and requirements of virtual travelers and virtual tourists. Is there a market for virtual travel? Erik Champion examines the overall success of current virtual environments, especially the phenomenon of computer gaming. Why are computer games and simulations so much more successful than other types of virtual environments? Arguments that virtual environments (...)
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  2. added 2018-10-16
    Part 3: Programming Atomic and Gravitational Orbitals in a Simulation Hypothesis.Malcolm J. Macleod - manuscript
    This article introduces a method for programming orbitals at the Planck level. Mathematical probability orbitals are replaced with units of `orbit momentum' with orbital regions derived from geometrical imperatives rather than abstract forces. In this approach the electron does not orbit around a nucleus but rather is maintained within an orbital region by the confines of the geometry of the orbital (this orbit momentum is the orbital). There is no electron transition between orbitals, rather the existing orbital is exchanged for (...)
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  3. added 2018-09-16
    Nihilismus der Transparenz. Grenzen der Medienphilosophie Jean Baudrillards.Gregor Schiemann - 2013 - In Jan-Hendrik Möller (ed.), Paradoxalität des Medialen. Fink Verlag. pp. 237-254.
    Jean Baudrillards Kulturphilosophie läßt sich durch die Behauptung charakterisieren, daß die Medien in der modernen Kultur vorherrschend geworden sind. Seine These, die Medien hätten jeden Bezug zu einer von ihnen unabhängigen Realität verloren, haben zahlreiche Autorinnen und Autoren nihilistisch genannt. Das Zutreffende dieser Kennzeichnung verdankt sich im Wesentlichen einem eingeschränkten, auf das 19. Jahrhundert zurückweisenden Begriff des Nihilismus. Allerdings nimmt Baudrillard auf Phänomene Bezug, die er historisch später verortet und die sich ihrer Struktur nach kategorial von den Funktionen der Medien (...)
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  4. added 2018-09-04
    Mathematical Shortcomings in a Simulated Universe.Samuel Alexander - 2018 - The Reasoner 12 (9):71-72.
    I present an argument that for any computer-simulated civilization we design, the mathematical knowledge recorded by that civilization has one of two limitations. It is untrustworthy, or it is weaker than our own mathematical knowledge. This is paradoxical because it seems that nothing prevents us from building in all sorts of advantages for the inhabitants of said simulation.
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  5. added 2018-08-25
    Programming Planck Units From a Virtual Electron; a Simulation Hypothesis.Malcolm J. Macleod - 2018 - European Physical Journal Plus 133:278.
    The simulation hypothesis proposes that all of reality is an artificial simulation. In this article I describe a simulation model that derives Planck level units as geometrical forms from a virtual (dimensionless) electron formula $f_e$ that is constructed from 2 unit-less mathematical constants; the fine structure constant $\alpha$ and $\Omega$ = 2.00713494... ($f_e = 4\pi^2r^3, r = 2^6 3 \pi^2 \alpha \Omega^5$). The mass, space, time, charge units are embedded in $f_e$ according to these ratio; ${M^9T^{11}/L^{15}} = (AL)^3/T$ (units = (...)
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  6. added 2018-07-03
    A Type of Simulation Which Some Experimental Evidence Suggests We Don't Live In.Samuel Alexander - 2018 - The Reasoner 12 (7):56-56.
    Do we live in a computer simulation? I will present an argument that the results of a certain experiment constitute empirical evidence that we do not live in, at least, one type of simulation. The type of simulation ruled out is very specific. Perhaps that is the price one must pay to make any kind of Popperian progress.
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  7. added 2018-05-30
    Is Bit It?Jennifer Nielsen - 2013 - FQXI Award Winners - 2013.
    In his famous “It from Bit” essay, John Wheeler contends that the stuff of the physical universe (“it”) arises from information (“bits” – encoded yes or no answers). Wheeler’s question and assumptions are re-examined from a post Aspect experiment perspective. Information is examined and discussed in terms of classical information and “quanglement” (nonlocal state sharing). An argument is made that the universe may arise from (or together with) quanglement but not via classical yes/no information coding.
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  8. added 2018-05-09
    Programming Planck Units From a Virtual Electron; a Simulation Hypothesis (Summary).Malcolm Macleod - 2018 - Eur. Phys. J. Plus 133:278.
    The Simulation Hypothesis proposes that all of reality, including the earth and the universe, is in fact an artificial simulation, analogous to a computer simulation, and as such our reality is an illusion. In this essay I describe a method for programming mass, length, time and charge (MLTA) as geometrical objects derived from the formula for a virtual electron; $f_e = 4\pi^2r^3$ ($r = 2^6 3 \pi^2 \alpha \Omega^5$) where the fine structure constant $\alpha$ = 137.03599... and $\Omega$ = 2.00713494... (...)
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  9. added 2018-04-10
    The Mathematical Theory of Categories in Biology and the Concept of Natural Equivalence in Robert Rosen.Franck Varenne - 2013 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 66 (1):167-197.
    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze the epistemological justification of a proposal initially made by the biomathematician Robert Rosen in 1958. In this theoretical proposal, Rosen suggests using the mathematical concept of “category” and the correlative concept of “natural equivalence” in mathematical modeling applied to living beings. Our questions are the following: According to Rosen, to what extent does the mathematical notion of category give access to more “natural” formalisms in the modeling of living beings? Is (...)
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  10. added 2018-04-10
    Du Modèle à la Simulation Informatique.Franck Varenne - 2007 - Vrin.
    Avec l’évolution récente des modèles mathématiques vers des simulations informatiques, les formalisations du vivant sont de plus en plus intégratives, mixtes et, en un sens, réalistes. Plus généralement, les formalisations d’objets complexes deviennent assises sur et non plus seulement traitées par l’infrastructure informatique.Quelle est la véritable portée épistémologique de cette empirie simulée? Comment la distinguer de la créativité proprement interne aux mathématiques dont la philosophie des sciences a déjà su rendre compte?En se penchant sur les modèles de plantes, cette enquête (...)
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  11. added 2018-01-11
    Semiotics and Intelligent Systems Development.R. Gudwin & J. Queiroz (eds.) - 2007 - Idea Group.
  12. added 2017-10-24
    Simulation, Self-Extinction, and Philosophy in the Service of Human Civilization.Jeffrey White - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (2):171-190.
  13. added 2017-03-10
    Are You Living in a Computer Simulation?Nick Bostrom - unknown
    This paper argues that at least one of the following propositions is true: the human species is very likely to go extinct before reaching a "posthuman" stage; any posthuman civilization is extremely unlikely to run a significant number of simulations of their evolutionary history ; we are almost certainly living in a computer simulation. It follows that the belief that there is a significant chance that we will one day become posthumans who run ancestor-simulations is false, unless we are currently (...)
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  14. added 2017-03-08
    Are We Living in a Computer Simulation?By Nick Bostrom - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (211):243–255.
    This paper argues that at least one of the following propositions is true: (1) the human species is very likely to go extinct before reaching a “posthuman” stage; (2) any posthuman civilization is extremely unlikely to run a significant number of simulations of their evolutionary history (or variations thereof); (3) we are almost certainly living in a computer simulation. It follows that the belief that there is a significant chance that we will one day become posthumans who run ancestor-simulations is (...)
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  15. added 2017-02-26
    Correcting Errors in the Bostrom/Kulczycki Simulation Arguments.Wehr Robert Dustin - manuscript
    Both patched versions of the Bostrom/Kulczycki simulation argument contain serious objective errors, discovered while attempting to formalize them in predicate logic. The English glosses of both versions involve badly misleading meanings of vague magnitude terms, which their impressiveness benefits from. We fix the errors, prove optimal versions of the arguments, and argue that both are much less impressive than they originally appeared. Finally, we provide a guide for readers to evaluate the simulation argument for themselves, using well-justified settings of the (...)
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  16. added 2016-12-08
    Models, Measurement and Computer Simulation: The Changing Face of Experimentation.Margaret Morrison - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 143 (1):33-57.
    The paper presents an argument for treating certain types of computer simulation as having the same epistemic status as experimental measurement. While this may seem a rather counterintuitive view it becomes less so when one looks carefully at the role that models play in experimental activity, particularly measurement. I begin by discussing how models function as “measuring instruments” and go on to examine the ways in which simulation can be said to constitute an experimental activity. By focussing on the connections (...)
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  17. added 2016-11-26
    MODELS AND LOGIC OF SUBJECTIVE REALITY. SUBJECTIVE WORLDS.Alexey Bakhirev - manuscript
  18. added 2016-10-11
    From Silico to Vitro: Computational Models of Complex Biological Systems Reveal Real-World Emergent Phenomena.Orly Stettiner - 2014 - In Vincent C. Muller (ed.), Computing and Philosophy, Selected Papaers from IACAP 2014. Springer. pp. 133-147.
    Computer simulations constitute a significant scientific tool for promoting scientific understanding of natural phenomena and dynamic processes. Substantial leaps in computational force and software engineering methodologies now allow the design and development of large-scale biological models, which – when combined with advanced graphics tools – may produce realistic biological scenarios, that reveal new scientific explanations and knowledge about real life phenomena. A state-of-the-art simulation system termed Reactive Animation (RA) will serve as a study case to examine the contemporary philosophical debate (...)
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  19. added 2016-09-01
    The Formal Sciences Discover the Philosophers' Stone.James Franklin - 1994 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 25 (4):513-533.
    The formal sciences - mathematical as opposed to natural sciences, such as operations research, statistics, theoretical computer science, systems engineering - appear to have achieved mathematically provable knowledge directly about the real world. It is argued that this appearance is correct.
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  20. added 2016-06-13
    David Wolpert on Impossibility, Incompleteness, the Liar Paradox, the Limits of Computation, a Non-Quantum Mechanical Uncertainty Principle and the Universe as Computer—the Ultimate Theorem in Turing Machine Theory.Michael Starks - manuscript
    I have read many recent discussions of the limits of computation and the universe as computer, hoping to find some comments on the amazing work of polymath physicist and decision theorist David Wolpert but have not found a single citation and so I present this very brief summary. Wolpert proved some stunning impossibility or incompleteness theorems (1992 to 2008-see arxiv.org) on the limits to inference (computation) that are so general they are independent of the device doing the computation, and even (...)
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  21. added 2016-03-17
    Validation and Verification in Social Simulation: Patterns and Clarification of Terminology.Nuno David - 2009 - Epistemological Aspects of Computer Simulation in the Social Sciences, EPOS 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Squazzoni, Flaminio (Ed.) 5466:117-129.
    The terms ‘verification’ and ‘validation’ are widely used in science, both in the natural and the social sciences. They are extensively used in simulation, often associated with the need to evaluate models in different stages of the simulation development process. Frequently, terminological ambiguities arise when researchers conflate, along the simulation development process, the technical meanings of both terms with other meanings found in the philosophy of science and the social sciences. This article considers the problem of verification and validation in (...)
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  22. added 2016-03-17
    Simulation as Formal and Generative Social Science: The Very Idea.Nuno David, Jaime Sichman & Helder Coelho - 2007 - In Carlos Gershenson, Diederik Aerts & Bruce Edmonds (eds.), Worldviews, Science, and Us: Philosophy and Complexity. World Scientific. pp. 266--275.
    The formal and empirical-generative perspectives of computation are demonstrated to be inadequate to secure the goals of simulation in the social sciences. Simulation does not resemble formal demonstrations or generative mechanisms that deductively explain how certain models are sufficient to generate emergent macrostructures of interest. The description of scientific practice implies additional epistemic conceptions of scientific knowledge. Three kinds of knowledge that account for a comprehensive description of the discipline were identified: formal, empirical and intentional knowledge. The use of formal (...)
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  23. added 2016-03-17
    The Logic of the Method of Agent-Based Simulation in the Social Sciences: Empirical and Intentional Adequacy of Computer Programs.Nuno David, Jaime Sichman & Helder Coleho - 2005 - Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 8 (4).
    The classical theory of computation does not represent an adequate model of reality for simulation in the social sciences. The aim of this paper is to construct a methodological perspective that is able to conciliate the formal and empirical logic of program verification in computer science, with the interpretative and multiparadigmatic logic of the social sciences. We attempt to evaluate whether social simulation implies an additional perspective about the way one can understand the concepts of program and computation. We demonstrate (...)
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  24. added 2015-08-26
    Mathematics, The Computer Revolution and the Real World.James Franklin - 1988 - Philosophica 42:79-92.
    The philosophy of mathematics has largely abandoned foundational studies, but is still fixated on theorem proving, logic and number theory, and on whether mathematical knowledge is certain. That is not what mathematics looks like to, say, a knot theorist or an industrial mathematical modeller. The "computer revolution" shows that mathematics is a much more direct study of the world, especially its structural aspects.
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  25. added 2015-06-23
    Programming the Emergence in Morphogenetically Architected Complex Systems.Franck Varenne, Pierre Chaigneau, Jean Petitot & René Doursat - 2015 - Acta Biotheoretica 63 (3):295-308.
    Large sets of elements interacting locally and producing specific architectures reliably form a category that transcends the usual dividing line between biological and engineered systems. We propose to call them morphogenetically architected complex systems (MACS). While taking the emergence of properties seriously, the notion of MACS enables at the same time the design (or “meta-design”) of operational means that allow controlling and even, paradoxically, programming this emergence. To demonstrate our claim, we first show that among all the self-organized systems studied (...)
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  26. added 2015-02-07
    The Peer-to-Peer Simulation Hypothesis and a New Theory of Free Will.Marcus Arvan - 2015 - Scientia Salon.
  27. added 2014-10-21
    Information Dynamics in Virtual Worlds: Gaming and Beyond.Woody Evans - 2011 - Chandos.
    Presents a broad examination of the nature of virtual worlds and the potential they provide in managing and expressing information practices through that medium, grounding information professionals and students of new media in the fundamental elements of virtual worlds and online gaming. The book details the practical issues in finding and using information in virtual environments and presents a general theory of librarianship as it relates to virtual gaming worlds. It is encompassed by a set of best practice methods that (...)
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  28. added 2014-08-29
    A Realism-Based Approach to the Evolution of Biomedical Ontologies.Barry Smith - 2006 - In Proceedings of the Annual AMIA Symposium. Washington, DC: American Medical Informatics Association. pp. 121-125.
    We present a novel methodology for calculating the improvements obtained in successive versions of biomedical ontologies. The theory takes into account changes both in reality itself and in our understanding of this reality. The successful application of the theory rests on the willingness of ontology authors to document changes they make by following a number of simple rules. The theory provides a pathway by which ontology authoring can become a science rather than an art, following principles analogous to those that (...)
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  29. added 2014-04-14
    Digital Metaphysics.Eric Steinhart - 1998 - In Terrell Ward Bynum & James Moor (eds.), The Digital Phoenix: How Computers Are Changing Philosophy. Blackwell. pp. 117--134.
    I discuss the view, increasingly common in physics, that the foundational level of our physical reality is a network of computing machines (so that our universe is ultimately like a cellular automaton). I discuss finitely extended and divided (discrete) space-time and discrete causality. I examine reasons for thinking that the foundational computational complexity of our universe is finite. I discuss the emergence of an ordered complexity hierarchy of levels of objects over the foundational level and I show how the special (...)
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  30. added 2014-04-02
    The Instructional Information Processing Account of Digital Computation.Nir Fresco & Marty J. Wolf - 2014 - Synthese 191 (7):1469-1492.
    What is nontrivial digital computation? It is the processing of discrete data through discrete state transitions in accordance with finite instructional information. The motivation for our account is that many previous attempts to answer this question are inadequate, and also that this account accords with the common intuition that digital computation is a type of information processing. We use the notion of reachability in a graph to defend this characterization in memory-based systems and underscore the importance of instructional information for (...)
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  31. added 2014-03-18
    Universe Creation on a Computer.Gordon McCabe - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 36 (4):591-625.
    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of the epistemology and metaphysics of universe creation on a computer. The paper begins with F.J.Tipler's argument that our experience is indistinguishable from the experience of someone embedded in a perfect computer simulation of our own universe, hence we cannot know whether or not we are part of such a computer program ourselves. Tipler's argument is treated as a special case of epistemological scepticism, in a similar vein to `brain-in-a-vat' arguments. (...)
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  32. added 2014-03-12
    How Digital Computer Simulations Explain Real‐World Processes.Ulrich Krohs - 2008 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 22 (3):277 – 292.
    Scientists of many disciplines use theoretical models to explain and predict the dynamics of the world. They often have to rely on digital computer simulations to draw predictions fromthe model. But to deliver phenomenologically adequate results, simulations deviate from the assumptions of the theoretical model. Therefore the role of simulations in scientific explanation demands itself an explanation. This paper analyzes the relation between real-world system, theoretical model, and simulation. It is argued that simulations do not explain processes in the real (...)
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  33. added 2014-02-06
    What Is It Like to Be a Brain Simulation?Eray Özkural - 2012 - LNCS: Artificial General Intelligence 2012 (7716):232-241.
    We frame the question of what kind of subjective experience a brain simulation would have in contrast to a biological brain. We discuss the brain prosthesis thought experiment. Then, we identify finer questions relating to the original inquiry, and set out to answer them moving forward from both a general physicalist perspective, and pan-experientialism. We propose that the brain simulation is likely to have subjective experience, however, it may differ significantly from human experience. Additionally, we discuss the relevance of quantum (...)
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  34. added 2013-12-03
    BIT From BIT (IT).Rowan Grigg - manuscript
    The author suggests the subjugation of physical reality (IT) to a pair of self-supporting virtual realities (BIT from BIT), neither of which exists without the other.
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  35. added 2013-11-02
    Reality Revealed: The Theory of Multidimensional Reality.Douglas B. Vogt - 1977 - Vector Associates.
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  36. added 2013-08-21
    Introduction to Singularity Edition of JCS.Uziel Awret - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (1-2):7-15.
  37. added 2013-06-18
    Computing Nature.Gordana Dodig-Crncovic & Raffaela Giovagnoli - 2013 - Springer.
    The articles in this volume present a selection of works from the Symposium on Natu-ral/Unconventional Computing at AISB/IACAP (British Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour and The International Association for Computing and Philosophy) World Congress 2012, held at the University of Birmingham, celebrating Turing centenary. This book is about nature considered as the totality of physical existence, the universe. By physical we mean all phenomena - objects and processes - that are possible to detect (...)
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  38. added 2013-03-23
    Chains of Reference in Computer Simulations.Franck Varenne - 2013 - FMSH Working Papers 51:1-32.
    This paper proposes an extensionalist analysis of computer simulations (CSs). It puts the emphasis not on languages nor on models, but on symbols, on their extensions, and on their various ways of referring. It shows that chains of reference of symbols in CSs are multiple and of different kinds. As they are distinct and diverse, these chains enable different kinds of remoteness of reference and different kinds of validation for CSs. Although some methodological papers have already underlined the role of (...)
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  39. added 2013-02-06
    Misbehaving Machines: The Emulated Brains of Transhumanist Dreams.Corry Shores - 2011 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 22 (1):10-22.
    Enhancement technologies may someday grant us capacities far beyond what we now consider humanly possible. Nick Bostrom and Anders Sandberg suggest that we might survive the deaths of our physical bodies by living as computer emulations.­­ In 2008, they issued a report, or “roadmap,” from a conference where experts in all relevant fields collaborated to determine the path to “whole brain emulation.” Advancing this technology could also aid philosophical research. Their “roadmap” defends certain philosophical assumptions required for this technology’s success, (...)
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  40. added 2012-07-12
    Simulation and the Problem of Simplification.Gerhard König - 2013 - Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):81-91.
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  41. added 2011-11-13
    “Machine” Consciousness and “Artificial” Thought: An Operational Architectonics Model Guided Approach.Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts & Carlos F. H. Neves - 2012 - Brain Research 1428:80-92.
    Instead of using low-level neurophysiology mimicking and exploratory programming methods commonly used in the machine consciousness field, the hierarchical Operational Architectonics (OA) framework of brain and mind functioning proposes an alternative conceptual-theoretical framework as a new direction in the area of model-driven machine (robot) consciousness engineering. The unified brain-mind theoretical OA model explicitly captures (though in an informal way) the basic essence of brain functional architecture, which indeed constitutes a theory of consciousness. The OA describes the neurophysiological basis of the (...)
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  42. added 2011-06-14
    What Do Numerical (Climate) Models Really Represent?Gabriele Gramelsberger - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (2):296-302.
    The translation of a mathematical model into a numerical one employs various modifications in order to make the model accessible for computation. Such modifications include discretizations, approximations, heuristic assumptions, and other methods. The paper investigates the divergent styles of mathematical and numerical models in the case of a specific piece of code in a current atmospheric model. Cognizance of these modifications means that the question of the role and function of scientific models has to be reworked. Neither are numerical models (...)
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  43. added 2011-03-06
    Beyond Good and Evil? Morality in Video Games.Geert Gooskens - 2011 - Philosophical Writings (1):37-44.
  44. added 2009-09-15
    A Case for Lattice Schemes in Fundamental Physics.Rowan Grigg - unknown
    A synthesis of trending topics in pancomputationalism. I introduce the notion that "strange loops" engender the most atomic levels of physical reality, and introduce a mechanism for global non-locality. Writen in a simple and accesssible style, it seeks to draw research in fundamental physics back to realism, and have a bit of fun in the process.
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  45. added 2009-09-08
    Structure and Domain-Independence in the Formal Sciences.James Franklin - 1999 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 30:721-723.
    Replies to Kevin de Laplante’s ‘Certainty and Domain-Independence in the Sciences of Complexity’ (de Laplante, 1999), defending the thesis of J. Franklin, ‘The formal sciences discover the philosophers’ stone’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 25 (1994), 513-33, that the sciences of complexity can combine certain knowledge with direct applicability to reality.
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