About this topic
Summary Social ontology studies the metaphysics of social phenomena. Topics include the nature of groups, collective action, and social construction. Social metaphysics is important for other areas of philosophy, including critical feminist and race theory, moral collective responsibility, and action theory.
Key works An early and prominent account of social construction can be found in Searle 1995, and a highly influential discussion of social construction is contained in Haslanger 2012. Accounts of collective action are in Gilbert 1989 and Tuomela 1995. A recent and important general metaphysics of the social world is presented in Epstein 2015.
Introductions

Haslanger 2000Tuomela 2005Epstein 2019.

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  1. added 2020-05-25
    Instituutioiden olemassaolosta eli filosofinen saunailta Searlen ja Hegelin seurassa.Heikki Ikäheimo - 2005 - In Jussi Kotkavirta (ed.), Muoto ja metodi. pp. 163-173.
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  2. added 2020-05-23
    Proprietary Reasons and Joint Action.Abraham Roth - forthcoming - In A. Fiebich (ed.), Minimal Cooperation and Shared Agency.
    Some of the reasons one acts on in joint action are shared with fellow participants. But others are proprietary: reasons of one’s own that have no direct practical significance for other participants. The compatibility of joint action with proprietary reasons serves to distinguish the former from other forms of collective agency; moreover, it is arguably a desirable feature of joint action. Advocates of “team reasoning” link the special collective intention individual participants have when acting together with a distinctive form of (...)
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  3. added 2020-05-22
    Presence of Mind: A Political Posture.Saba Fatima - 2012 - Social Philosophy Today 28:131-146.
    The political posture often encouraged in liberatory movements is that of urgency. Urgency is based on the idea that if oppressed peoples do not act “now,” then their fate is forever sealed as subordinates within social and political power hierarchies. This paper focuses on a contrasting political posture, termed presence of mind, motivated by the current political atmosphere of distrust and disenfranchisement in which some Muslim-Americans find themselves. Presence of mind is defined as the ability to critically unpack visceral affective (...)
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  4. added 2020-05-21
    Recognition, Identity, and Subjectivity.Heikki Ikäheimo - 2017 - In Michael J. Thompson (ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Theory. pp. 567-585.
  5. added 2020-05-21
    Ethical Perfectionism in Social Ontology - a Hegelian Alternative.Heikki Ikäheimo - 2016 - In Italo Testa & Luigi Ruggiu (eds.), "I that is We, We that is I" Perspectives on Contemporary Hegelianism. pp. 49-67.
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  6. added 2020-05-21
    On the Nature of Social and Institutional Reality.Heikki Ikäheimo, Eerik Lagerspetz & Jussi Kotkavirta (eds.) - 2001 - SoPhi.
    What is the nature of the social reality? How do the major social institutions like money or law exist? What are the limits of individualistically-oriented social theories?These and related problems are intensely discussed in philosophy, in legal theory and in the methodology of social sciences. This collection brings together the different traditions of the contemporary discussion. It includes thought-provoking articles by John Searle, Margaret Gilbert, Ota Weinberger, Raimo Tuomela, Eerik Lagerspetz, Michael Quante, Cristina Redondo and Paolo Comanducci. -/- ”Wonderful selection (...)
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  7. added 2020-05-17
    First Things First Redistribution, Recognition and Justification.Rainer Forst - 2007 - European Journal of Political Theory 6 (3):291-304.
    This article analyses the debate between Nancy Fraser and Axel Honneth in a dialectical fashion. Their controversy about how to construct a critical theory of justice is not just one about the proper balance between `redistribution' and `recognition', it also involves basic questions of social ontology. Differing both from Fraser's `twodimensional' view of `participatory parity' and from Honneth's `monistic' theory of recognition, the article argues for a third view of `justificatory monism and diagnosticevaluative pluralism', also called the `first-things-first' approach. According (...)
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  8. added 2020-05-15
    Ontology and Political Theory: A Critical Encounter Between Rawls and Foucault.Irena Rosenthal - 2016 - European Journal of Political Theory 18 (2):147488511665963.
    Contemporary political thought is deeply divided about the role of ontology in political thinking. Famously, political liberal John Rawls has argued that ontological claims are best to be avoided in political thought. In recent years, however, a number of theorists have claimed that ontology is essential to political philosophy. According to the contributors to this ‘ontological turn’, ontological investigations may foster the politicisation of hegemonic political theories and can highlight new possibilities for political life. This essay aims to contribute to (...)
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  9. added 2020-05-15
    Историческата приемственост в глобализиращото догонване (Historical Continuity in Globalizing Overtaking).Vasil Penchev - 2009 - Sofia: Acdemic Publishing House.
    Книгата "Историческата приемственост в глобализиращото догонване" е посветена на осмислянето на догонващото развитие на основата lIа историческата приемственост. Основа на разглеждането са историко-философските възгледи на Мартин Хайдегер, като акцентът е pреместен от екзистенциалността, съответно екзистенциала на Грижата, върху историчността и съответно върху Съдбата, разбирана посредством Избора . Същностно е разглеждането както на понятието, така и на историческия екзистенциал за Историческо време. Последното не съвпада с природното, тъй като е неравномерно, нехомогенно, притежава сложна вътрешна структура, може да се разглежда съсредоточено в (...)
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  10. added 2020-05-15
    Ian Hacking, Learner Categories and Human Taxonomies.Andrew Davis - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 42 (3-4):441-455.
    I use Ian Hacking 's views to explore ways of classifying people, exploiting his distinction between indifferent kinds and interactive kinds, and his accounts of how we 'make up' people. The natural kind/essentialist approach to indifferent kinds is explored in some depth. I relate this to debates in psychiatry about the existence of mental illness, and to educational controversies about the credentials of learner classifications such as 'dyslexic'. Claims about the 'existence' of learning disabilities cannot be given a clear, simple (...)
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  11. added 2020-05-14
    Историята на СССР.Vasil Penchev - 2008 - Sofia: BAS: IPhR (IPS).
    The book is a philosophical reflection on the history of the USSR based on the civilization approach. It is interpreted in terms of Ortodox civilzation rather than in terms of the marxist philosophy of history. "Long-run" civiliaztion dominants of Orthodox Christianity determines the "Soviet period" in th Orthodox "longue durée". This philosophical viewpoint leads to a radical reinterpretation of the history of the USSR ...
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  12. added 2020-05-13
    Математизирането на историята: число и битие.Vasil Penchev - 2013 - Sofia: BAS: ISSk (IPR).
    The book is a philosophical refection on the possibility of mathematical history. Are poosible models of historical phenomena so exact as those of physical ones? Mathematical models borrowed from quantum mechanics by the meditation of its interpretations are accomodated to history. The conjecture of many-variant history, alternative history, or counterfactual history is necessary for mathematical history. Conclusions about philosophy of history are inferred.
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  13. added 2020-05-11
    Civil Disobedience, William E. Scheuerman, Cambridge and Medford, MA: Polity Press, 2018.Ervin Kondakciu - 2019 - Constellations 26 (3):508-510.
  14. added 2020-05-10
    Differentiating Philosopher From Statesman According to Work and Worth.Jens Kristian Larsen - forthcoming - Polis.
    Plato’s Sophist and Statesman stand out from many other Platonic dialogues by at least two features. First, they do not raise a ti esti question about a single virtue or feature of something, but raise the questions what sophist, statesman, and philosopher are, how they differ from each other, and what worth each should be accorded. Second, a visitor from Elea, rather than Socrates, seeks to addressed these questions and does so by employing what is commonly referred to as the (...)
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  15. added 2020-05-09
    Levinas and the question of politics.Robert Froese - 2020 - Contemporary Political Theory 19 (1):1-19.
    Recent political critiques and appropriations of Emmanuel Levinas’ work demonstrate the need to fundamentally re-evaluate the meaning and status of his philosophy. Both the Marxist critiques and ‘third wave’ applications interpret Levinas’ singular and unique relation to others—a bond which prohibits even the slightest trace of historical, hermeneutic, or political context—as the greatest obstacle to a Levinasian politics. From this standpoint, Levinas offers little more than a hyperbolic ethics that, at best, ignores, and, at worst, provides philosophical cover for, the (...)
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  16. added 2020-04-30
    Putnam's Naturalism and Realism Extended to Social Systems and Nonclassical Mereology.James Goetz - manuscript
    Putnam proposed liberal naturalism and metaphysical realism that extends to normative judgments and coheres with the principle of bivalence. This paper extends Putnam's naturalism and realism to a model of social systems ranging from jawless vertebrates to legal systems while the systems exhibit nonclassical mereology. The model defines types of entities and material, and focuses on natural interactions that cause organization, the dynamics of scientific entities, and the composition of social groups which includes communication and the emergence of synergy.
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  17. added 2020-04-13
    The Creation of Institutional Reality, Special Theory of Relativity, and Mere Cambridge Change.Tobias Hansson Wahlberg - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Saying so can make it so, J. L. Austin taught us long ago. Famously, John Searle has developed this Austinian insight in an account of the construction of institutional reality. Searle maintains that so-called Status Function Declarations, allegedly having a “double direction of fit”, synchronically create worldly institutional facts, corresponding to the propositional content of the declarations. I argue that Searle’s account of the making of institutional reality is in tension with the special theory of relativity – irrespective of whether (...)
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  18. added 2020-04-11
    Social Ontology, Normativity and Philosophy of Law.Rachael Mellin & Raimo Tuomela - forthcoming - De Gruyter.
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  19. added 2020-03-21
    Beyond the "Logic of Purity": "Post-Post-Intersectional" Glimpses in Decolonial Feminism.Anna Carastathis - 2019 - In Pedro DiPietro, Jennifer McWeeny & Shireen Roshanravan (eds.), Speaking Face to Face/Hablando Cara a Cara: The Visionary Philosophy of María Lugones. New York, NY, USA:
    This chapter examines María Lugones’s germane and insightful attempt to theorize “intermeshed oppressions,” which, she argues, have been (mis)represented in women of color feminisms by the concepts of “interlocking systems of oppression” and, more recently, “intersectionality.” The latter, intersectionality, introduced by Black feminist legal scholar Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw as a metaphor (1989) and as a “provisional concept” (1991), has become the predominant way of referencing the mutual constitution of what have been theorized as multiple systems of oppression, constructing the multiplicity (...)
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  20. added 2020-03-21
    Justice, Community and Globalization: Groundwork to a Communal-Cosmopolitanism.Joshua Anderson - 2019 - New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
    This book takes up the tension between globalization and community in order to articulate a new theory of global justice. Although the process of globalization is not new, its current manifestation and consequences are. At the same time, there is a growing recognition of the importance of community, identity and belonging. These two facts have generally been understood to be fundamentally in tension, both theoretically and descriptively. This book seeks to resolve this tension, and then draw out the implications for (...)
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  21. added 2020-03-20
    Circularity in Searle’s Social Ontology: With a Hegelian Reply.José Luis Fernández - 2020 - International Journal of Society, Culture and Language 8 (1):16-24.
    John Searle’s theory of social ontology posits that there are indispensable normative components in the linguistic apparatuses termed status functions, collective intentionality, and collective recognition, all of which, he argues, make the social world. In this paper, I argue that these building blocks of Searle’s social ontology are caught in a petitio of constitutive circularity. Moreover, I note how Searle fails to observe language in reciprocal relation to the institutions which not only are shaped by it but also shape language’s (...)
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  22. added 2020-03-13
    Are Institutions Created by Collective Acceptance?Danny Frederick - forthcoming - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-13.
    John Searle, in several articles and books, has contended that institutions incorporating status functions with deontic powers are created by collective acceptance. I argue that collective acceptance can create new status functions with deontic powers only if other status functions with deontic powers already exist, so that collective acceptance can create new institutions only if other institutions are presupposed. So, the claim that institutions depend upon collective acceptance involves a vicious infinite regress. I provide an example to show how an (...)
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  23. added 2020-03-06
    Contemporary Philosophy and Social Science: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue.Michiru Nagatsu & Attilia Ruzzene (eds.) - 2019 - London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  24. added 2020-03-03
    Anchoring Versus Grounding: Reply to Schaffer.Brian Epstein - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 99 (3):768-781.
    In his insightful and challenging paper, Jonathan Schaffer argues against a distinction I make in The Ant Trap (Epstein 2015) and related articles. I argue that in addition to the widely discussed “grounding” relation, there is a different kind of metaphysical determination I name “anchoring.” Grounding and anchoring are distinct, and both need to be a part of full explanations of how facts are metaphysically determined. Schaffer argues instead that anchoring is a species of grounding. The crux of his argument (...)
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  25. added 2020-03-03
    Biko on Non-White and Black: Improving Social Reality.Brian Epstein - 2018 - In George Hull (ed.), Debating African Philosophy: Perspectives on Identity, Decolonial Ethics and Comparative Philosophy. New York: Routledge. pp. 97-117.
    This paper examines Steve Biko’s distinction between black and non-white as a project in the “amelioration” of social concepts and categories. Biko himself—it has been persuasively argued by Mabogo More and Lewis Gordon—writes in the tradition of existential phenomenology. More and Gordon explore Biko’s continuity with Frantz Fanon, and in this paper I draw on their interpretations, attempting to complement and elaborate on these continuities. I also, however, attempt to show how Biko moves beyond Fanon in crucial ways, solving problems (...)
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  26. added 2020-02-28
    How Are Bundles of Social Practices Constituted?Italo Testa - 2019 - Critical Horizons:1-12.
    n this paper, I analyse Rahel Jaeggi’s socio-ontological account of forms of life. I show that her framework is a two-sided one, since it involves an understanding of forms of life both as inert bundles of practices and as having a normative structure. Here I argue that this approach is based on an a priori argument which assumes normativity as the condition of intelligibility of social criticism. I show that the intimate tension between these two sides is reflected in the (...)
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  27. added 2020-02-21
    The Logic of Social Practices.Raffaela Giovagnoli (ed.) - 2020 - Cham: Springer.
    This book reports on cutting edge research concerning social practices. Merging perspectives from various disciplines, it discusses theoretical aspects of social behavior along with models to investigate them, and also presents key case studies. Further, it describes concepts related to habits, routines and rituals and examines important features of human action such as intentionality and choice, exploring the influence of specific social practices in different situations.
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  28. added 2020-02-19
    The Evolution of Social Contracts.Michael Vlerick - 2019 - Journal of Social Ontology 5 (2):181-203.
    Influential thinkers such as Young, Sugden, Binmore, and Skyrms have developed game-theoretic accounts of the emergence, persistence and evolution of social contracts. Social contracts are sets of commonly understood rules that govern cooperative social interaction within societies. These naturalistic accounts provide us with valuable and important insights into the foundations of human societies. However, current naturalistic theories focus mainly on how social contracts solve coordination problems in which the interests of the individual participants are aligned, not competition problems in which (...)
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  29. added 2020-02-16
    Interpersonal Obligation in Joint Action.Abraham Roth - 2018 - In Marija Jankovic & Kirk Ludwig (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Collective Intentionality. New York: Routledge. pp. 45-57.
  30. added 2020-02-12
    Of Layers and Lawyers.Michael Schmitz - forthcoming - In Miguel Garcia, Rachael Mellin & Raimo Tuomela (eds.), Social Ontology, Normativity and Philosophy of Law. Berlin: De Gruyter.
    How can the law be characterized in a theory of collective intentionality that treats collective intentionality as essentially layered and tries to understand these layers in terms of the structure and the format of the representations involved? And can such a theory of collective intentionality open up new perspectives on the law and shed new light on traditional questions of legal philosophy? As a philosopher of collective intentionality who is new to legal philosophy, I want to begin exploring these questions (...)
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  31. added 2020-02-03
    Review of What Is Rape? Social Theory and Conceptual Analysis by Hilkje Charlotte Hänel. [REVIEW]Caleb Ward - 2019 - Apa Newsletter on Feminism and Philosophy 19 (1):38-40.
  32. added 2020-01-29
    Social Objects.Barry Smith - 1999 - Philosophiques 26 (2):315-347.
    One reason for the renewed interest in Austrian philosophy, and especially in the work of Brentano and his followers, turns on the fact that analytic philosophers have become once again interested in the traditional problems of metaphysics. It was Brentano, Husserl, and the philosophers and psychologists whom they influenced, who drew attention to the thorny problem of intentionality, the problem of giving an account of the relation between acts and objects or, more generally, between the psychological environments of cognitive subjects (...)
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  33. added 2020-01-27
    Social Revolution and Ontological Project.Alex V. Halapsis - 2006 - Granì 45 (1):63-68.
    Social conflict is an indispensable attribute of historical being. The accumulation of a critical charge in society, expressed in the conflict between creator and manager (intellectual and ruler), which also resonates among the average person, leads to a general radicalization of public sentiment, which is fraught with a social revolution. In its course, the political counter-elite is transformed into a revolutionary elite, which takes over the leadership of the revolutionary process. Revolution is one of the options for resolving social conflicts. (...)
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  34. added 2020-01-19
    Understanding Race: The Case for Political Constructionism in Public Discourse.David Ludwig - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (4):492-504.
    The aim of this article is to develop an understanding-based argument for an explicitly political specification of the concept of race. It is argued that a specification of race in terms of hierarchical social positions is best equipped to guide causal reasoning about racial inequality in the public sphere. Furthermore, the article provides evidence that biological and cultural specifications of race mislead public reasoning by encouraging confusions between correlates and causes of racial inequality. The article concludes with a more general (...)
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  35. added 2020-01-06
    The Role of Oral History in Surviving a Eugenic Past.Robert A. Wilson - 2015 - In Steven High (ed.), Beyond Testimony and Trauma: Oral History in the Aftermath of Mass Violence. pp. 119-138.
    Despite the fact that the history of eugenics in Canada is necessarily part of the larger history of eugenics, there is a special role for oral history to play in the telling of this story, a role that promises to shift us from the muddled middle of the story. Not only has the testimony of eugenics survivors already played perhaps the most important role in revealing much about the practice of eugenics in Canada, but the willingness and ability of survivors (...)
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  36. added 2020-01-05
    Ontological-Transcendental Defence of Metanormative Realism.Michael Kowalik - 2020 - Philosophia 48 (2):573-586.
    If there is something that every possible agent is committed to value, and certain actions or attitudes either enhance or diminish P, then normative claims about a range of intentional actions can be objectively and non-trivially evaluated. I argue that the degree of existence as an agent depends on the consistency of reflexive-relating with other individuals of the agent-kind: the ontological thesis. I then show that in intending to act on a reason, every agent is rationally committed to value being (...)
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  37. added 2019-12-23
    How Groups Persist.August Faller - forthcoming - Synthese:1-15.
    How do groups of people persist through time? Groups can change their members, locations, and structure. In this paper, I present puzzles of persistence applied to social groups. I first argue that four-dimensional theories better explain the context sensitivity of how groups persist. I then exploit two unique features of the social to argue for the stage theory of group persistence in particular. First, fusion and fission cases actually happen to social groups, and so cannot be marginalized as “pathological.” Second, (...)
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  38. added 2019-12-15
    Practice Theory and International Relations.Silviya Lechner & Mervyn Frost - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    Are social practices actions, or institutional frameworks of interaction structured by common rules? How do social practices such as signing a cheque differ from international practices such as signing a peace treaty? Traversing the fields of international relations and philosophy, this book defends an institutionalist conception of practices as part of a general practice theory indebted to Oakeshott, Wittgenstein and Hegel. The proposed practice theory has two core aspects: practice internalism and normative descriptivism. In developing a philosophical analysis of social (...)
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  39. added 2019-12-09
    Collective Agency: Moral and Amoral.Frank Hindriks - 2018 - Dialectica 72 (1):3-23.
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  40. added 2019-12-09
    Do Social Institutions Require Collective Acceptance?: Mattia Gallotti and John Michael : Perspectives on Social Ontology and Social Cognition. Studies in the Philosophy of Sociality 4. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014, Viii+189, $99.00 HB.Frank Hindriks - 2015 - Metascience 24 (3):467-470.
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  41. added 2019-12-09
    The Location Problem in Social Ontology.Frank Hindriks - 2013 - Synthese 190 (3):413-437.
    Mental, mathematical, and moral facts are difficult to accommodate within an overall worldview due to the peculiar kinds of properties inherent to them. In this paper I argue that a significant class of social entities also presents us with an ontological puzzle that has thus far not been addressed satisfactorily. This puzzle relates to the location of certain social entities. Where, for instance, are organizations located? Where their members are, or where their designated offices are? Organizations depend on their members (...)
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  42. added 2019-12-09
    Constitutive Rules, Language, and Ontology.Frank Hindriks - 2009 - Erkenntnis 71 (2):253-275.
    It is a commonplace within philosophy that the ontology of institutions can be captured in terms of constitutive rules. What exactly such rules are, however, is not well understood. They are usually contrasted to regulative rules: constitutive rules (such as the rules of chess) make institutional actions possible, whereas regulative rules (such as the rules of etiquette) pertain to actions that can be performed independently of such rules. Some, however, maintain that the distinction between regulative and constitutive rules is merely (...)
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  43. added 2019-12-08
    Violence and the Materiality of Power.Torsten Menge - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-26.
    The issue of political violence is mostly absent from current debates about power. Many conceptions of power treat violence as wholly distinct from or even antithetical to power, or see it as a mere instrument whose effects are obvious and not in need of political analysis. In this paper, I explore what kind of ontology of power is necessary to properly take account of the various roles that violence can play in creating and maintaining power structures. I pursue this question (...)
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  44. added 2019-12-06
    Potentia: Hobbes and Spinoza on Power and Popular Politics.Sandra Leonie Field - forthcoming - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    This book offers a detailed study of the political philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and Benedict de Spinoza, focussing on their concept of power as potentia, concrete power, rather than power as potestas, authorised power. The focus on power as potentia generates a new conception of popular power. Radical democrats–whether drawing on Hobbes's 'sleeping sovereign' or on Spinoza's 'multitude'–understand popular power as something that transcends ordinary institutional politics, as for instance popular plebsites or mass movements. However, the book argues that these (...)
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  45. added 2019-12-06
    Blockchain as a Medium for Transindividual Collective.Juho Rantala - 2019 - Culture, Theory, and Critique 60 (3–4):1–14.
    Today, digitalisation is penetrating every corner of our mundane life, thus affecting our being in manifold ways. In spite of this, digital technologies provide us with paths towards advancing humanity. One way to model the possibilities of the new technologies in a sustainable way is to frame them in light of Gilbert Simondon’s philosophy and especially his understanding of ‘transindividuality’, which is the foundation for a robust, evolving collective. The transindividual relation, mediated by technical objects, is the possibility of a (...)
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  46. added 2019-11-25
    The Sexual Orientation/Identity Distinction.Matthew Andler - forthcoming - Hypatia.
    The sex/gender distinction is a staple of feminist philosophy. In slogan form: sex is “natural,” while gender is the “social meaning” of sex. Considering the importance of the sex/gender distinction—which, here, I neither endorse nor reject—it’s interesting to ask if philosophers working on the metaphysics of sexuality might make use of an analogous distinction. In this paper, I argue that we ought to endorse the sexual orientation/identity distinction. In particular, I argue that the orientation/identity distinction is indispensable to normative explanations (...)
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  47. added 2019-11-24
    Categories We Live By: The Construction of Sex, Gender, Race, and Other Social Categories, by Ásta.Elizabeth Barnes & Matthew Andler - forthcoming - Mind:fzz041.
    Categories We Live by: The Construction of Sex, Gender, Race, and Other Social Categories, by Ásta. Oxford: OUP, 2018. Pp. 160.
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  48. added 2019-11-24
    Gender Identity and Exclusion: A Reply to Jenkins.Matthew Andler - 2017 - Ethics 127 (4):883-895.
    A theory of gender ought to be compatible with trans-inclusive definitions of gender identity terms, such as ‘woman’ and ‘man’. Appealing to this principle of trans-inclusion, Katharine Jenkins argues that we ought to endorse a dual social position and identity theory of gender. Here, I argue that Jenkins’s dual theory of gender fails to be trans-inclusive for the following reasons: it cannot generate a definition of ‘woman’ that extends to include all trans women, and it understands transgender gender identity through (...)
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  49. added 2019-11-19
    Sexual Orientation, Ideology, and Philosophical Method.Matthew Andler - 2020 - Journal of Social Ontology 5 (2):205-227.
    Here, I examine the epistemic relation between beliefs about the nature of sexual orientation (e.g., beliefs concerning whether orientation is dispositional) and beliefs about the taxonomy of orientation categories (e.g., beliefs concerning whether polyamorous is an orientation category). Current philosophical research gives epistemic priority to the former class of beliefs, such that beliefs about the taxonomy of orientation categories tend to be jettisoned or revised in cases of conflict with beliefs about the nature of sexual orientation. Yet, considering the influence (...)
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  50. added 2019-11-12
    Collective and Joint Intention.Raimo Tuomela - 2000 - Mind and Society 1 (2):39-69.
    The paper discussed and analyzes collective and joint intentions of various strength. Thus there are subjectively shared collective intentions and intersubjectively shared collective intentions as well as collective intentions which are objectively and intersubjectively shared. The distinction between collective and private intentions is considered from several points of view. Especially, it is emphasized that collective intentions in the full sense are in the “we-mode”, whereas private intentions are in the “I-mode”. The paper also surveys recent discussion in the literature concerning (...)
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