Sociology of Science

Edited by Markus Seidel (University of Münster)
Assistant editor: Charlott Becker (University of Münster)
About this topic
Summary Sociology of Science aims at an understanding of the social aspects of science. It comprises research about the social structure of the institutions of science and their relationship to other institutions as well as the influence on and construction of scientific knowledge.
Key works Barnes et al 1996 states the prominent 'Strong programme', Collins 1985 presents the sociology of science of the so-called 'Bath school', Fleck 1979 is an early classic in sociology of science, In Latour & Woolgar 1986 a constructivist approach in the sociology of science is defended, Merton 1973 is a collection of key essays by probably the most prominent sociologist of science, De Solla Price is one of the founding fathers of scientometrics , In Shapin & Schaffer 1985, you find an influential case study
Introductions Barnes et al 1996 can be read as an introduction to the field, Helen Longino's article in the Stanford Encyclopedia provides introductory insight in the social dimensions of scientific knowledge
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2692 found
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1 — 50 / 2692
  1. added 2020-10-19
    Philosophical Production of the Association for Scientific Synthesis: Towards the 70th Anniversary of Its Foundation.V. Bakoš - 2007 - Filozofia 62:853-869.
    The Association for Scientific Synthesis gathered a group of Slovak intellectuals, who tried to introduce modern scientific attitudes and structural methods into Slovak culture. In their systematic effort for a coordinated and convergent scientific research, for an exact scientific language and methods they were inspired by logical empiricism of Wiener Kreis, Czech Structuralism and Russian „formal“ school. Much of their attention was paid to such problems as the philosophy and methodology of science, concept of empirical knowledge, questions of logical syntax (...)
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  2. added 2020-10-19
    Postmodernism and Big Science Einstein, Dawkins, Kuhn, Hawking, Darwin.Richard Appignanesi & Chris Horrocks - 2002
  3. added 2020-10-19
    Miriam Solomon: Social Empiricism. [REVIEW]Stathis Psillos - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (3):545-547.
  4. added 2020-10-19
    Review of Hyland (1998): Hedging in Scientific Research Articles. [REVIEW]Alan G. Gross - 2000 - Pragmatics and Cognition 8 (2):446-450.
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  5. added 2020-10-19
    Methods of Social Choice of Scientific Theories.H. Ogryzko-Wiewiorowski - 2000 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 72:105-132.
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  6. added 2020-10-19
    Method According to Feyerabend.S. Wiertlewski - 1997 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 57:499-514.
  7. added 2020-10-19
    Kuhn Studies in Freedom and Rationality. Essays in Honor of John Watkins.Jn Hattiangadi - 1989 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 117:191-205.
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  8. added 2020-10-19
    Influences on the Conception of Logic and Mind in Scientific Knowledge Socialized.Angus Rh Gellatly - 1988 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 108:245-263.
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  9. added 2020-10-19
    Scientific Change and Counterfactuals in Scientific Knowledge Socialized.V. Rantala - 1988 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 108:399-408.
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  10. added 2020-10-19
    Structure and Appraisal of Scientific Theories in the Historical School of Metascience.Zygmunt Hajduk - 1979 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 27 (3):101.
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  11. added 2020-10-19
    Modeling and the Relation of Normal Science to a Paradigm Theory.Bruce Paternoster - 1973 - Dissertation, Yale University
  12. added 2020-10-18
    The Nature of Science-Based Controversies.Thomas Brante - unknown
    The Nature of Science-based Controversies. The following points will be presented: 1. Political and epistemological reasons for studying science-based controversies. 2. Controversies as conflicts between rival professional groups and incommensurable systems of ideas. 3. Results and discoveries emanating from case studies of science-based controversies: four examples. 4. Towards a theory of science-based controversies. 5. Relations between science-based controversies and knowledge politics.
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  13. added 2020-10-18
    Consensus Among Experts: The Unholy Grail.Louis Lasagna - 1976 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 19 (4):537-548.
  14. added 2020-10-17
    Lorraine Daston , Biographies of Scientific Objects. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2000. Pp. X+308. Isbn 0-226-13672-8. £13.50, $19.00. [REVIEW]Ingemar Bohlin - 2001 - British Journal for the History of Science 34 (3):341-373.
  15. added 2020-10-17
    Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction.Barry Gower - 1996 - Routledge.
    The central theme running throughout this outstanding new survey is the nature of the philosophical debate created by modern science's foundation in experimental and mathematical method. More recently, recognition that reasoning in science is probabilistic generated intense debate about whether and how it should be constrained so as to ensure the practical certainty of the conclusions drawn. These debates brought to light issues of a philosophical nature which form the core of many scientific controversies today. _Scientific Method: A Historical and (...)
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  16. added 2020-10-12
    The Roles of Institutional Trust and Distrust in Grounding Rational Deference to Scientific Expertise.Frédéric Bouchard - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (5):582-608.
    Given the complexity of most phenomena, we have to delegate much epistemic work to other knowers and we must find reasons for relying on these specific knowers and not others. In our societies, these other knowers are often called experts and we rely on their epistemic authority more and more. For many complex phenomena such as climate change, genetically modified crops, and immunization, the experts that are called upon are scientific experts. For that reason, finding good reasons and justification for (...)
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  17. added 2020-10-12
    Emerging Science, Emerging Democracy: Stem Cell Research and Policy in Taiwan.Jennifer A. Liu - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (5):609-636.
    “You are interested in ethics,” the clinician said, “there are problems with medical ethics in Taiwan.” It was 2005, shortly after I had moved to Taiwan. A little later, a professor told me of a university hospital that served as a site for a transnational clinical trial run by a pharmaceutical company. He said that since no informed consent procedure was in place at that time, the hospital had simply obtained employer consent. “That’s why companies want to come to Taiwan (...)
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  18. added 2020-10-12
    A Critical Assessment of the Programmes of Producing ‘Islamic Science’ and ‘Islamisation of Science/Knowledge’.Ali Paya - 2015 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 29 (3):311-335.
    In the present article, working from within the framework of critical rationalism and focusing mostly on the views developed by some Iranian writers, I argue that the programmes of producing ‘Islamic Science’ and ‘Islamisation of Science/Knowledge’ are doomed to failure. I develop my arguments in three parts. I start by explaining that the advocates of the programmes of producing cIS or IoK subscribe to mistaken images of science that are shaped by either a positivist or outmoded culturalist/interpretivist theories of science. (...)
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  19. added 2020-10-12
    Kuhn, Popper, and the Superconducting Supercollider.Andrew T. Domondon - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (3):301-314.
    The demise of the Superconducting Supercollider is often explained in terms of the strain that it placed on the federal budget of the United States, and change in national security interests with the end of the Cold War. Recent work by Steve Fuller provides a framework to re-examine this episode in epistemological terms using the work of Kuhn and Popper. Using this framework, it is tempting to explain the demise as resulting from the overly Kuhnian character of its proponents, who (...)
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  20. added 2020-10-12
    The Experimenters' Regress: From Skepticism to Argumentation.Benoı̂t Godin & Yves Gingras - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (1):133-148.
    Harry Collins' central argument about experimental practice revolves around the thesis that facts can only be generated by good instruments but good instruments can only be recognized as such if they produce facts. This is what Collins calls the experimenters' regress. For Collins, scientific controversies cannot be closed by the ‘facts’ themselves because there are no formal criteria independent of the outcome of the experiment that scientists can apply to decide whether an experimental apparatus works properly or not.No one seems (...)
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  21. added 2020-10-12
    John Gillott and Manjit Kumar, Science and the Retreat From Reason. [REVIEW]Sean F. Johnston - 1996 - Public Understanding of Science 5:179-181.
  22. added 2020-10-12
    The Role of the Natural World in the Theory Choice of Scientists.Kyung-Man Kim - 1992 - Social Science Information 31 (3):445-464.
  23. added 2020-10-12
    How Do Scientists Reach Agreement About Novel Observations?David Gooding - 1986 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 17 (2):205.
    I outline a pragmatic view of scientists' use of observation which draws attention to non-discursive, instrumental and social contexts of observation, in order to explain scientists' agreement about the appearance and significance of new phenomena. I argue that: observation is embedded in a network of activities, techniques, and interests; that experimentalists make construals of new phenomena which enable them communicate exploratory techniques and their outcomes, and that empirical enquiry consists of communicative, exploratory and predictive strategies whose interdependence ensures that, notwithstanding (...)
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  24. added 2020-10-12
    Finalization in Perspective: Toward a Revolution in the Social Paradigm of Science.Wolf Schäfer - 1979 - Social Science Information 18 (6):915-943.
  25. added 2020-10-11
    Rationality and Science: Can Science Explain Everything?Roger Trigg - 1993 - Blackwell.
    In this important new work, Professor Trigg deals with the question of the rational foundations of science.
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  26. added 2020-10-10
    The Explanation of Scientific Belief: Reply to W.E. Jones.Samir Okasha - 2000 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 14 (3):305 – 306.
  27. added 2020-10-05
    The Social Foundations of the Mechanistic Philosophy and Manufacture.Henryk Grossmann - 2009 - In Boris Hessen, Henryk Grossmann, Gideon Freudenthal & Peter McLaughlin (eds.), The Social and Economic Roots of the Scientific Revolution: Texts by Boris Hessen and Henryk Grossmann. Springer.
  28. added 2020-09-30
    Interpretation Versus Explanation in the Critique of Science.Helen E. Longino - 1997 - Science in Context 10 (1):113-128.
  29. added 2020-09-22
    Retractions in Science.K. Brad Wray & Line Edslev Andersen - 2018 - Scientometrics 117 (3):2009-2019.
    Retractions are rare in science, but there is growing concern about the impact retracted papers have. We present data on the retractions in the journal Science, between 1983 and 2017. Each year, approximately 2.6 papers are retracted; that is about 0.34% of the papers published in the journal. 30% of the retracted papers are retracted within 1 year of publication. Some papers are retracted almost 12 years after publication. 51% of the retracted papers are retracted due to honest mistakes. Smaller (...)
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  30. added 2020-09-20
    Studying Natural Science Without Nature? Reflections on the Realism of so-Called Laboratory Studies.Nils Roll-Hansen - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 29 (1):165-187.
  31. added 2020-09-16
    A Survey of Effects of STS Education on the University Students' Moral Development and Epistemological Beliefs: Using DIT and EBI.Hyemin Han - 2006 - Journal of Ethics Education Studies 9:201-217.
    The purpose of this study is to assess effects of STS(Science and Technology Studies) education in natural science colleges and engineering colleges. STS is an interdisciplinary study includes ethics, history, sociology, policy of science and technology; its main purpose is elaborating students' social perspectives on science and technology. In Korea, however, there is few studies related to STS education to improve its educational effects. Therefore, this study will do exploratory investigation effects of STS education in moral development and epistemological beliefs (...)
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  32. added 2020-09-13
    Values in Science: Assessing the Case for Mixed Claims.Uwe Peters - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Social and medical scientists frequently produce empirical generalizations that involve concepts partly defined by value judgments. These generalizations, which have been called ‘mixed claims’, raise interesting questions. Does the presence of them in science imply that science is value-laden? Is the value-ladenness of mixed claims special compared to other kinds of value-ladenness of science? Do we lose epistemically if we reformulate these claims as conditional statements? And if we want to allow mixed claims in science, do we need a new (...)
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  33. added 2020-09-07
    Are Experts Representative of Non-Experts? Elective Modernism, Aspects of Representation, and the Argument From Inductive Risk.Jaana Eigi - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (4):459-481.
    The approach to expert communities and political representation of non-experts in Harry Collins and Robert Evans’ elective modernism reflects the conviction that experts are not representative of ordinary citizens. I use an analysis of aspects of representation and the argument from inductive risk to argue that experts can be seen as representative of non-experts, when we understand representation as resemblance based on shared social perspectives and acknowledge the inevitable involvement of such perspectives in decisions under inductive risk. This, in turn, (...)
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  34. added 2020-08-19
    Trust and Distributed Epistemic Labor‎.Boaz Miller & Ori Freiman - 2020 - In Judith Simon (ed.), The Routledge Handbook on Trust and Philosophy. New York: Routledge. pp. ‎341-353‎.
    This chapter explores properties that bind individuals, knowledge, and communities, together. Section ‎‎1 introduces Hardwig’s argument from trust in others’ testimonies as entailing that trust is the glue ‎that binds individuals into communities. Section 2 asks “what grounds trust?” by exploring assessment ‎of collaborators’ explanatory responsiveness, formal indicators such as affiliation and credibility, ‎appreciation of peers’ tacit knowledge, game-theoretical considerations, and the role moral character ‎of peers, social biases, and social values play in grounding trust. Section 3 deals with establishing (...)
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  35. added 2020-08-16
    Does Language Determine Our Scientific Ideas?H. G. Callaway - 1992 - Dialectica 46 (3-4):225-242.
    SummaryThis paper argues that the influence of language on science, philosophy and other field is mediated by communicative practices. Where communications is more restrictive, established linguistic structures exercise a tighter control over innovations and scientifically motivated reforms of language. The viewpoint here centers on the thesis that argumentation is crucial in the understanding and evaluation of proposed reforms and that social practices which limit argumentation serve to erode scientific objectivity. Thus, a plea is made for a sociology of scientific belief (...)
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  36. added 2020-08-13
    Back to the Big Picture.Anna Alexandrova, Robert Northcott & Jack Wright - forthcoming - Journal of Economic Methodology.
    We distinguish between two different strategies in economic methodology. The big picture strategy, dominant in the twentieth century, ascribed to economics a unified method and evaluated this method against a single criterion of ‘science’. In the last thirty years a second strategy gained prominence: fine-grained studies of how some specific technique common in economics can achieve one or more epistemic goal. We argue that recent developments in philosophy of science and in economics warrant a return to big-picture – but now (...)
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  37. added 2020-07-21
    Using Crowdsourced Mathematics to Understand Mathematical Practice.Alison Pease, Ursula Martin, Fenner Stanley Tanswell & Andrew Aberdein - forthcoming - ZDM.
    Records of online collaborative mathematical activity provide us with a novel, rich, searchable, accessible and sizeable source of data for empirical investigations into mathematical practice. In this paper we discuss how the resources of crowdsourced mathematics can be used to help formulate and answer questions about mathematical practice, and what their limitations might be. We describe quantitative approaches to studying crowdsourced mathematics, reviewing work from cognitive history (comparing individual and collaborative proofs); social psychology (on the prospects for a measure of (...)
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  38. added 2020-07-06
    Race, Empire, and Epistemic Exclusion: Or the Structures of Sociological Thought.Julian Go - 2020 - Sociological Theory 38 (2):79-100.
    This essay analyzes racialized exclusions in sociology through a focus on sociology’s deep epistemic structures. These structures dictate what counts as social scientific knowledge and who can produce it. A historical analysis of their emergence and persistence reveals their connections to empire. Due to sociology’s initial emergence within the culture of American imperialism, early sociological thought embedded the culture of empire’s exclusionary logics. Sociology’s epistemic structures were inextricably racialized, contributing to exclusionary modes of thought and practice along the lines of (...)
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  39. added 2020-06-23
    In Defence of Armchair Expertise.Theodore Bach - 2019 - Theoria 85 (5):350-382.
    In domains like stock brokerage, clinical psychiatry, and long‐term political forecasting, experts generally fail to outperform novices. Empirical researchers agree on why this is: experts must receive direct or environmental learning feedback during training to develop reliable expertise, and these domains are deficient in this type of feedback. A growing number of philosophers resource this consensus view to argue that, given the absence of direct or environmental philosophical feedback, we should not give the philosophical intuitions or theories of expert philosophers (...)
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  40. added 2020-06-16
    History, Culture, and Truth: Essays Presented to D.P. Chattopadhyaya.Daya Krishna, K. Satchidananda Murty & D. P. Chattopadhyaya (eds.) - 1999 - Kalki Prakash.
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Professor Chattopadhyaya As I Know Him -- Kireet Joshi -- 2. On DP. Chattopadhyaya's Picture of Interdisciplinary -- Rajendra Prasad -- 3. The Humanization of Transcendental Philosophy: Notes -- Towards an Understanding of DP. Chattopadhyaya -- R Sundara Rajan -- 4. Freedom-East and West: A Tribute to -- DP. Chattopadhyaya -- Fred Dallmayr -- 5. Traditional Culture and Secularism -- R Balasubramanian -- 6. Induction and Doubt -- PK Sen -- 7. The Culture of Science (...)
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  41. added 2020-06-16
    Spirochaetes, Serology, and Salvarsan: Ludwik Fleck and the Construction of Medical Knowledge About Syphilis.den Belvant, H. - unknown
    The theoretical and empirical scope of this study thus clarified, an outline of the chapters which follow can now be presented. In Chapter II 1 shall systematically compare Fleck's theories with the approaches adopted by contemporary constructivists. My strategy is partly to use modern forms of constructivism as a foil for extracting relevant and valuable insights from the richness of Fleck's elaborations, partly to identify theoretical and conceptual issues that can possibly be clarified through an empirical 'replication' of Fleck's work. (...)
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  42. added 2020-06-16
    Science Development: An Evaluation Study. David E. Drew. [REVIEW]Stephen G. Brush - 1977 - Isis 68 (4):667-668.
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  43. added 2020-06-16
    Essay Review: The End of Science and the Ends of History of Science: Scientific Knowledge and its Social ProblemsScientific Knowledge and its Social Problems. RavetzJ. R. . Pp. 462. £5.00.Anthony Jackson - 1973 - History of Science 11 (4):292-305.
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  44. added 2020-06-16
    Book Review: Science and Society: Science and Society 1600–1900Science and Society 1600–1900. Edited by MathiasPeter . Pp. Viii + 166. £2.80. [REVIEW]Margaret Gowing - 1973 - History of Science 11 (2):143-145.
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  45. added 2020-06-16
    Sociology in Germany Since I945.F. J. Stendenbach - 1964 - Social Science Information 3 (3):7-51.
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  46. added 2020-06-16
    Sociology in Argentina.Edmundo Sustaita - 1963 - Social Science Information 2 (3):60-69.
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  47. added 2020-06-16
    Sociology in the U.S.S.R.V. V. Mshvenieradze & G. V. Osipov - 1962 - Social Science Information 1 (3):49-73.
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  48. added 2020-06-16
    Some Anthropological Contributions To the Sociology of Knowledge.Jacques J. Maquet - 1962 - Social Science Information 1 (3):5-20.
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  49. added 2020-06-03
    Getting Real with Rouse and Heidegger.Jeff Kochan - 2011 - Perspectives on Science 19 (1):81-115.
    Joseph Rouse has drawn from Heidegger’s early philosophy to develop what he calls a “practical hermeneutics of science.” With this, he has not only become an important player in the recent trend towards practice-based conceptualisations of science, he has also emerged as the predominant expositor of Heidegger’s philosophy of science. Yet, there are serious shortcomings in both Rouse’s theory of science and his interpretation of Heidegger. In the first instance, Rouse’s practical hermeneutics appears confused on the topic of realism. In (...)
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  50. added 2020-05-30
    A Science of Concord: The Politics of Commercial Knowledge in Mid-Eighteenth-Century Britain.Jon Cooper - forthcoming - Intellectual History Review.
    This article recovers mid-century proposals for sciences of concord and contextualizes them as part of a broader politics of commercial knowledge in eighteenth-century Britain. It begins by showing how merchants gained authority as formulators of commercial policy during the Commerce Treaty debates of 1713–1714. This authority held fast during the Walpolean oligarchy, but collapsed by the 1740s, when lobbying and patronage were increasingly maligned as corrupt by a ferment of popular republicanism. The article then explores how the Anglican cleric Josiah (...)
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1 — 50 / 2692