Sociology of Science

Edited by Markus Seidel (University of Münster)
Assistant editor: Charlott Becker (University of Münster)
About this topic
Summary Sociology of Science aims at an understanding of the social aspects of science. It comprises research about the social structure of the institutions of science and their relationship to other institutions as well as the influence on and construction of scientific knowledge.
Key works Barnes et al 1996 states the prominent 'Strong programme', Collins 1985 presents the sociology of science of the so-called 'Bath school', Fleck 1979 is an early classic in sociology of science, In Latour & Woolgar 1986 a constructivist approach in the sociology of science is defended, Merton 1973 is a collection of key essays by probably the most prominent sociologist of science, De Solla Price is one of the founding fathers of scientometrics , In Shapin & Schaffer 1985, you find an influential case study
Introductions Barnes et al 1996 can be read as an introduction to the field, Helen Longino's article in the Stanford Encyclopedia provides introductory insight in the social dimensions of scientific knowledge
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3268 found
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1 — 50 / 3268
  1. ON THE EXISTENCE OF BRUNO LATOUR'S MODES.Terence Blake - manuscript
    In this article I take a critical look at the origins and sources of Bruno Latour's pluralism as it is expressed in his book AN INQUIRY INTO MODES OF EXISTENCE, and compare it to other similar projects (Wittgenstein, Feyerabend, Badiou). I consider the accusations of reductionism and of relativism, and demonstrate that Latour's «empirical metaphysics» is not an ontological reductionism but a pluralist ontology recognising the existence of a plurality of entities and of types of entities. Nor is it an (...)
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  2. Inquiry and Evidence: From the Experimenter's Regress to Evidence-Based Policy.Matthew J. Brown - manuscript
    In the first part of this paper, I will sketch the main features of traditional models of evidence, indicating idealizations in such models that I regard as doing more harm than good. I will then proceed to elaborate on an alternative model of evidence that is functionalist, complex, dynamic, and contextual, which I will call DYNAMIC EVIDENTIAL FUNCTIONALISM. I will demonstrate its application to an illuminating example of scientific inquiry, and defend it from some likely objections. In the second part, (...)
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  3. WikiSilo: A Self-Organizing, Crowd Sourcing System for Interdisciplinary Science [Supporting Paper].David Pierre Leibovitz, Robert L. West & Mike Belanger - manuscript
    WikiSilo is a tool for theorizing across interdisciplinary fields such as Cognitive Science, and provides a vocabulary for talking about the problems of doing so. It can be used to demonstrate that a particular cognitive theory is complete and coherent at multiple levels of discourse, and commensurable with and relevant to a wider domain of cognition. WikiSilo is also a minimalist theory and methodology for effectively doing science. WikiSilo is simultaneously similar to and distinct, as well as integrated and separated (...)
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  4. Feminists Who Do: Bridging Insight to Practice in Comprehensive Women’s Health Care.Jamie P. Ross - manuscript
    A qualitative and quantitative understanding of disease variables in relation to local understandings and values is an important dimension that broadens traditional evidence-based medicine (EBM) and is necessary in order to navigate the social perspectives of policymakers. There are dimensions of this research that share the values and practices of feminist research. This paper offers an epistemological analysis of theory and practice that can provide more effective outcomes in women’s health. PATH (Policy Advisory Towards Health) for women, bridges the knowledge (...)
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  5. Model Anarchism.Walter Veit - 2020
    This paper constitutes a radical departure from the existing philosophical literature on models, modeling-practices, and model-based science. I argue that the various entities and practices called 'models' and 'modeling-practices' are too diverse, too context-sensitive, and serve too many scientific purposes and roles, as to allow for a general philosophical analysis. From this recognition an alternative view emerges that I shall dub model anarchism.
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  6. Science and Illusions.Luigi Scorzato -
    It is mostly agreed that Popper's criterion of falsifiability fails to provide a useful demarcation between science and pseudo-science, because ad-hoc assumptions are always able to save any theory that conflicts with the empirical data, and a characterization of ad-hoc assumptions is lacking. Moreover, adding some testable predictions is not very difficult. It should be emphasized that the Duhem-Quine argument does not simply make the demarcation approximate, but it makes it totally useless. Indeed, no philosophical criterion of demarcation is presently (...)
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  7. Trusting the Scientific Community: The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Trust in Science.Matthew Slater -
    Trust in the scientific enterprise — in science as an institution — is arguably important to individuals’ and societies’ well-being. Although some measures of public trust in science exist, the recipients of that trust are often ambiguous between trusting individual scientists and the scientific community at large. We argue that more precision would be beneficial — specifically, targeting public trust of the scientific community at large — and describe the development and validation of such an instrument: the Scientific Community Trust (...)
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  8. Sociology and Philosophy.Ali Andisheh - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 33.
    Basic concepts in sociology, particularly theoretical sociology, are of a philosopical nature. Like all other branches of science, sociology has its origins in philosophy and has been nourished by it for centuries. Moreover, the subject of this science, in a general sense, is man, who is himself a supernatural existence and needs to know about this field of knowledge.
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  9. Cristina Chimisso, Hélène Metzger, Historian and Historiographer of the Sciences. [REVIEW]Oscar Moro Abadía - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  10. Rethinking the Value of Author Contribution Statements in Light of How Research Teams Respond to Retractions.Line Edslev Andersen & K. Brad Wray - forthcoming - Episteme: A Journal of Social Epistemology.
    The authorship policies of scientific journals often assume that in order to be able to properly place credit and responsibility for the content of a collaborative paper we should be able to distinguish the contributions of the various individuals involved. Hence, many journals have introduced a requirement for author contribution statements aimed at making it easier to place credit and responsibility on individual scientists. We argue that from a purely descriptive point of view the practices of collaborating scientists are at (...)
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  11. The Politics of Science Studies.Elena Aronova & Simone Turchetti (eds.) - forthcoming
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  12. The Return of the Political Freud? Some Notes on the New Historiography of Psychoanalysis. [REVIEW]Shaul Bar-Haim - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269511878769.
  13. Vilfredo Pareto and the Sociology of Knowledge.Brigitte Berger - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  14. Some Recent Developments in Comparative Sociology.Brigitte Berger - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  15. Sociology: Discontent Present and Perennial.Norman Birnbaum - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  16. 3.4 Science Blogs in Research and Popularization of Science: Why, How and for Whom?Antoine Blanchard - forthcoming - Common Knowledge: The Challenge of Transdisciplinarity.
  17. Retractions in Science.Wray K. Brad & Andersen Line Edslev - forthcoming - Scientometrics.
    Retractions are rare in science, but there is growing concern about the impact retracted papers have. We present data on the retractions in the journal Science, between 1983 and 2017. Each year, approximately 2.6 papers are retracted; that is about 0.34% of the papers published in the journal. 30% of the retracted papers are retracted within 1 year of publication. Some papers are retracted almost 12 years after publication. 51% of the retracted papers are retracted due to honest mistakes. Smaller (...)
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  18. Menachem Fisch, Creatively Undecided: Toward a History and Philosophy of Scientific Agency. [REVIEW]Karim Bschir - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  19. All in a Grain of Rice. A Review of Philippine Studies on the Social and Economic Implications of the New Technology, SEARCA, College.G. T. Castillo - forthcoming - Laguna.
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  20. Bruno Latour, We Have Never Been Modern.P. Caws - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  21. It Takes a Village to Trust Science: Towards a (Thoroughly) Social Approach to Social Trust in Science.Gabriele Contessa - forthcoming - Erkenntnis.
    In this paper, I distinguish three general approaches to public trust in science, which I call the individual approach, the semi-social approach, and the social approach, and critically examine their proposed solutions to what I call the problem of harmful distrust. I argue that, despite their differences, the individual and the semi-social approaches see the solution to the problem of harmful distrust as consisting primarily in trying to persuade individual citizens to trust science and that both approaches face two general (...)
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  22. Consensus Versus Unanimity: Which Carries More Weight?Finnur Dellsén - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Around 97% of climate scientists endorse anthropogenic global warming (AGW), the theory that human activities are partly responsible for recent increases in global average temperatures. Clearly, this widespread endorsement of AGW is a reason for non-experts to believe in AGW. But what is the epistemic significance of the fact that some climate scientists do not endorse AGW? This paper contrasts expert unanimity, in which virtually no expert disagrees with some theory, with expert consensus, in which some non-negligible proportion either rejects (...)
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  23. Incentivizing Replication is Insufficient to Safeguard Default Trust.Hugh Desmond - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    Philosophers of science and meta-scientists alike now typically model scientists’ behavior as driven by credit maximization. In this paper I argue that this modeling assumption cannot account for how scientists have a default level of trust in each other’s assertions. The normative implication of this is that science policy should not only focus on incentive reform.
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  24. Economic Impacts of the War.Arthur Feiler - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  25. Respect for Subjects in the Ethics of Causal and Interpretive Social Explanation.Michael L. Frazer - forthcoming - American Political Science Review.
    Rival causal and interpretive approaches to explaining social phenomena have important ethical differences. While human actions can be explained as a result of causal mechanisms, as a meaningful choice based on reasons, or as some combination of the two, it is morally important that social scientists respect others by recognizing them as persons. Interpretive explanations directly respect their subjects in this way, while purely causal explanations do not. Yet although causal explanations are not themselves expressions of respect, they can be (...)
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  26. Merton Revisited Or.A. Rupert Hall - forthcoming - History of Science.
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  27. Science, Technology and Utopia in the Seventeenth Century.A. Rupert Hall - forthcoming - Science and Society.
  28. Biological Glimpses of Some Aspects of Human Sociology.Heini Hediger - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  29. Cumulative Advantage and the Incentive to Commit Fraud in Science.Remco Heesen - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    This paper investigates how the credit incentive to engage in questionable research practices interacts with cumulative advantage, the process whereby high-status academics more easily increase their status than low-status academics. I use a mathematical model to highlight two dynamics that have not yet received much attention. First, due to cumulative advantage, questionable research practices may pay off over the course of an academic career even if they are not attractive at the level of individual publications. Second, because of the role (...)
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  30. Select Committee on Science and Technology.of Lords House - forthcoming - Science and Society.
  31. Sociology of Culture, M.L. G. Ionin - forthcoming - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España].
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  32. Only Human: A Book Review of The Turing Guide. [REVIEW]Bjørn Kjos-Hanssen - forthcoming - Notices of the American Mathematical Society 66 (4).
    This is a review of The Turing Guide (2017), written by Jack Copeland, Jonathan Bowen, Mark Sprevak, Robin Wilson, and others. The review includes a new sociological approach to the problem of computability in physics.
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  33. European Cultural Tradition and the New Forms of Production and Circulation of Knowledge.Maurizio Lazzarato - forthcoming - Multitudes: Une Revue Trimestrielle, Politique, Artistique Et Culturelle.
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  34. Revisiting Current Causes of Women's Underrepresentation in Science.Carole J. Lee - forthcoming - In Jennifer Saul Michael Brownstein (ed.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy Volume 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
    On the surface, developing a social psychology of science seems compelling as a way to understand how individual social cognition – in aggregate – contributes towards individual and group behavior within scientific communities (Kitcher, 2002). However, in cases where the functional input-output profile of psychological processes cannot be mapped directly onto the observed behavior of working scientists, it becomes clear that the relationship between psychological claims and normative philosophy of science should be refined. For example, a robust body of social (...)
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  35. What's Social About Social Epistemology?Helen E. Longino - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    Much work performed under the banner of social epistemology still centers the problems of the individual cognitive agent. AU distinguishes multiple senses of "social," some of which are more social than others, and argues that different senses are at work in various contributions to social epistemology. Drawing on work in history and philosophy of science and addressing the literature on testimony and disagreement in particular, this paper argues for a more thoroughgoing approach in social epistemology.
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  36. Four Protestant Parishes in Germany: A Study in the Sociology of Religion.Thomas Luckmann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  37. The Problem of a Sociology of Religion.Carl Mayer - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  38. Illegitimate Values, Confirmation Bias, and Mandevillian Cognition in Science.Uwe Peters - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axy079.
    In the philosophy of science, it is a common proposal that values are illegitimate in science and should be counteracted whenever they drive inquiry to the confirmation of predetermined conclusions. Drawing on recent cognitive scientific research on human reasoning and confirmation bias, I argue that this view should be rejected. Advocates of it have overlooked that values that drive inquiry to the confirmation of predetermined conclusions can contribute to the reliability of scientific inquiry at the group level even when they (...)
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  39. Science Communication and the Problematic Impact of Descriptive Norms.Uwe Peters - forthcoming - British Journal for Philosophy of Science.
    When scientists or science reporters communicate research results to the public, this often involves ethical and epistemic risks. One such a risk arises when scientific claims cause cognitive or behavioral changes in the audience that contribute to the self-fulfillment of these claims. Focusing on such effects, I argue that the ethical and epistemic problem that they pose is likely to be much broader than hitherto appreciated. Moreover, it is often due to a psychological phenomenon that has been neglected in the (...)
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  40. Values in Science: Assessing the Case for Mixed Claims.Uwe Peters - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Social and medical scientists frequently produce empirical generalizations that involve concepts partly defined by value judgments. These generalizations, which have been called ‘mixed claims’, raise interesting questions. Does the presence of them in science imply that science is value-laden? Is the value-ladenness of mixed claims special compared to other kinds of value-ladenness of science? Do we lose epistemically if we reformulate these claims as conditional statements? And if we want to allow mixed claims in science, do we need a new (...)
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  41. The Social Interpretation of Science in the Seventeenth Century.Piyo M. Rattansi - forthcoming - Science and Society.
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  42. The Diversity-Ability Trade-Off in Scientific Problem Solving.Samuli Reijula & Jaakko Kuorikoski - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science (Supplement).
    According to the diversity-beats-ability theorem, groups of diverse problem solvers can outperform groups of high-ability problem solvers. We argue that the model introduced by Lu Hong and Scott Page is inadequate for exploring the trade-off between diversity and ability. This is because the model employs an impoverished implementation of the problem-solving task. We present a new version of the model which captures the role of ‘ability’ in a meaningful way, and use it to explore the trade-offs between diversity and ability (...)
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  43. The Concept of Class and American Sociology.Arnold M. Rose - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  44. A Socialized History of Science.Scientific Knowledge Socialized - forthcoming - History of Science.
  45. The Technological Society: Some Challenges for Social Science.Irene Taviss - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  46. George A. Reisch. The Politics of Paradigms: Thomas S. Kuhn, James B. Conant, and the Cold War “Struggle for Men’s Minds”. [REVIEW]Adam Tamas Tuboly - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  47. Sociology in Czechoslovakia.Eduard Urbánek - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  48. Unity and Diversity in American Sociology.Helmut R. Wagner - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  49. Mapping Kinds in GIS and Cartography.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - forthcoming - In Catherine Kendig (ed.), Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. Routledge. pp. 197-216.
    Geographic Information Science (GIS) is an interdisciplinary science aiming to detect and visually represent patterns in spatial data. GIS is used by businesses to determine where to open new stores and by conservation biologists to identify field study locations with relatively little anthropogenic influence. Products of GIS include topographic and thematic maps of the Earth’s surface, climate maps, and spatially referenced demographic graphs and charts. In addition to its social, political, and economic importance, GIS is of intrinsic philosophical interest due (...)
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  50. Human Nature and the Perspective of Sociology.Dennis H. Wrong - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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1 — 50 / 3268