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Summary Major Neo-Confucians in the Song-Ming period include Zhou Dunyi (1017-1073), Shao Yong (1011-1077), Zhang Zai (1020-1077), the Cheng brothers – Cheng Hao (1032-1085) and Cheng Yi (1033-1107), Lu Xiangshan (1139-1193), Zhu Xi (1130-1200), Wang Yangming (1472-1529), and Wang Fuzhi (1619-1692). Other than what is selected in Chan’s Source Book (Chan 1963, cited under *General Overviews*), there are scanty translations of Neo-Confucian works in English. The translations are of Zhu Xi (Chan 1967, Gardner 2003, Gardner 1990), Lu Xiangshan (Ivanhoe 2009) and Wang Yangming (Ivanhoe 2009, Henke 2012), but they are mere selections and far from complete in presenting the huge corpus of Neo-Confucian works.  
Key works Huang 1999 lists the first eight major philosophers and leaves out Wang Fuzhi, whose copious work and sophisticated philosophical views were not appreciated until of late. Chen 2005, written in Chinese, is a representative work of Chen Lai 陳來, a leading expert on the intellectual history of Neo-Confucianism in China today.  Angle 2009 focuses on the ethical teachings of two key neo-Confucians – Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming, and Keenan 2011 focuses on one key ethical theme: self-cultivation.  Among philosophical papers on general themes in neo-Confucianism, Peterson 1986 is an early work that has some impact in the West while Tang 1971 (Tang, Chun-I 唐君毅. “The Spirit and Development of Neo-Confucianism.” Inquiry14 (1-4): 56 – 83. 1971) represents a well-received Chinese perspective.  More recent works such as Liu 2005 takes on neo-Confucian metaphysics with the analytic approach, and Behuniak 2009 gives the important concept Li 理a revolutionary analysis inspired by Plato’s day analogy in the Parmenides.

Introductions

Angle 2009 focuses primarily on two neo-Confucians – Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming. It analyzes the notion of sagehood as handled by these two philosophers and explicates their moral psychology, virtue ethics and their views on education. It renders the ethical teachings of Neo-Confucianism more engaging for contemporary readers.

How to analyze the concept of Li (translated as principle, order, coherence, pattern, etc.) has always been a challenging task for scholars on neo-Confucianism, and in Behuniak 2009, the author offers an innovative interpretation using Plato’s analogy of day as the interpretative tool. It is a refreshing piece even if readers do not accept this interpretation.

Chen, Lai 陳來. Songming Lixue 宋明理學. Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 2005. 2nd edition.

This Chinese book is the renowned Chinese scholar Chen Lai’s introduction to Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism. The analysis is of the more traditional style, focusing on conceptual analysis and historical lineage.

Huang, Siu-chi 黃秀璣. Essentials of Neo-Confucianism: Eight Major Philosophers of the Song and Ming Periods. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999.

This is a somewhat dated book in that the analysis is more traditional, but the explications of the eight philosophers selected here are useful as introductory pieces.

Keenan, Barry. Neo-Confucian Self-Cultivation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2011.

This small book focuses on the theme of self-cultivation in the Great Learning treated by the Cheng brothers and Zhu Xi. It also provides the background in the intellectual history of Neo-Confucianism.

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  1. Bringing "The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven” to Unreached People.Jacob Joseph Andrews & Robert A. Andrews - 2024 - Journal of the Evangelical Missiological Society 4 (1):17-28.
    Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) was an Italian Jesuit and one of the first Christian missionaries to China in the modern era. He was a genuine polymath—a translator, cartographer, mathematician, astronomer, and musician. Above all, Ricci was a missionary for the gospel. As we briefly examine his 1603 seminal work, The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven, our hope is that we, as evangelical educators, will perceive some of the deeper principles necessary for our own missionary work among unreached people.
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  2. 阳明心学在德语世界的传播与研究 [The Dissemination and Study of Yangming’s Learning of the Heart-Mind in the German-speaking World].Li Xu 李旭 & David Bartosch - 2022 - In Wen Bing 文炳等 (ed.), 阳明心学海外传播研究 [Research on the Overseas Reception of Yangming’s Learning of the Heart–Mind]. Zhejiang Daxue Chubanshe 浙江大学出版社. pp. 287-332. Translated by Peng Bei 彭蓓.
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  3. 王阳明哲学在欧洲的研究与影响: 从17世纪早期到20世纪末 [The Study and Influence of Wang Yangming's Philosophy in Europe: From the Early 17th Century to the End of the 20th Century].David Bartosch - 2022 - In Wen Bing 文炳等 (ed.), 阳明心学海外传播研究 [Research on the Overseas Reception of Yangming’s Learning of the Heart–Mind]. Zhejiang Daxue Chubanshe 浙江大学出版社. pp. 247-286. Translated by Peng Bei 彭蓓.
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  4. Explicit and Implicit Aspects of Confucian Education.David Bartosch - 2017 - Asian Studies · Azijske Študije 5 (2):87-112.
    The following essay contains a more general philosophical reflection on the significance and some main elements of pre-modern Confucian learning. The topic is developed by presenting some essential elements in the whole range from explicit (linguistically expressible) knowledge to symbolic aspects as well as the (philosophical) problem of ineffable knowing. The essay starts with the general conception of man which underlies the mainstream of Confucian learning. On that basis, the more explicit contents and easily explicable subjects or branches of classical (...)
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  5. Von der Toleranz zur reziproken Integration des Zuwiderlaufenden: Anmerkungen zur Einheit der drei Lehren (sān jiào hé yī) des Konfuzianismus, Daoismus und Buddhismus während der Míng-Zeit (1368–1644) aus interkultureller Perspektive [From Tolerance to Reciprocal Integration of the Antithetical: Notes on the Unity of the Three Teachings (sān jiào hé yī) of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism during the Míng Period (1368-1644) from an Intercultural Perspective].David Bartosch - 2010 - Rundbrief Lehrstuhl Für Religionsphilosophie Und Vergleichende Religionswissenschaft (Tu Dresden) 34:17-18.
  6. 从量子物理看王阳明哲学 [The Philosophy of Wang Yangming in View of Quantum Physics].David Bartosch - 2010 - In Qian Ming 钱明 (ed.), 阳明学派研究——阳明学派国际学术研讨会论文集 [Studies in the Wang Yangming School of Thought: Collected Papers of the International Academic Seminar on the Wang Yangming School of Thought]. Jiuzhou Chubanshe 九州出版社. pp. 36-44. Translated by Peng Bei 彭蓓.
  7. 王阳明之“真己”修养观:全球共同体 视域下发展开放性的自我认同 [The Cultivation of the ‘True Self’ (zhen ji 真己) in the Light of Wang Yangming: Perspectives on the Development of an Open Self-identity in Planetary Communality].David Bartosch - 2022 - Dangdai Zhongguo Jiazhiguan Yanjiu 当代中国价值观研究 Chinese Journal of Contemporary Values 38 (2):76-86. Translated by Yang Bin 杨彬.
    本文旨在探究王阳明之“真己”修养观,以相关同等理念“心之本体”以 及《传习录》中的“原只是个天理”为出发点,进而思考王阳明哲学中提出的“本体” “躯壳”“嘘吸”“同体”“形体”“灵明”等术语,以及更为久远的概括性词语,如“体” “躯”和“大体”。此外,通过“性”与“气”、“理”与“气”等关联词,王阳明的哲学箴 言“知行合一”、“气”不可分(即“一气流通”)以及“原无非礼”的观点(与其著名的 “良知”一词有关),阐述了他对于“已”的理解。文章还探究了王阳明为何会如此 关注“己”这一古词,以及他所提出的“真己”一词与旧词相比有着哪些重要变化。 最后,文章思考了当今全球共同体的背景下,我们应该如何利用王阳明思想建立 包容又开放的自我认知。王阳明提出的有关人的观点,例如“一嘘吸”和“体网络”——“活力系统”以及“身”——“具象人格”,均根植于“真己”这一概念。这些 思想必须自我修养而成,这也适用于满足当前全球时代精神的迫切需要。[The topic of this investigation centers around the idea of the cultivation of the 'true self' (zhen ji 真己) according to Wang Yangming. Starting from the related idea of an equiprimordiality of 'xin zhi benti 心之本体' and the 'source' (原) of tian li 天理 in Chuanxilu《传习录》, the examination proceeds to reflect on terms like 'benti 本体', 'quqiao 躯壳', 'xu-xi 嘘吸', 'tongti 同体', 'xingti 形体', 'lingming 灵明', etc . in the philosophy of (...)
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  8. 大乘基督教理學及其工夫論 — 由朱陸所啟發的思考歷.Wat Simon - 2023 - Ctrc Quarterly 11:19-29.
    過去系列拙著曾嘗試吸納大乘佛教,以發展基督教文化神學。 其中借助牟宗三先生所指「一心開ニ門」為人類「普遍性的共同模型」,推論出聖靈為如來藏,在人心中開創阿摩羅識,因而能開啟真如門,參見世間一切法背後的上帝心意。因基督復和工作之故,人可從基督三應身的客觀啓示 — 先知、祭司和君王 — 藉聖靈如來藏在人心識的主觀對應,以建立文化心靈九境,開出「一即一切」的「基督詮釋學」:以獨一的基督來詮釋三大文化結晶,即自然科學、人文與社會科學。但另一方面,正因基督復和工作也使世間一切法都可成「天國 的比喻」,人便可藉禪修參透世間各法之理,心靈從而通往上帝,這就開出了「一切即一」的「基督禪觀學」。不論「一即一切」還是「一切即一」都有內外相應,也就是心與外間相應。但兩者不同之處在於,「一即一切」是按 著外在基督啟示來詮釋世界,「一切即一」卻是按著聖靈如來藏參透世間一切法背後獨一的上帝。前者以外在之理為規範,後者卻由內在之理為規範。在宋明理學而言,前者近於「性即理」,後者近於「心即理」。自古理學與心 學水火不容。但大乘基督教中,人的內外相應,是否意味著兩者也可相應相通?本文嘗試從朱熹理學與陸象山心學,啓發出一道思想歷程,建構基督教的理學體系,並從上述大乘基督教的角度,整合「性即理」與「心即理」。也 因理學的終極關懷在於工夫論,所以本文也隨以上整合,嘗試開啓大乘基督教的工夫論。.
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  9. Retributive Harmony in the Thomistic and Neo-Confucian Traditions.James Dominic Rooney - forthcoming - In an edited volume associated with the Eleventh Thomistic Congress. Rome, Italy: Urbaniana University Press.
    Retributive theories of punishment hold that moral desert is a necessary and sufficient condition for punishment. This principle has been justified in light of rectifying a 'balance of justice' upset by wrongdoing. Many opposed to retributivism, such as Nussbaum, have argued such a ‘balance’ is nothing more than ‘magical’ thinking and retributivism is, in fact, positively harmful. On the contrary, I will argue that there is a compelling way to make sense of that intuition. The Chinese Neo-Confucian tradition and medieval (...)
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  10. Zhuzi yu lei ri chao.Xi Zhu - 1971 - Edited by Li Chen.
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  11. Song Ming li xue dui yu wo guo ti yu ying xiang zhi yan jiu.Chengji Shen - 1971 - [Taiwan]: [S.N.].
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  12. Sung Ming Chʻing li hsüeh tʻi hsi lun shih.Kung-wei Huang - 1971
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  13. Chʻeng I chiao yü ssu hsiang yen chiu.Shu-Jung Yang - 1974
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  14. Song Ming li xue gai shu.Mu Qian - 1980 - Taibei Shi Yangming shan Huagang: Zhongguo wen hua da xue chu ban bu.
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  15. Ming dai dang an shi liao.Zunxian Zhong, Weihua Zhang & Maochun Ge (eds.) - 1980 - [Tsinan]: Qi Lu shu she.
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  16. Ming Qing si xiang jia lun ji.Yuk Wong - 1981 - Taibei Shi: Lian jing chu ban shi ye gong si.
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  17. Zhongguo zhe xue si xiang shi, Yuan, Ming pian.Guang Luo - 1981 - Taibei: Taiwan xue sheng shu ju.
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  18. Li Zhi.Kekun Yu - 1983 - Yinchuan Shi: Ningxia xin hua shu dian fa xing.
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  19. Song dai li xue yu fo xue zhi tan tao: Zhuzi li xue yu fo xue zhi tan tao.Wan Xiong - 1985 - Taibei Shi: Wen jin chu ban she.
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  20. Wang Gen (1483-1541) und seine Lehre: eine kritische Position im späten Konfuzianismus.Monika Übelhör - 1986 - Berlin: D. Reimer.
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  21. Song Ming dao xue.Zhenqing Sun - 1986 - Taibei Shi: Qian hua chu ban gong si.
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  22. Song Ming li xue xin tan.Shunxian Jia - 1987 - Chengdu: Sichuan sheng xin hua shu dian fa xing.
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  23. Song Ming li xue shi.Wailu Hou, Hansheng Qiu & Qizhi Zhang (eds.) - 1984 - Beijing: Xin hua shu dian fa xing.
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  24. Zhuzi xing li yu lei.Xi Zhu - 1992 - Shanghai: Xin hua shu dian Shanghai fa xing suo fa xing.
    朱熹(1130-1200)字元晦, 改字仲晦, 别号晦庵、晦翁云谷老人、沧州病叟等。.
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  25. Tai ji tu shuo.Dunyi Zhou - 1992 - Shanghai: Xin hua shu dian Shanghai fa xing suo fa xing. Edited by Duan Cao, Dunyi Zhou & Yong Shao.
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  26. Zhu Xi ji dao du.Ruiming Wang - 1992 - Chengdu: Sichuan sheng xin hua shu dian jing xiao. Edited by Quanming Zhang & Xi Zhu.
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  27. Er Cheng yi shu.Hao Cheng - 1992 - Shanghai: Shanghai gu ji chu ban she. Edited by Yi Cheng & Hao Cheng.
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  28. Zhongguo Song dai zhe xue.Xun Shi (ed.) - 1992 - Zhengzhou Shi: Xin hua shu dian jing xiao.
    本书论述了宋代哲学的本质特征,并对各个流派及其代表人物的哲学体系进行了具体剖析。.
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  29. Song Ming li xue luo ji jie gou di yan hua.Liwen Zhang - 1993 - Taibei Shi: Zong jing xiao san min shu ju gu fen you xian gong si.
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  30. Zhang Dainian xue shu lun zhu zi xuan ji.Dainian Zhang - 1993 - Beijing: Shou du shi fan da xue chu ban she.
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  31. Lü Kun si xiang yan jiu.Tao Ma - 1993 - Beijing Shi: Xin hua shu dian jing xiao.
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  32. Cheng Hao yu Da Cheng shu yuan.Wanzhang Hao - 1993 - Zhengzhou Shi: Zhongzhou gu ji chu ban she.
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  33. Zhu Xi si xiang cong lun.Yongxian Zou (ed.) - 1993 - [Xiamen]: Xiamen da xue chu ban she.
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  34. Zhu Xi si xiang yan jiu.Liwen Zhang - 1981 - Beijing: Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she.
    本书介绍了朱熹生活的时代、身世和经历,朱熹的经济思想、政治学说,朱熹哲学的逻辑结构,朱熹的史学思想、教育思想等内容。.
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  35. Song Ming li xue.Naigong Wu - 1994 - Changchun Shi: Jilin sheng xin hua shu dian fa xing.
    本书分别论述了理学开创者周敦颐的濂溪学、邵雍的象数学、张载的关学、程颢、程颐的洛学、朱熹的闽学、陆九渊的心学、王守仁的阳明学及王夫之对中国理学和各种虚妄邪说的批判等。.
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  36. Zhou Dunyi ping zhuan.Shaohui Liang - 1994 - [Nanjing shi]: Jiangsu sheng xin hua shu dian fa xing.
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  37. Zhang Dainian xue shu wen hua sui bi.Dainian Zhang - 1996 - Beijing: Xin hua shu dian jing xiao.
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  38. Hu Hong.Lixin Wang - 1996 - [Taipei]: Dong da tu shu gu fen you xian gong si.
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  39. Zhang Zai ping zhuan.Jie Gong - 1996 - [Nanjing shi]: Jiangsu sheng xin hua shu dian fa xing.
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  40. Cheng Hao Cheng Yi yu Zhongguo wen hua.Fanglu Cai - 1996 - Guiyang Shi: Jing xiao Xin hua shu dian Beijing fa xing suo.
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  41. A Neo-Confucian Definition of the Relationship between Individuals and Community in the Song–Ming Period (960–1644): Start with the Discovery of Multifaceted Individuals.Meihong Zhang - 2022 - Religions 13 (9):789:1-11.
    Alasdair MacIntyre doubts that Confucianism can discuss the relationship between individuals and community because he maintains that it is impossible to discuss the topic in depth without a Western conception of individual rights. In this article, I show that Neo-Confucianism pays extensive attention to the relationship between individuals and community by working through several Chinese thinkers’ theories from the 11th to the 17th centuries. Neo-Confucianism seems to be focused on the exploration of the common principles of a community, but its (...)
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  42. A Non-Existent Doctrine. [REVIEW]Paul van Els - 2006 - China Nu 31:46–47.
    van Els, Paul. "Een niet-bestaande leer" (A Non-Existent Doctrine). Review of Confucianisme, by Burchard J. Mansvelt Beck. China Nu 31, no. 1 (2006): 46–47.
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  43. Miszellen zum interkulturell philosophiehistorischen Vergleich am Beispiel Nicolaus Cusanus und Wáng Yángmíng 王陽明 [Miscellanies on Intercultural Comparison in the History of Philosophy Using the Example of Nicolaus de Cusa and Wáng Yángmíng 王陽明].David Bartosch - 2013 - In Tom Müller & Matthias Vollet (eds.), Die Modernitäten des Nikolaus von Kues: Debatten Und Rezeptionen. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag. pp. 57-86.
  44. Neo-Confucianism, experimental philosophy and the trouble with intuitive methods.Hagop Sarkissian - 2018 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 26 (5):812-828.
    ABSTRACTThe proper role of intuitions in philosophy has been debated throughout its history, and especially since the turn of the twenty-first century. The context of this recent debate within analytic philosophy has been the heightened interest in intuitions as data points that need to be accommodated or explained away by philosophical theories. This, in turn, has given rise to a sceptical movement called experimental philosophy, whose advocates seek to understand the nature and reliability of such intuitions. Yet such scepticism of (...)
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  45. To Acquire Wisdom: The Way of Wang Yang-ming.Conrad Schirokauer & Julia Ching - 1979 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 99 (3):485.
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  46. Neo-Confucian Thought in Action: Wang Yang-ming's Youth.Charles D. Orzech & Tu Wei-Ming - 1979 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 99 (2):319.
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  47. Yüan Hung-tao and the Kung-an SchoolYuan Hung-tao and the Kung-an School.Daniel Bryant & Chou Chihp'ing - 1990 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 110 (3):563.
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  48. The Records of Ming Scholars, by Huang Tsung-hsi: A Selected Translation.Willard J. Peterson, Julia Ching, Chaoying Fang & Huang Tsung-hsi - 1990 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 110 (3):560.
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  49. Instructions for Practical Living and Other Neo-Confucian WritingsThe Philosophy of Wang Yang-ming.David S. Nivison, Wang Yang-Ming, Wing-Tsit Chan & Frederick Goodrich Henke - 1964 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 84 (4):436.
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  50. Wang Yang-ming: Idealist Philosopher of Sixteenth-Century China.Wing-Tsit Chan & Carsun Chang - 1962 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 82 (3):458.
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